Skip to main content

Full text of "The Bookshelf for boys and girls Historic Tales and Golden Deeds part 4"

See other formats

I \ 

r ^^- * « » t > « < 


^. ^1^.^ -^ 


BCDKis ju^ a House of Ihcaight: 
."^^K^here maayTH and Pecple live 
Beycfnd its cIgots Gi^t Ihings are taughtr, 

Andall its Dwdlers giveand ^ve. 
So walkiight through the open doDr 

With kndly Heart and braiii aw^ 
YouQ find in tfiere a^Wbnder Store 
Of GcDd Things, all for you to take. 

The D\5?dlers injoz/rBcDkHousektiow 

All sorts of tales to tell to you. 
And each will try his beit to show 

The way those tales of AXbnder ^ew. 
For this onr BoDk House Friends exped: 

Atriflin^ payment in retmri; 
JuA thoujMil lundness and Kesj>sd:,— 

ThaCs all they ask, ^r all we learn. 


.y\A%.»drmM Uri<i )>^r^Mrl kJUJ^Ar ' 


BGDfCTREE is a Kiowledge free, 
'As almo^ aayone can see. 
Long, long ago Its seed was sown.-. 
Forjear/ ^\d years the Tree lias grown. 
Ten thousand thousand Hearts & H^ds 
Have cared for it, so now it spreads 
Its RoDts and Branches far and wide, 
And ca^ its shade on every side. 

This Tree bears Ruit of diflfereat tends 
For many Hearts and many Minds. 
So all you Children have to do 
Is ju^ to take wha£s he^ for you. 
But no one ever so:Qs or breaks 
The Golden Fruit he needs and takes, 
And no one ever bends or tears 
The Books thisTree of Knovdedge bean. 


0;"irt/f*<7/V )HC >» .'•'■ 


By permisbiuii ut J. i^.iurunt \ Cu., Madrid. 







Hamilton Wright Mabie 
Rev. George E, Reed 
Charles Welsh 
Andrew Lang 
Howard Pyle 
Carolyn Wells 
Tudor Jenks 
John Burroughs 
George S. Bryan 
Daniel E. Wheeler 



(Part IV) 



Rev. John Talbot Smith 
Joseph H. Adams 
Ralph Henry Barbour 
Ernest Thompson Seton 
L. Frank Baum 
Bertha Johnston 
Jack London 
John H. Clifford 
Morgan Shepard 
(John Martin) 

Copyright, 1912, by 



Author of "The Right Reading for 
[Children," "Stories Children Love." 


Director of the Catholic Summer School 
of America and Author of "The Prairie 

[Boy," etc. 

Writer of illustrated letters to children, 


Ex-President of Dickinson College. 


Editor of "Harper's Practical Books 

[for Boys." 


Author of "The Crimson Sweater" and 
[other books for boys. 


Author of "The Wizard of Oz," "Queen 
[Zixie of Ix" and other children's books. 


Formerly Associate-Editor of "The 
[Children's Magazine." 


Painter of Child-Life, 


Author of "Mother Song and Chila 

[Song," etc. 

Illustrator, and Author of "Little Miaa 

[Fales," eta 


Author of "The Call of the Wild," "The 
[Seawolf" and other storie*. 


Illustrator, Decorator, and Author of 
"A Book of Joys," "The Goose Girl," 



Illustrator, and Author of "Otto of the 

Silver Hand," "Robin Hood" and other 

[young folks' books, 


Associate-Editor of "The Outlook" and 
Author of "My Study Fire," "Works 
and Days" and other volumes of 



Author of "Wild Animal Play for 
[Children," "Two Little Savages," etc. 


Author of "Hester Stanley's Friends," 



Naturalist and Author, 


Author of "The Incubator Baby," "A 
[Thin Santa Claus," etc. 


Author of "When I Was Your Age," 
["Five-Minute Stories," etc. 


Author of "A Junior Congregation" and 
["Little Talks to Little People." 


Author of "Santa Claus on a Lark," 
["Social Salvation," etc. 


Illustrator, and Author of "A Bunch of 

[Keys," «tc 


Author of "How to Find Happyland," 



Author of "Folly in Fairyland," the 
"Patty" books, the "Marjorie" books, 



Author of "Boys' Book of Explora 
tions," "Electricity for Young People," 



Associate-Editor of "The Young Folks' 
[Treasury," "The Mother's Book," etc. 


U. S. Naval Officer, Explorer and Au- 
thor of "Northward Over the Gre»t 

[Ic«," eS«. 


Writer and Translator. 


Author of "Curious Facts," etc. 


Author of "Lyrics and Sonnets," "The 
[Children of Christmas," etc. 


Associate-Editor of "The Young Folks' 

[Treasury," etc. 


Author of "In God's Garden," etc. 


Author of "Bible Stories," etc. 

Poet and Critic. 


Author of "Nursery Finger-Plays," 
["Child Stories and Rhymes," etc. 

Author of "Poems." 


Author, Editor and Lecturer. 


Author of "When You Were a Boy," etc. 


Author of "Dame Dimple's Thanksgiv- 



Author of "Lays of a Lazy Dog." 




Author of "The Young Privateersman." 


Author of "Stories of Animal Life," 
["The Boy Anglers," etc. 


Illustrator ; Author of "Kemble's Sketch 

[Book," etc. 

Author of "Old-Fashioned Fairy Books," 
["Folk and Fairy Tales." etc. 



Journalist and Magazine Writer. 


Author of "Cradle and Nursery," "What 

[to Eat," etc. 


Professor of Experimental Physics in 
Johns Hopkins University; Author of 
"How to Tell the Birds from the Flow- 

[ers," etc. 


Naturalist; Editor of "The Guide to 

Nature" and Author of "The Spirit 

[of Nature-Study," etc. 


Natural History Writer. 


Curator of Ornithology, American Mu- 
[seum, and Editor of "Bird-Lore." 


Illustrator, and Author of "Little 
Workers," "Curious Homes and Their 

[Tenants," etc. 


Of the Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. 
[Department of Agriculture. 


Author of "Wild Life of Orchard and 

Field," "The Life of Mammals" and 

[other works on natural history. 


Author of "The Book of Frolics for All 



Author of "The Mysterious Beacon 

[Light," etc. 


Editor of "The Kindergarten Maga- 
zine" and Author of "Home Occupa- 
[tions for Boys and Girls." 


Author of "Carpentry and Woodwork," 



Natural History Writer. 


Author of "Animal Snapshots and How 



Author of "American Birds Studied 
[and Photographed from Life>" 



Little History Stories of Many Lands . . . . • 209-230 

A Cent's Worth of Fun— Japanese Kite-flying— The Policeman and the Soldier in 
Japan — How the Siamese Shave the Topknot — Laplanders at Home — The Story of 
Buddha — A Bull-fight in Spain — Bedouin Hospitality— A Journey on the South African 
Veld— Russian Village Customs and Celebrations 
A Little Talk About the Big Panama Canal .... Walter Kenyan 

Events OF Our Country's History 231-268 

/. E. Homans 

Stories from Ancient Days 269-288 

Ancient Artillery 

Battle-ships and Sea-fights of the Ancients J. O. Davidson 

"There Were Giants in Those Days" Harry Fcnn 

A Day with Hadrian Edwin L. Arnold 

South America of Yesterday and To-day . 289-301 

Peeps into African Countries 302-315 

The Land of Barbary — Mountain Land of Abyssinia — From Darfur to Mombasa— East 
Africa and Zanzibar, Its Fine, Busy Port — West Africa — A Group of British Posses- 
sions—The Western and Central Spheres— From the Cape to Lake Tanganyika— The 
Great South African Colonies— The Islands of Africa 

Holland and Belgium 316-325 

The Dutchman's Long Battle with the Sea— A Land Where the Fish Swim Above and the 
Birds My Below — A City Built on Islands, with Canals in the Streets and 300 Bridges 

— The Rise to Wealth and Power of the Cities of the Netherlands — How England 
Grew Wool for the Flemish Looms— The Making of the Dutch Race and Its Great 
Fight Against Tyranny— The Spanish Tyrant who Persecuted the Netherlanders— A 
Cruel Man who Sentenced a Whole Nation to Death — How the Men of Leydcn Cut 
the Dikes and Saved Their City — How Children Cried when William the Silent Was 
Killed — Philip II., One of the Great Destroyers of Mankind — Lakes and Marshes 
Changed into Rich Meadow Lands— The Birth of the Modern Kingdom of Belgium— 
A Printing-house Unchanged for 300 Years— Water, Water, Everywhere, but not a 
Drop to Drink 

Golden Deeds of Men, Women, and Children . . 326-336 

Judas Maccalxeus— The Man who Refused a Bribe — Brave Countess Joan of Brittany 

— When the White Ship Went Down — The Heroic Countess — The Boy who Saved a 
Crew — A Brave Roman ^'()Uth -The Brave Constable of France — A (iirl's Desperate 
Ride — The Girl who Went Out by Night — The Man who Loved Children — The Boys 
who Saved the Boat — Ida Lewis, the Life-saver— How Golden Words may be Golden 




Sports and Toys in History 337-360 

"With Hawk and Hound" A'^. Hudson Moore 

The Sports of Negro Children Timothy Shalcr Williams 

Football of Long Ago Klyda Richardson Steege 

The Royal Game of Tennis Charles L, Norton 

In the Toy Country Mrs. Burton Harrison 

Early English History Stories FOR Young Folk 361-384 

Early and Roman Britain — Coming of the Strangers— The Coming of Julius Caesar 
from Gaul — The Struggles of the Brave Britons Fail — Coming of the Fierce Picts— 
The Roman Walls— The Druids— What the Romans, Great Builders, Did for -Britain- 
The Saxons and Jutes Come Across the North Sea— How Christ's Religion Came to 
England — The Good Work Done by the Early Monks — How the People Lived in Saxon 
Times— The Coming of the Cruel Danes— Stories of Alfred the Great— Alfred's Son, 
Edward the Elder— Alfred's Favorite Grandson, Athelstan the Warrior— Edgar the 
Peaceable— Edward, Called the Martyr, and How He Died— The Danish Kings of 
England— Sweyn the Ready and Ethelred the Unready— The Peaceful Reign of 
Canute the Wise Dane— Stories of Harold, the Son of Godwin — William, Duke of 
Normandy, at Home— The Last of the Saxon Kings— The Norman Conquest— Queen 
Matilda's Wonderful Needlework Picture — William's Victory and Coronation— How 
King William L Kept the English in Order— Edward the Stranger Invited to England 
— Robert's Rebellion in Normandy — King William's Last Hours — The Days of Henry 
I., the Scholar— Civil War and England's Sad State — King Stephen and the Fighting 
Bishops and Abbots— Matilda's Behavior and her Fortunes— The English Conquest of 
Ireland — Henry's Visit to Ireland— What Became of Strongbow and Raymond — The 
England of Edward I. — The People's Houses, Furniture, and Food— Edward's Design 
to Make a Great Britain — The First Prince of Wales, 1284— The Story of the Invasion 
of Scotland— The Patriot William Wallace — Wallace Defies Edward I. — The Fight at 
the Wooden Bridge— Edward's Return to Scotland— A Brave Patriot's End 

Curious Stories from History, Part H 385-416 

A Pig that Nearly Caused a War Julian Ralph 

The Walking Purchase George Wheeler 

The Story of Eleven Cities Emma J. Arnold 

A Great Republican at Court H. A. Ogden 

The Strange Story of a Goose Ella Rodman Church 

The Story of the Glove Mary Dazvson 

Our Yellow Slave C. P. Lummis 

The Boy who Rode on the First Train Mary K. Maule 




How would you like to go to a fair with a cent — 
a whole cent — to spend as you pleased? We 
think we can see some of you curling your lips 
and looking very scornful. "A cent, indeed!" 
you say. "Of what use is a cent ? I wouldn't 
mind going to a fair with a quarter, or even with 
a dime, but what could any one do with a 

Well, in Japan you could do a great deal with 
a cent, and indeed with what is really less than 
a cent, but which we have no coin now to rep- 
resent — we used to have the half-cent. 

We must remember that Japan is a country of 
tiny wages ; many of its workers do not receive 
more than twelve cents a day, and a man who 
gets a quarter of a dollar is well off. Tiny earn- 
ings mean tiny spendings, and things are ar- 
ranged on a scale to meet very slender purses. 

We will now see what sort of time O Hara 
San, Miss Blossom, and her brother, Taro San, 
Master Eldest Son, had at the fair one fine day 
in Nagasaki. In the morning they sprang up 
from their quilts full of excited pleasure, for 
they had been looking forward to this fair for 
some time. But they did not romp and chatter 
and show their excitement as American children 
would do. Their black eyes shone a little more 
brightly than usual, and that was all. 

When they had whipped their rice into their 
mouths with their little chopsticks, they started 
for the fair, which was to be held in the grounds 
of a great temple. Of course, they were dressed 
in their best clothes. Their father and grand- 
mother went with them, but their mother stayed 
at home with the baby. Their father wore a 
newly washed kimono — a loose outer garment — 
but his chief glory was an old felt hat which a 
European gentleman had given him. It had been 
much too large for him, but he had neatly taken 
it in, and now wore it with great pride. When 
they reached the fair they gave themselves up to 
its delights with all their hearts. There was so 
much to do and so much to see. Almost at once 

O Hara San and Taro were beguiled by a sweet- 
meat stall. 

Each had five rin, and five rin make half a 
cent, or rather less, but we will call it half a cent 
for the sake of convenience. One rin apiece was 
spent here. The stall was in two divisions ; one 
stocked with delicious little bottles of sugar- 
water, the other with pieces of candy, tinted 
bright blue and red and green. Miss Blossom 
chose a bottle of sugar-water, and her brother 
took candies. But first he demanded of the 
candy-seller that he should be allowed to try his 
luck at the disk. This was a disk having an 
arrow that could be whirled round, and if the 
arrow paused opposite a lucky spot an extra 
piece of candy was added to the purchase. To 
Taro's great joy, he made a lucky hit, and won 
the extra piece of candy; he felt that the fair had 
begun very well for him. 

While they drank sugar-water and munched 
candy, they wandered along looking at the booths, 
where all sorts of wonders were to be seen — 
booths full of conjurers, acrobats, dancers, of 
women who could stretch their necks to the 
length of their arms, or thrust their lips up to 
cover their eyebrows, and a hundred other cur- 
ious tricks. The price of admission was one rin 
each to children, and finally they chose the con- 
jurer's booth, and saw him spout fire from his 
mouth, swallow a long sword, and finally exhibit 
a sea-serpent, which appeared to be made of seal- 
skins tacked together. 

When they left the show they came all at once 
upon one of the great delights of a Japanese 
fair. It was the man with the cooking-stove, 
round whom children always throng as flies 
gather about honey. For the tenth part of a 
cent you may have the use of his cooking-stove, 
you may have a piece of dough, or you may have 
batter with a cup, a spoon, and a dash of soy, a 
sweet sauce. You may then abandon yourself to 
the delights of making a cake for yourself, bak- 
ing it for yourself, and then eating it yourself, 
and if you spend a couple of hours over the oper- 
ation the man will not grumble. As this ar- 

H.T.&G.D. II. 14. 




rangement combines both the pleasure of making 
a cake and playing with fire, it is very popular, 
and we cannot wonder that Taro took a turn, 
though Miss Blossom did not. She felt herself 
rather too big to join the swarm of happy urchins 
round the stove. 

\Miile Taro was baking his cake she spent her 
third rin on a peep-show, where a juggler made 
little figures of paper and pasteboard dance and 
perform all kinds of antics. Then they went on 
again. Each bought one rin's worth of sugared 
beans, a very favorite sweetmeat ; and these they 
ate while they waited for their father and grand- 
mother to join them at the door of a certain 
theater where they had agreed to meet. Into 
this theater was pouring a stream of people, old 
and young, men, women, children, and babies, 
for a great historical play was to be performed 
and it would soon begin. The elders came, 
and the father took the children's last rin 
to make up the payment which would admit 

In they went, and took their place. The floor 
of the theater was divided by little partitions, 
about a foot or so high, into a vast number of tiny 
squares, like open egg-boxes. In one of these 
little boxes our friends squatted down on the 
floor, and the grandmother began to unpack the 
bundle which she had been carrying. This 
bundle contained a number of cooking-vessels 
and an ample supply of rice, for here they 
meant to stay for some hours to see the play, to 
eat and drink, and enjoy themselves generally. 
Each box contained a family, and each family 
had brought its cooking-pots, its food, and its 
drink; and hawkers of food and of a score of 
other things rambled up and down selling their 

When the play began every one paid close 
attention, for it was a great historical play, and 
the Japanese go to the theater and take their 
children there in order to learn history. There 
are represented the great events that make up 
the history of old Japan. When an actor gave 
pleasure, the audience flung their hats on the 
stage. These were collected by an attendant, 
and kept until the owners redeemed them by 
giving a present. 

For six hours O Hara San and Taro sat in 
their little box, laughing, shouting, eating, and 
drinking, while the play went on. Then it was 
over, for it was only a short play, at a cheap 
theater. "Ah!" said their father, "when I was 
a boy we had real plays. We used to rise early 
and be in the theater by six o'clock in the morn- 
ing. There we would stay enjoying ourselves 
until eleven at night. But now the decree of 

the government is that no play shall last more 
than nine hours. It is too little !" 

The children quite agreed with him as they 
helped their grandmother to gather the pots and- 
pans and dishes which were scattered about their 
box. Then each took the wooden ticket that 
would secure the shoes they had left out- 
side with the attendants, and went slowly from 
the theater. When they had got their shoes 
and put them on, IMiss Blossom and Master Eld- 
est Son strolled slowly homeward through the 
fair. They had not another rin to spend — their 
cent's worth of fun was over. 


On a fine windy afternoon of a holiday, Taro, with 
his father and his younger brother Ito, turned 
out to fly kites. Some of their neighbors were 
already at work flying kites from the roofs of 
the houses or from windows, but our friends 
wanted more room than that, and went up to a 
piece of higher ground behind their street. 
Here they joined a crowd of kite-flyers. Every 
one was out to-day with his kite, old and young, 
men of sixty, with yellow, wrinkled faces, down 
to toddlers of three, who clutched their strings 
and flew their little kites with as much gravity 
and staidness as their grandfathers. Before 
long O Hara San came up with the baby on her 
back, and he had a bit of string in his tiny fist 
and a scrap of a kite not much bigger than a 
man's hand floating a few yards above his head. 

But Taro was a proud boy this afternoon. He 
was about to fly his first big fighting kite. It 
was made of tough, strong paper, stretched on 
a bamboo frame five feet square, a kite taller 
than his own father. The day before Taro had 
pounded a piece of glass up fine and mixed it 
with glue. The mixture had been rubbed on the 
string of his kite for about thirty feet near the 
kite-end and left to dry. Now, if he could only 
get this string to cut sharply across the string 
of another kite, the latter cord would be severed, 
and he could proudly claim the vanquished kite 
as his own. 

Kites of every color and shape hovered in the 
air above the wide open space. There were 
square kites of red, yellow, green, blue — every 
color of the rainbow; many were decorated 
with gaily painted figures of gods, heroes, war- 
riors, and dragons. There were kites in the 
shape of fish, hawks, eagles, and butterflies. 
Some had hummers, made of whalebone, which 
hummed musically in the wind as they rose ; and 
as for fighting kites, they were abroad in squads 
and battalions. In one place the fight was be- 



tween single kites; in another a score of men 
with blue kites met a score with red kites and 
the kites fluttered, darted, swooped, dived this 
way, that way, and every way, as they were 
skilfully moved by the strings pulled from below. 
Now and again one of them was seen to fall 
helplessly away and drift down the wind; its 
string had been cut by some victorious rival, 
and it had been put out of the battle. 

Taro had his kite high up in the air very soon ; 
it flew splendidly, and for some time he was very 
busy in trying it and learning its ways, for every 
kite has its own tricks of moving in the air. 
Then suddenly he saw a great brown eagle sail- 
ing toward it. He looked and saw that a boy 
named Kanaya was directing the eagle kite to- 
ward his own, and that it was a challenge to a 
fight. Taro accepted at once, and the combat 
was joined. 

Kanaya brought his eagle swiftly over Taro's 
big square kite, brightly painted in bars of many 
colors, but Taro let out string and escaped. 
Then he swung his kite up into the wind and 
made it swoop on the eagle. But Kanaya was 
already winding his string swiftly in and had 
raised his kite out of reach of the swoop. And 
so they went on for more than an hour, pursuing, 
escaping, feinting, dodging, until at last the eagle 
caught a favorable slant of wind and darted 
down so swiftly that Taro could not escape. 
The strings crossed, and the upper began to 
chafe the lower savagely. 

Taro tried to work his kite away, but in vain. 
The eagle string was strong and sharp. At the 
next moment Taro felt a horrid slackness of his 
string ; no more could he feel the strong, splen- 
did pull of his big kite. There it was, going, 
falling headlong to the ground. Kanaya had 
won. Nothing now remained to Taro but to 
take his beating like a Japanese and a gentleman. 
With a cheerful smile he made three low bows 
to his conqueror. Kanaya, with the utmost grav- 
ity, returned the bows before he ran away to 
secure the kite he had won. 

Now, there had been a very interested and at- 
tentive observer of this battle in Ito, Taro's 
younger brother. Ito never said a word or 
moved a muscle of his little brown face when 
he saw his brother defeated and the big kite 
seized in triumph by Kanaya. But his black 
eyes gleamed a little more brightly in their nar- 
row slits as he let out more string and waited 
for Kanaya to begin to fly again. 

Ito had succeeded to the i)ossession of Taro's 
old kite. It was less than two feet square, but 
it flew well, and Ito had also anointed his string 
with the mixture of pounded glass and glue, 

and was ready for combat. Within ten minutes 
Kanaya was flying once more, and now he had 
Taro's kite high in the air. He had put away 
his own big brown 'eagle, and was flying the kite 
he had just won. He had scarcely got it well 
up when a smaller square kite came darting down 
upon it from a great height. Ito had entered the 
lists, and a fresh battle began. 

It was even longer and stubborner than the 
first, for Ito's kite, being much smaller, had 
much less power in the air; but Ito made up for 
this by showing the greatest skill in the handling 
of his kite, and quite a crowd gathered to see 
the struggle, watching every movement in perfect 
silence and with the deepest gravity. Suddenly 
Ito pounced. He caught a favorable gust of 
wind, and swung his line, across Kanaya's with 
the greatest dexterity. Saw-saw went the line, 
and at the next moment the great kite went 
tumbling down the wind, and Kanaya and Ito 
exchanged the regulation bows. Then the latter 
looked at his brother without a word, and Taro 
ran to seize his beloved kite again. 

"It is yours now, Ito," said the elder brother, 
when he came back. 

"Oh no," said Ito ; "we will each keep our own. 
I am glad I got it back from Kanaya." 


The Japanese policeman is, first and foremost, a 
gentleman. He is a samurai, that is a member 
of the former soldier class, a man of good family, 
and therefore deeply respected by the mass of 
the people. He is often a small man, even for 
a Japanese, but though his height may run only 
from four feet ten to five feet nothing, he is a 
man of much authority. When, in the last cen- 
tury, the samurai were disbanded, there were 
very few occupations to which they could turn. 
They disdained agriculture and trade, but num- 
bers of them became servants, printers, and po- 
licemen. This seems an odd mixture of tasks, 
but there are sound reasons for it. 

Many samurai became servants because 
service is an honorable profession in Japan ; 
many became printers because the samurai were 
an educated class, and the only people fitted to 
deal with the very complicated Japanese alpha- 
bet ; and many became policeman because it was 
a post for which their fighting instinct and their 
habit of authority well fitted them. Their author- 
ity over the people is absolute and unquestioning ; 
and, again, there are sound reasons for this. 

Half a century ago the Japanese people could 
have been divided very sharply into two classes, 



the ruling and the ruled. The ruling class was 
formed of the great princes and the samurai, 
their followers, about 2,000,000 people in all. 
The remaining 38,000,000 of the population 
were the common people, the ruled. Now, in 
the old days when a daimio, or military chief, 
left his castle for a journey, he was borne in a 
kago, a closed carriage, and was attended by a 
guard of his samurai. If a common person met 
the procession, he was expected either to retire 
quickly from the path or fling himself humbly 
on his face until the carriage had gone by ; if 
he did not, the samurai whipped out their long 
swords and slew him in short order, and not a 
single word was said about it. This way of 
dealing with those who did not belong to the rul- 
ing class made the people very respectful to the 
samurai, and that respect is now transferred to 
the police. 

The Japanese policeman is also to be respected 
for his skill in wrestling, and, small as he is, the 
tallest and most powerful foreigner is likely to 
be quite helpless in his hands. He is thoroughly 
trained in the art of Japanese wrestling — the jiu- 
jitsu of which we hear so much nowadays. In 
this system a trained wrestler can seize his op- 
ponent in such a manner that the other man is 
quite at his mercy, or with a slight impetus he 
can fling the other about as he pleases. One 
writer speaks of seeing a very small Japanese 
policeman arrest a huge riotous Russian sailor, 
a man much more than six feet high. It seemed 
a contest between a giant and a child. The 
sailor made rush after rush at his tiny opponent, 
but the policeman stepped nimbly aside, waiting 
for the right moment to grip his man. At last 
it came. The sailor made a furious lunge, and 
the policeman seized him by the wrist. To the 
astonishment of the onlooker, the sailor flew 
right over the policeman's head, and fell all in 
a heap more than a dozen feet away. When he 
picked himself up, confused and half stunned, 
the policeman tied a bit of string to his belt and 
led him away in trumph to the station. 

The policeman never has any trouble with his 
own people ; they obey at once and without 
question. If a crowd gathers and becomes a 
nuisance to any one, it melts as soon as one of 
the little men in uniform comes along and gives 
the order to disperse. He may sometimes be 
seen lecturing a coolie or rickshaw-boy for some 
misdeed or other. The culprit, his big hat held 
between his hands, ducks respectfully at every 
second word, and looks all humility and obedi- 


Being an educated man, the policeman has 
much sympathy with art and artists, and is de- 

lighted to help a foreigner who is painting scenes 
in Japan. An eminent writer, the artist Morti- 
mer Menpes, says: "Altogether I found the 
policeman the most delightful person in the 
world. When I was painting a shop, if a passer- 
by chanced to look in at a window, he would see 
at a glance exactly what I wanted ; and I would 
find that that figure would remain there, looking 
in at the shop, as still as a statue, until I had 
finished my painting; the policeman meanwhile 
strutting up and down the street, delighted to be 
of help to an artist, looking everywhere but at 
my work, and directing the entire traffic down 
another street." 

Of the Japanese soldier there is no need for 
us to say much here, since the world has so lately 
been ringing with his praises. The endurance, 
the obedience, the courage of the Japanese sol- 
dier and sailor were shown in marvelous fashion 
during the great war with Russia, and Japan 
proved herself to be one of the greatest of the 
naval and military powers of the world. 

The Japanese soldier is the result of the family 
life in Japan. From his infancy he is taught 
that he has two supreme duties : one of obedience 
to his parents, the other of service to his country. 
This unhesitating, unquestioning habit of obedi- 
ence, a habit which becomes second nature to 
him, is of immense value to him as a soldier. 
He is a disciplined man before he enters the 
ranks, and he transfers at once to his officers the 
obedience which he has hitherto shown toward 
the elders of his family. 

His second great duty of service to his country 
also leads him onward toward becoming the per- 
fect soldier. He not only looks upon his life as 
a thing to be readily risked or given for his 
Emperor and for Japan, but he strives to make 
himself a thoroughly capable servant of his land. 
No detail of his duty is too small for him to 
attend to, for he fears lest the lack of that detail 
should prevent him from putting forth his full 
strength on the day of trial. He cleans a button 
as carefully as he lays a big gun, and this readi- 
ness for any duty, great or small, was a large 
factor in the wonderful victory of Japan over 

In battle he questions no order. During the 
war with Russia many Japanese regiments knew 
that they were being sent to certain death, in 
order that they might open a way for their com- 
rades. They never flinched. Shouting their 
"Banzai !" — their Japanese hurrah — the dogged 
little men rushed forward upon batteries spouting 
flame and shell, or upon ramparts lined with 
rifles, and gave their lives freely for Dai Nippon, 
Great Japan, the country of their birth. When 



wars shall, happily, come to an end, the Japanese 
nation may be expected to do great things for 
the world in helping to cultivate the finer arts 
of peace. 


Sometimes when the traveler in Siam is passing 
along one of the rivers or canals he will hear the 
sound of merry music close at hand. He prob- 
ably pulls ashore, and goes to see what is hap- 
pening. There is no need to wait for invitations 
in this free-and-easy country. He makes his 
way to the place where the band is doing its best 
to deafen all the poor creatures within reach, 
and there he finds a motley crowd — men and 
women in their best and brightest clothes, priests 
in their most brilliant yellow, actresses with 
chalked faces and hideous masks, dogs, cats, and 
children. Among the many people assembled 
together there is one child, about eleven or thir- 
teen years old, belonging to the class of the well- 
to-do, and laden with jewelry — necklaces, gold 
chains, armlets, bracelets, and anklets. It is on 
this child's account that the people are feasting 
together, the theater playing, and the drums 

We will suppose that the child is a boy. He 
is holding a great party. The visitors have come 
to see him get his hair cut ! This, however, is 
not an ordinary visit to a barber, but a ceremony 
as important as a wedding or a funeral. From 
the very earliest years the heads of the children 
are shaved completely, with the exception of one 
little tuft in the center of the head. Each day 
this precious tuft is oiled and curled, a jeweled 
pin is stuck through it, and a tiny wreath of 
freshly woven flowers is twined around it. No 
scissors are ever allowed to touch the cherished 
lock until the boy is eleven, thirteen, or fifteen 
years old, and by that time it is often a foot 
or more long. 

When the parents think that the proper time 
has almost arrived for the topknot to be removed, 
they visit an astrologer, who fixes a lucky day 
for the operation. If the hair were not cut off 
on a lucky day, and in just the proper fashion, 
no one knows what terrible things might happen 
to the child. He might become ill or insane, 
or he might die, or, worse still, demons might 
come and live inside him. So great care has to 
be taken that all is done in a fitting manner. 
After the astrologer has appointed the day, peo- 
ple are invited to be present at the ceremonies. 
Actresses, priests, and friends are called to- 

gether, and for two or three days there are 
prayers and plays, feasts and fiddling. 

The performance is opened by the priests. 
They ascend to a platform some feet above the 
ground, and sit down cross-legged like tailors 
on the mats. They chant long passages from 
the sacred books, and ask the spirits to be kind 
to the boy and to keep all evil away from him. 
While they are chanting, they hold a piece of 
white thread in their hands. One end of this 
thread is tied round the clasped hands of the 
child, and as the priests call down blessings from 
above, these blessings pass through the hands of 
the priests, along the thread, and so into the 
body and soul of the boy ! It works like a tele- 
graph wire, and no one sees the good influence 
flashing along the cotton. There is also a thread 
fastened right round the house and the gardens 
to keep out the naughty little demons that take 
a delight in spoiling the proceedings. 

On the second day, the chief person present 
takes a pair of scissors and clips off the topknot, 
after which a professional barber comes along 
with a sharp razor, and the boy's head is shaved 
completely, so that it looks very much like a 
new clean ostrich-egg. The boy now dresses 
himself in white robes, and the priests lead him 
to a seat raised from the ground and shaded by 
a canopy of white cloth. First the parents, then 
the relations, and last of all the friends, pour 
holy water over the boy's head. Everybody likes 
to play his part, and there the youngster sits in 
his drenched robes, as the crowd files by and half 
diowns him with the water. 

When the last person has emptied the last 
bowl, the boy is dressed in the gayest clothes 
that he possesses, or that can be borrowed for 
the occasion, and is seated on a throne. On 
each side of him is a stand laden with rice, fruit, 
flowers, and other things. These are offerings 
to the spirits of the air. The band strikes up; 
the people form a kind of procession, and walk 
round the child five times. Each person carries 
a lighted candle, which is blown out when the 
fifth turn is made. The smoke is wafted toward 
the young person on the throne, and as it circles 
round his shaven crown, it bears toward him a 
supply of courage and good luck sufficient to 
last him for the rest of his life. 

All this time the child is probably more bored 
than delighted with the honor paid to him. But 
the next part of the ceremony gives him every 
satisfaction. It would please anybody. The 
relatives and friends present money to the child, 
each giving according to his means, so that if 
the boy has many rich relatives he gets quite a 
handsome sum. 



All is not yet over, for a long and jolly feast 
is the necessary ending of the important event. 
The priests are served first. When they have 
finished, the rest of the party fall rapidly and 
heartily upon the multitude of tempting dishes 
that have been prepared. 

People who are very poor and have no friends 
merely go to a certain temple and ask one of the 
priests to cut off the topknot. Rich people, on 
the other hand, spend enormous sums of money 
in entertaining their friends and in giving pres- 

The hairs that have been cut off are separated 
into two bundles, long and short. The short 
hairs are put into a little vessel made of plantain- 
leaves, and sent adrift on the ebb-tide in the 
nearest canal or river. As they float away, they 
are supposed to carry with them all the bad 
temper, the greediness, and the pride of their 
former owner. The shaven child gets a new 
start in life, freed from all that was disagreeable 
in his character. The long hairs are kept till he 
makes a pilgrimage to worship at what is called 
Buddha's footprint, which is to be seen on the 
sacred hill at Prabat. 

The hairs so carefully kept must be given to 
the priests, who are supposed to make them into 
brushes for sweeping the footprint; but in real- 
ity so much hair is presented to the priests each 
year that they are unable to use it all. They 
wait till the pilgrims have gone home again, 
when they throw all the hair that they do not 
want into a fire. 


Although Lapps are occasionally seen in 
charge of reindeer herds on some of the southern 
mountain tracts of Norway, their real home is in 
the Far North, not only of Norway, but also of 
Sweden, Finland, and Russia, and the country 
which they inhabit is known as Lapland. 

That portion of it which belongs to Norway 
covers only some 3000 or 4000 square miles, 
while the whole of the Land of the Lapps has 
an area of something like 35,000 square miles. 
But in Norwegian Lapland there are a great 
many more inhabitants than there are in Russian, 
Finnish, and Swedish Lapland put together; and 
the people, w^hether they be under the rule of 
Russia, Sweden, or Norway, are all of the same 
race — Asiatics and Mongols — totally unlike Eu- 
ropeans in appearance. 

In the first place, they are dark, and what we 
consider ugly, though it is quite possible that in 
their eyes we ourselves are hideous. Then they 
are short — a five-foot Lapp would be almost a 

giant — but what they lack in stature they make 
up in sturdiness ; for, although they are spare of 
body, probably no men in the world can do a 
longer day's work, or survive greater hardships. 
Dirty they are certainly, since they never change 
their clothes and seldom comb their hair; yet, 
for all that, they are healthy and happy. 

They have gradually split up into three groups, 
known as Mountain Lapps, Sea Lapps, and River 
Lapps, the first being nomads, or wanderers, and 
the other two settlers, by the sea or river, who 
have abandoned the original mode of life of 
their race. 

Mountain Lapps are the most restless individ- 
uals it is possible to imagine. Winter and sum- 
mer they are always on the move, and three 
days are seldom passed in one place. Time does 
not enslave them, for they do not trouble about 
it. Routine is nothing to them : they eat and 
drink when they feel inclined, and they sleep 
when a favorable opportunity occurs. In such 
matters, as well as in many others, they resemble 
wild animals. But in some respects they are 
methodical : they work by the seasons, and in 
their wanderings take the same lines each year. 
In the summer months they are down by the sea ; 
during the remainder of the year they are on 
the mountains, though at Christmas-time they 
usually arrange to encamp somewhere in the 
vicinity of a church ; for the Lapps profess 
Christianity and Christmas is a great event in 
their lives. If they are able to go to church at 
no other time of the year, they make a point of 
doing so at this season. 

To-day these people are law-abiding and peace- 
able, but they are a strange mixture of good and 
bad. They are kind and hospitable, and of a 
cheerful disposition ; at the same time they can 
be cruel, cunning, and selfish, while their love 
of money is no less than their love of drink^ 
when they can obtain it. 

For one thing only does the Mountain Lapp 
live — his herd of reindeer. They provide all his 
wants — food, clothing, and the wherewithal to 
purchase luxuries. They are his wealth ; his 
very existence depends on them, and his mode 
of living has to be accommodated to their habits. 
Whithersoever they choose to graze, their owner 
has to follow ; and he deems it no hardship to 
pitch his rough tent on the snowy wastes in win- 
ter, or even to sleep out under a rock, with the 
thermometer at seventy degrees below zero. It 
is his life; from earliest childhood he has known 
none other ; he is content with it. And it is not 
only the men who pass their lives thus ; for the 
Lapp family is to some extent a united one, and 
the women and children thoroughly enjoy the 



wild, free life, apparently suffering no ill effects 
from the rigors of the climate. 

A Lapp baby starts life in a very queer way. 
Until it is able to walk it is kept in what is called 
a komse, a kind of cradle made of strips of wood 
covered with leather, and just large enough to 
take the baby. The little creature is rolled up 
in sheepskin and put into the cradle, which is 
then stuffed with moss, and the leather covering 
laced securely all around, so that only the baby's 
face is seen. To protect its head the komse is 
provided with a wooden hood, like most cradles, 
and there is generally a shawl, which can be 
thrown over the whole thing in severe weather ; 
in fact, when the baby has been properly done 
up in its komse it might go by express without 
coming to much harm. 

It is a very excellent arrangement, because 
the family is always moving, and the mothers 
have their work to do, so cannot be attending 
to their babies all the time. A thong of leather 
stretches from head to foot of the komse, which 
the mother can thus sling on her shoulder when 
going about, and by this thong the baby can be 
hung up to a tent-pole or to the branch of a 
tree when its mother is busy. But as often as 
not the komses are just stuck up on end in the 
snow, or against a rock, while work is going on. 
As soon as the child can walk and has finished 
its cradle existence, it is dressed in clothes sim- 
ilar to those of (his or her) father or mother, 
and looks most quaint. 

The life these children lead has not much 
amusement. From the beginning they are help- 
ing to pack up and move the tent, and to look 
after the reindeer; they are nothing else than 
little old men and women ; their toys are minia- 
tures or models of such things as they will have 
to use later in life — lassoes, snowshoes, sleighs — 
and their games are the learning to use the same. 
They are treated by their parents more or less as 
if they were grown up, and allowed to do much 
as they please. Consequently, they become self- 
willed, and have little respect for their elders. 

On the whole, the mode of life of the Lapps 
does not differ very greatly from that of gypsies. 
The wandering spirit is in both, but some of each 
sooner or later shake it off, and lead a more 
settled life. Some there are, however, who will 
never be anything but wanderers, so long as 
there remains a free country wherein they are at 
liberty to roam. 

Let us now see the kind of place which the 
Mountain Lapp calls "home." It cannot be any- 
thing very elaborate or bulky, as it has to be 
packed up and moved nearly every day ; and it 
has to be carried on the backs of the reindeer 

in summer, or drawn by them in sleighs in the 
winter. So it is nothing more than a kind of 
tent, not altogether unlike the wigwam of the 
red Indian, or the dwelling of many other wan- 
dering people. A few long poles are stuck up on 
a circle, with their ends fastened together to 
form a sort of cone, and over this framework is 
stretched a covering of coarse woolen material. 
At one side there is a loose flap, forming a door, 
and the whole of the top part of the tent round 
about the ends of the poles is left open, to admit 
light and to allow the smoke from the fire to 
issue forth. The diameter of the tent is about 
twelve or fifteen feet, and the height in the cen- 
ter eight or ten feet. This is the kitchen, larder, 
store-room, drawing-room, dining-room, and bed- 
room of the family — men, women, boys, girls, 
babies, dogs and all. 

A few branches of trees are spread on the 
ground, and in the middle, right under the open- 
ing in the roof, is the fire, which is kept going 
all the time. Around it the inmates sit on the 
ground by day and sleep by night. There is no 
furniture of any kind, and only a few cooking- 
pots, with some wooden bowls, and spoons of 
wood or of horn. Beds and blankets and such 
like luxuries are also absent, so undressing, dress- 
ing, washing, and personal matters of that kind 
are not indulged in. When the time has come 
to go to sleep, those who are in the tent just roll 
themselves close up to the fire, and sleep quite 
comfortably in the clothes which they probably 
have not taken off for a year or two. The whole 
family is not likely to be in the tent at the same 
time ; some members of it must always be look- 
ing after the reindeer, as the herd- can never be 
left to care for itself; so there is usually plenty 
of room. 

Meals are free-and-easy affairs; there is no 
dinner-bell and no fixed time for eating. But 
food is always ready, hanging in a pot over the 
fire ; and when any one feels inclined to eat, the 
hand is plunged into the pot, and a piece of meat 
pulled out and devoured. In addition to reindeer- 
meat — of which the Lapps consume a great deal 
— the food consists of cheese, and sometimes a 
kind of porridge; while for drink they have 
water, melted snow, reindeer-milk, and, on oc- 
casions, coffee, of which they are very fond, 
but which few families can afford to drink often. 

Thus live the Mountain Lapps year in year out. 
To-day a family is in one place, to-morrow a 
dozen miles away ; now and again other families 
are met with, and received hospitably; but for the 
most part the family and its herd keep to them- 
selves, since to do otherwise might lead to diffi- 
culties about grazing. The rain floods their 



tent ; the snow buries it ; the wind blows it down ; 
yet they survive, and glory in their free life. 

The Sea Lapps, though much more numerous 
than their brethren of the mountains, are not so 
interesting. They live by the coast in huts built 
of wood or of sods, and obtain a livelihood by 
fishing. The River Lapps, on the other hand, 
are both herdsmen and fishermen. Residing in 
small settlements on the banks of the rivers, 
they keep reindeer as well as a few cows and 
sheep, and they do a little in the way of farming 
the land round the settlement. Many of them 
are even intellectual, and the advantages of hav- 
ing their children properly educated in the 
schools are gradually becoming appreciated. 


The great religion of Central and Southern Asia 
is Buddhism. It is so called after the Buddha 
who was its founder and first missionary. The 
Buddha lived many, many years ago, and we 
know very little about him as a person. For 
centuries after his death wonderful stories were 
told about his power, his kindness, and his great 
wisdom. As the stories passed from mouth to 
mouth they became more and more marvelous, 
and at the present time there are scores of tales 
about him that are little better than fairy stories. 

In the following account of this great and holy 
man the known facts of his life and some of the 
legends about himself and his doings are inter- 
woven. It must be remembered that the Buddha 
was a man who did actually live upon the earth, 
and that, though the fables about him are un- 
believable by us, yet these fables are useful as 
showing us what other people thought about 
their wise and saintly teacher. 

About five hundred years before the birth of 
Christ the Buddha was born at a small village 
in India, only a few days' journey from Benares, 
the sacred city of the Hindus. His father was 
the rajah or chief of the tribe of Sakyas. The 
boy's family name was Gautama, and under this 
name we shall oftenest speak of him here. But 
his followers never use the name Gautama, think- 
ing it too familiar and intimate. They always 
speak of him under some title, such as "the 
Lion of the Tribe of Sakya," "the Happy One," 
"the Conqueror," "the Lord of the World," "the 
King of Righteousness," and so on. When he 
was only seven days old his mother died, and he 
was brought up by his aunt. 

The boy was quiet and thoughtful, and seemed 
to take no pleasure in hunting or in practising 
any of those exercises which would fit him to 
lead his tribe in war. His friends and relatives 

and the great Sakya nobles were very angry at 
this, because they feared that, when their enemies 
should attack them, the young prince would be 
found unequal to lead them in their conflicts. 
So they went to his father and complained that 
the boy did nothing but follow his own pleasures, 
and that he learned nothing useful. When Gau- 
tama heard of this, he asked his father, who was 
a great landowner and perhaps a prince, to fix 
a day on which he could show his skill and 
strength in all the manly arts. On the appointed 
day thousands of people thronged to the place 
that had been chosen to see what the boy could 
do. He surprised every one, for he could ride 
the fiercest horses and fling the heaviest spears. 
He shot arrows, the legend tells us, with a bow 
that a thousand men could not bend, and the 
sound of whose twanging was heard seven thou- 
sand miles away. After this the people held 
their peace and wondered. 

When he was nineteen he married his cousin, 
a girl singularly beautiful and good. For the 
next ten years after that we know nothing at 
all about him, but we feel sure that he lived a 
quiet, peaceful life, treating all around him with 
gentleness and courtesy, and thinking little about 
sickness or sorrow. One day, when he was 
about twenty-nine years old, Gautama was driv- 
ing to the pleasure-grounds when he saw a man 
broken down by age — weak, poor, and miserable 
— and he asked the man who was driving his 
chariot to explain the sight. To which the 
charioteer replied that all men who live to a 
great age become weak in mind and body, just 
like the poor old wreck they had seen in the 
street. Another day he saw a man suffering 
from disease, and again the charioteer explained 
that all men have to suffer pain. A few days 
later he saw a dead body, and learned for the 
first time — a fact that had been kept from him 
through all the days of his childhood and his 
manhood even up to that hour — that all human 
beings must die. 

Gautama was very sad when he thought of the 
misery that there is in the world, and he began 
to wonder if it could not all be done away with. 
He made up his mind to go away secretly and 
become a hermit. He would live away from 
towns and crowds, and see if he could not dis- 
cover a way to lessen the sorrows of his fellow- 

Just about this time his son was born. He 
loved this son very dearly, but he thought that 
if he were to find the path to happiness he would 
have to free himself from all earthly ties and re- 
lations. One night he went into the room 
where his wife lay sleeping. There, in the dim 



yellow light of the lamp, he saw the mother and 
the child. The mother's hand rested caressingly 
on the head of the little baby ; flowers were 
strewn upon the floor and around the bed. He 
wanted to take the tiny mite in his arms and kiss 
it before he went away ; but he was afraid of 
waking either of the slumberers, so he took one 
last loving look at them both, and then fled into 
the night, accompanied only by Channa, his 
charioteer. Under the full light of the July 
moon he sped away, having given up his home, 
his wealth, and his dear ones to become an out- 
cast and a wanderer. 

Then appeared to him Mara, the evil one, who 
tempted him to give up his plans for a lonely life. 
Mara promised him, if he would return to wealth 
and worldly ease, to make him in seven days the 
sole ruler of the world. But Gautama was not 
to be persuaded, and the evil one was defeated. 

Gautama and the charioteer rode on for many 
miles until they came to the banks of a certain 
river. There Gautama stopped. Taking his 
sword, he cut off his long flowing locks and 
gave them to Channa, telling him to take them, 
his horse, and his ornaments back to the town 
of his birth, in order that his friends and his rela- 
tives might know exactly what had happened to 
him. Channa was loath to leave his master, but 
was obliged to obey him. 

When Channa had departed, Gautama sought 
the caves where the hermits dwelt. There he 
stayed a while, fasting and doing penance, in the 
hope of finding out in this way the true road to 
happiness and righteousness. So long did he go 
without food, and so severely did he inflict tor- 
ture on himself, that one day he fell down ex- 
hausted. Every one thought he was dead, but 
he recoverd after a little while. 

It seemed to Gautama, when he regained con- 
sciousness, that this life of self-denial and hard- 
ship did not lead to that which he was seeking. 
So he left off fasting, and took his food again 
like an ordinary man. This disgusted the few 
disciples who had been living with him in retire- 
ment, and they all fled and left him to himself. 
When they had gone he strolled down to the 
banks of the neighboring river. As he went 
along, the daughter of one of the villagers of- 
fered him some food. He took it, and sat down 
under the shade of a large tree. This tree is 
known to all Buddhists as the bo-tree, and is as 
sacred to them as the cross is to Christians. 

While sitting under the tree, Gautama thought 
seriously about the past and the future. He 
felt much disappointed with his failure and 
at the loss of his late friends. The evil one 
came to him again, and whispered to him of love 

and power, of wealth and honor, and urged him 
to seek his home, his wife, and his child. 

For forty-nine days and nights Gautama sat 
under the bo-tree, his mind torn with the conflict 
as to what was his duty. At the end of that time 
his doubts vanished, his mind cleared, the storm 
was over, and he had become the "Buddha" — 
that is, the "Enlightened One." He knew now 
that it was his duty to go and preach to people 
the way to happiness and peace, to show them 
how to avoid misery, and how to conquer even 
death itself. It would take too long now to tell 
you what it was that the Buddha preached to 
those who would listen to him. Some time when 
you are older you must read this for yourself in 
another book. 

Gautama now returned to Benares, and ad- 
dressed a great crowd of angels, men, and ani- 
mals. Each man in the multitude, no matter 
what his language might be, understood the 
words of the speaker, and even the birds of the 
air and the beasts of the field knew that the wise 
man spoke to them too. He remained in the 
neighborhood of Benares for a long time, gath- 
ering round him men and women who were de- 
termined to do as he told them. When the 
rainy season was over, he dismissed them, send- 
ing them away in all directions to carry his 
gospel to whomsoever they should meet. 

Gautama himself went to his native land, his 
father having sent to say that he was now old, 
and would like to see his son again before he 
died. His uncles were so displeased with him 
that when he arrived at the town where his 
father lived they oft'ered him no food. So in the 
early morning he took his begging-bowl and 
went out to beg his daily meal. When his father 
heard of this he was very angry, for he thought 
it a disgrace that his son should walk like a 
common beggar from house to house asking alms. 
He met the Buddha and reproached him, but 
anger soon was lost in love, and the father, 
taking the son's bowl, led him to the palace. 

The people in the palace crowded to meet 
them. But Gautama's wife remained in her 
own room waiting for him to come to her, in a 
place where she could welcome him alone. Pres- 
ently he asked for her, and, learning where she 
was, he went to see her, accompanied by a few 
disciples. As soon as his wife saw him. she 
fell weeping at his feet. Somehow she knew, 
almost without looking at him, that he was 
changed, that he was wiser and holier than any 
man she had ever met. After a time he spoke 
to her of his message to men, and she listened 
earnestly to his words. She accepted his teach- 
ing, and asked to be allowed to become a nun. 



The Buddha was not at first inclined to permit 
this, but at last he yielded to her entreaties, and 
his wife became one of the first of the Buddhist 


For forty-five years the Buddha worked as a 
missionary in the valley of the Ganges, till the 
time of his end came, and he passed away from 
earth. As he lay dying, he said to his cousin 
Ananda, who had been a loving and faithful 
disciple: "O Ananda, do not let yourself be 
troubled ; do not weep. Have I not told you 
that we must part from all we hold most dear 
and pleasant? For a long time, Ananda, you 
have been very near to me by kindness in act, 
and word, and thoughtfulness. You have al- 
ways done well." And again speaking to the 
same disciple, he exclaimed: "You may perhaps 
begin to think that the word is ended now that 
your teacher is gone ; but you must not think so. 
After I am dead let the law and the rules which 
I have taught you be a teacher to you." 

He passed away leaving behind him many who 
sorrowed for his death. And after all these 
years temples are still built in his honor ; monks 
still follow the rules that he laid down ; and men 
and women lay flowers upon his altars, bend be- 
fore his images, and carry his teachings in their 


We have our own views regarding the cruel and 
barbarous character of bull-fighting; and we have 
our own opinions about giving public amusements 
on Sunday ; but now we are simply going to tell 
how this form of Sunday amusement is con- 
ducted in the land that is its peculiar home ; and 
if we are to see the Spaniards reveling in their 
national sport, we must go to the fiesta on the 
usual day devoted to its celebration. Let us sup- 
pose ourselves to be in Madrid, and we will visit 
the bull-ring there, for it is famous as one of 
the two great centers where the best bull-fights 
take place, the other famous home of his pastime 
being Seville. 

It is Sunday morning. We make our way to 
the booking-office in the city to secure our tickets. 
Even at this early hour we feel the glare and 
heat more than a little trying, and when we take 
our places in the auditorium of the bull-ring, the 
sun will have had several more hours in which 
to scorch the air, and will then be doing his worst 
to dazzle and frizzle. Readily do we see the 
advantage of paying a little extra for a boletin 
de sombra — a "ticket in the shade." 

Soon afer lunch we join the bubbling stream 
of excited folk wending toward the arena. 

There is no necessity to ask the way; every one 
is going in the same direction with the same 
object. We have only to join the throng and 
move with it, and so infectious is its enthusiasm 
that we shall press forward much too eagerly 
to be in any risk of getting left behind. We 
walk far, but the distance does not seem long — 
there is so much to interest us all around. A 
constant procession of carriages fills the road- 
way : fashionable Madrid is driving to the scene 
of its great national drama. All the nobility and 
gentry have turned out for the occasion in their 
most g'/rgeous carriages, attended by their flun- 
keys in smartest livery ; all the cavaliers are 
groomed to perfection; all the ladies are arrayed 
in exquisite Parisian gowns of the latest model, 
but every one of them has resisted the temptation 
of putting on the chic Parisian hat that goes 
so well with her costume, for to-day the mantilla 
must be worn in honor of so distinguished a 
national ceremony. And constantly our atten- 
tion is drawn from the classes to the masses, 
from the carriage-folk to the teeming majority 
of pedestrians that surges along the streets. 
To-day we can see the populace of Madrid, of 
its environs, of the near and distant neighbor- 
ing towns and villages, displaying the splendor 
of national costume in its picturesque local 
varieties of dress, head-gear, and jewels. 

The multitude leads us beyond the city and up 
a boulevard slope on the outskirts. Now we are 
in the heart of a gala-scene: the stately carriages 
have been joined by all manner of plebeian con- 
veyances ; refreshment-stalls to right and left are 
already doing a brisk trade ; impish little raga- 
muffins, vagabondish cheap Jacks, and experi- 
enced peddlers, are all vying with each other 
to dispose of fans displaying the most dramatic 
scenes of the ring, pictures of the afternoon's 
principal performers, and paper rosettes in the 
colors of the day's heroes. 

We pass through a gate in the high boundary- 
walls of the arena, and find ourselves in a spa- 
cious circular corridor, with numerous side-tracks 
leading into the lower tiers of the auditorium. 
Our reserved places are in the upper part of this 
open house, and as we mount flight after flight 
of steps, and pass story after story of lofty 
arcades, we begin to feel that we are in a huge 
building. But it is impossible to realize the 
colossal scale on which this ground is laid out 
until we are seated aloft, looking far down into 
the vast arena, taking a sweeping glance of the 
auditorium, which encircles it tier beyond tier, 
and noticing the densely packed thousands al- 
ready massed together between the great vacant 
spaces waiting to accommodate the thousands 



more flocking to the scene. It is a merry throng 
in which we find ourselves — a gaily dressed, ex- 
cited democracy, in which aristocrat and peasant 
are united by common interests, common en- 
thusiasm, common pride. We are in a thorough- 
ly sporting atmosphere ; but Spain is a most 
sober country so far as drinking is concerned, 
so we are not distracted by any rowdyism, any 
brawling, any side-shows of fisticuffs. 

The period of waiting passes all too quickly 
in these surroundings, where the spectators in 
themselves present a most vivid and interesting 
drama of life. The appointed hour for th*" great 
spectacle of the day has arrived. The president 
has entered the presidential box, the signal is 
given, the opening ceremony begins. 

Forth into the arena march the performers, 
grouped in picturesque array. The procession is 
headed by two caballeros, solemn-looking figures 
in black velvet costumes, mounted on black 
steeds. They are followed, on foot, by the two 
matadors, or swordsmen, the principal actor and 
his understudy, whose part is a single-handed 
contest with the bull in the last scene. These 
heroes of the day are gaily attired in their sport- 
ing colors — crimson and gold, orange and purple, 
blue and red, or some equally striking combi- 
nation. Behind the matadors ride half 'a dozen 
picadores, clad in broad-brimmed felt hats, short 
cloaks, and long, steel-plated leathern leggings, 
and carrying spears. Next in the procession 
walk the eight banderilleros, a most conspicuous 
and gorgeous group in knee-breeches, who lav- 
ishly splash the scene with color ; their waists 
are girdled with silk sashes of the brightest dyes, 
their legs are clad in stockings of vivid and 
varied shades, and in their hands are curiously 
shaped darts, ornamented with rainbow-hued rib- 
bon streamers. The rear is brought up by stable- 
men leading the horses which are to drag the 
carcasses out of the arena, and which are dressed 
for their part in fine trappings and rich plumes. 

The procession wends its way slowly across 
the ring, salutes the president, and breaks up, 
those who are to take part in the first act dis- 
tributing themselves about the arena, the others 
retiring behind the scenes. The caballeros re- 
main facing the president ; again they salute, a 
shrill trumpet-cry rings out, and the president 
throws down the key of the toril — the bulls' den. 
A few moments later the first beast dashes into 
the arena. The sport has begun in real earnest; 
bull and men have met together in the ring to 
fight to the death. It is universally known that 
the bull's fate is already sealed, but none can yet 
tell how drastically the beast will avenge its 
own death before it draws its last breath. 

xvni— 2 

The banderilleros seem to play a somewhat 
cowardly part at first, for as the bull dashes 
hither and thither they vault the barrier round 
the arena to get safely out of its way. We soon 
discover that they are fully justified in their 
action. This is a scientific game of skill, and the 
proceedings have not yet come within the bounds 
of science. The bull, just let loose from his 
dark cell, is blinded by the sunlight, and is 
plunging aimlessly about in a wild revel of free- 
dom ; it would be mad folly for one man to meet 
him single-handed in this mood — there is no 
sport in an absurdly unequal contest. Presently 
the animal grows more accustomed to the light, 
and, "spotting" a particular picador, makes a 
direct attack. 

The mounted combatant has a sporting chance 
with his adversary, but even so the banderilleros 
make ready to back him up should the necessity 
arise. As the bull comes to close quarters, the 
picador tries to wound him with his spear. Per- 
haps he succeeds, and the bull rushes off at a 
tangent. Maybe he fails, and there is a tense 
moment as the bull makes a lunge with his horns 
at the horse, and the rider falls to the ground 
with his gored steed. The man will surely be 
killed, you think, and you hold your breath and 
tremble in an agony of fear. But your neighbors 
are more enlightened ; they know the chances are 
well in favor of the picador making good his 
escape. The ladies hide their faces behind their 
fans lest an accident should happen, but the men 
shout with excitement at this almost critical 

Now the banderilleros hasten to draw off the 
bull by waving red flags before his eyes, the 
picador is disentangled — if he did not manage to 
free himself as he was falling — he is assisted to 
his feet, because he cannot rise unaided in his 
heavy accouterments, and the horse is examined. 
Is the poor hack quite disabled? No; it is being 
coaxed, prodded, and helped to an upright posi- 
tion. As the picador remounts to await another 
attack the applause of the multitude rends the 
air; and the more often he can repeat the whole 
performance, the greater will be the ovation ac- 
corded him when his sorry mount at last lies 

But not all the horses are necessarily killed 
in the fray, and the picadores may not all have 
been thrown before tne president gives the signal 
that brings the first act of the drama to a close 
and heralds the second act. The banderilleros 
now play the principal part; their business is 
further to infuriate the bull by sticking their 
darts into his shoulders. Each in turn, armed 
with a couple of banderillas, deliberately marches 



to meet the beast, and with raised arms prepares 
to run his darts home. In the course of this act 
there are some really splendid exhibitions of 
athletic skill and agility, and it is characterized 
throughout by a fine display of courage. In 
the final scene firework banderillas are often 
used, the explosion taking place within the bull's 

Again a signal from the president. The arena 
is cleared; for a second the bull has the ring 
to himself. With his trusty Toledo blade in one 
hand and a red flag in the other, the chief mata- 
dor is standing before the presidential box, 
formally asking permission to kill the beast, and 
pledging himself to perform the deed in a man- 
ner that shall do honor to Madrid and to the 
glorious traditions of his profession. A second 
later a trumpet sounds, and he steps into the 
arena to meet his adversary in a duel. He is 
greeted by the audience with wild applause, 
which suddenly dies into an intense silence as 
he advances to meet the foe. For a considerable 
time he plays his adversary, exhibiting many 
skilful tricks of his profession, and some of the 
specially courageous and pretty athletic feats that 
have already won for him a high place of honor 
as a popular hero ; and perhaps the bull attacks 
him in a way that gives him a chance to try a 
new feat. 

Why does he not strike the death-blow at the 
first opportunity ? Why should he prolong the 
period during every second of which he is in 
imminent peril of being done to death himself 
on the horns of the bull? Remember, this vast 
crowd around you has not collected for the pur- 
pose of seeing a bull tortured and slaughtered; 
the spectators have come to testify their faith in 
the national sport. This is the climax of a great 
sporting drama ; the matador should be a master 
of the great art of bull-fighting, and alike to 
himself and those who watch him he is respon- 
sible for seeing that the performance is brought 
to a close in a truly grand finale. 

And the present matador is a great master. 
See the raging beast charging straight for him, 
the while he stands his ground, cool and resolute, 
alert but unflinching; see the bull getting closer 
and closer, till now he is actually near enough 

to make a thrust with his horns. They touch 

the motionless figure ; in another second 

No, no ! do not hide your eyes ; the most won- 
drous scene is crowded into this second. The 
man escapes death by a slight sway of his lithe 
body, puts his foot between the bull's horns, and 
springs clean over the beast. He has mocked the 
monster by using its own weapons as tools for 
sport; he has played a game in imitation of the 

grim tragedy which the bull was on the very 
point of enacting. 

A great master this matador, without a doubt, 
but he means to be something more. This after- 
noon he is going to raise himself above his fel- 
low-chiefs — to become known throughout the 
length and breadth of Spain as the hero of 
heroes, one of the very greatest of all matadors, 
or die in the attempt. See, he is going to re- 
spond to an encore; he is going to throw himself 
once more. It seems a miracle that he is again 
able to go through that extraordinary feat, but 
it is safely accomplished after many a hair- 
breadth escape : and now at last he is watching 
for his opportunity to strike the death-blow. 
Presently he is standing face to face with the 
huge beast; there is a quick flash of steel; the 
bull staggers, drops on his knees, and falls dead 
or dying on the ground. The fight is finished; 
human courage and scientific skill have con- 
quered brute force. 

The tension is relieved, deafening cheers ring 
out, the vast crowd roars and surges, while the 
hero walks quietly, unassumingly, toward the 
president's box. He salutes the master of cere- 
monies and bows to the spectators. A bouquet 
is thrown to him as an official tribute, and for 
a few minutes the air rains caps, gloves, favors, 
and even costly gifts, around him in the arena. 
Then the moments of his magnificent triumph 
are brought to an end. The band strikes up ; 
horses are led into the ring and harnessed to the 
carcass of the bull and the mangled remains of 
the picadores' hacks, which are dragged at gal- 
loping speed out of sight; sand is raked over 
the ring ; watering-carts come to lay the dust ; 
and the arena is ready for a repetition of the 
whole performance. 

The afternoon's programme usually consists of 
six events, all alike, except that the last bulls 
let loose in the arena are generally the fiercest. 


The Bedouins are Arabs, the children of the 
desert, dwellers in tents, who drive their flocks 
and herds from pasture to pasture and from well 
to well, as food and water grow scarce in the 
neighborhood where they have stayed for some 
time. They are striking and picturesque figures, 
these sons of the desert, when seated on their 
swift steeds, with flowing robes draped around 
their tall, spare, sinewy figures, and long spears 
held aloft. But they are figures greatly feared 
by the peasantry, for the Bedouin is a born 
raider, and attacks all from whom he can hope 
to gain the smallest treasure. A Bedouin will 



calmly ride his mare into the standing corn of 
the farmer, and there permit it to pasture at ease, 
and he is prompt to strike with spear or shoot with 
his long-barreled gun if he is interfered with. 

His encampment shows one of the earliest 
forms of human dwellings, the low tent of black 
haircloth pegged down to the ground — a dwelling 
which may be struck, packed, carried, and pitched 
again promptly and easily. 

Wild and dangerous as these men are, they 
have one great virtue— hospitality. A guest is 
sacred, and the Arab host will defend a guest 
with his life. The great mark of friendship is 
to eat salt together, for the Arabs regard salt as 
the symbol of life and eternity; the "covenant 
of salt" binds two men together with a band of 

An English traveler once fell into the hands 
of a band of Arab robbers. He knew that his 
property and his life were both in great danger, 
but without exhibiting the least sign of fear he 
took a tin box out of his pocket, and began 
to eat the contents as if he were enjoying a de- 
licious sweetmeat. The Arab chief looked into 
the box, and saw that it held a fine white powder. 
He did not dream for a moment that it was 
salt, for he had never seen salt except in coarse, 
discolored lumps. Eager to find what it was 
that his captive ate so greedily, he took a pinch 
and put it in his mouth. To his astonishment, 
it was salt, and now he had bound himself to 
treat his prisoner as an honored guest ; he had 
made the "covenant of salt" with him. 



It is the lament of old travelers that the railway 
is everywhere banishing romance from South 
Africa. Who, they ask, that visited the Victoria 
Falls, for example, in the olden days, would care 
to visit it again now that it has its railway bridge 
and hotel ? Lucky, they add, are they who have 
had the experience of visiting the interesting 
parts of South Africa before the dawn of civili- 
zation. One of the old travelers gives the fol- 
lowing narrative of a journey made in earlier 
days upon the veld, or open country. 

Before starting on a long tramp of five or six 
hundred miles through uncivilized country, it is 
necessary to secure native, that is Kaffir, carriers. 
This is not always so easy as might be expected. 
On one occasion, on reaching the outpost of 
civilization, I was told that if I wanted boys to 
carry my loads, I would have to walk alone 
seventy or eighty miles through the heart of the 
bush and bring back with me the native carriers 

I required. It was a strange experience, on an- 
other occasion, to ride two hundred miles to 
catch a train ; but it was a stranger experience 
to have to walk a hundred and fifty miles before 
my journey really commenced. 

It requires some experience to choose native 
carriers w'isely. At first one is apt to pick out 
the men with the best developed muscles, espe- 
cially selecting those with the biggest legs. The 
best carriers, however, generally have thin, firm 
legs, for the fine-looking natives are generally 
apt to be somewhat flabby. There is always a 
tremendous amount' of talk before the native car- 
riers are ready for their start. With one con- 
sent they all begin to make excuse : this boy 
thinks that his load is too bulky ; that one thinks 
his load is too heavy; a third boy finds that he 
has got a thorn in his foot; a fourth boy dis- 
covers that his mother is ill; a fifth declares that 
he has left his private store of food at a friend's 
hut five miles away, and that he must go and 
fetch it; a sixth boy demands extra pay; and a 
seventh declares that he has changed his mind 
and won't go at all. 

The hackneyed and unimaginative excuse 
"Mumma sick" is expected to be disregarded ; 
complaints as to inequality of load may safely 
be left to the boys to settle among themselves ; 
the demand for double pay is waved aside with 
a laugh ; the boy wdio refuses to go is told to 
please himself, for he is almost certain to be the 
first one to pick up his load and start. Fully 
nine-tenths of the complaints are mere bluff, the 
boys simply trying to find out how "green" their 
employer is. At last a start is made, the ex- 
perienced and wary traveler taking special care 
to keep an eye on the cook and on the boy who 
carries the food ; the others may be more or less 
left to themselves, but these two boys must never 
be allowed to get out of sight. 

The boys always start off in good spirits and 
leave camp tossing chaff and banter at one an- 
other, or chanting their own tribal songs. If 
the traveler is wise, he will start at dawn, and 
not stop for breakfast till ten o'clock, for it is 
always well to get the major portion of the day's 
journey finished before the heat of the day. And 
oh, that first breakfast ! A man could eat his 
boots from sheer hunger ; and, should he have 
brought a little meat with him. he will think 
that all the cooks of Europe could never make 
food so appetizing as does the smoke of the 
wood fire over which the meat is grilled. 

As soon as the natives have thrown down their 
loads, they prepare their own meal, while some 
of the boys go down to the river — it is wise 
always to stop at a river if possible — and catch a 



few small fish, which they roast over the fire. I 
am speaking now of the tribes north of Delagoa 
Bay, for most of the tribes in the south — except 
the Tongas — despise fish and refuse to eat them. 

The food of the carriers consists chiefly of a 
grain called poco, which is somewhat smaller 
than millet-seed. When cooked, it makes a 
black mass of extremely glutinous character, and 
requires a stomach of about two or three ostrich- 
power to digest it ! It is extremely economical, 
for it has great staying power, one meal of it 
serving a white man for at least a whole day. 
When the poco porridge is cooked, it is placed 
on leaves, which serve as a plate, and the natives 
sit round on their haunches and, turn and turn 
about, break off little morsels with their hands, 
nibbling a small portion of fish with each mouth- 
ful. The natives always share all their food 
with one another, and should a white man give 
his cook an odd sardine, all the natives in the 
party will have a taste of the delicacy. 

Shortly after breakfast camp is struck, loads 
are remade, and everybody starts off quietly. It 
is, however, but the treacherous calm before 
the storm. After walking for about an hour, the 
natives will probably throw down their loads 
and refuse to go another step unless they are 
given double pay. It had been agreed that no 
wages were to be paid till the end of the journey; 
all the boys had been perfectly contented with 
the arrangement, and, indeed, had almost given 
one the impression that it did not matter much 
whether they were ever paid or not. Now, how- 
ever, they say they will not move an inch unless 
the stipulated wages are paid down on the spot, 
and unless they are promised a similar additional 
sum at the end of the journey. Knowing that 
they are now twenty miles away from civiliza- 
tion, they think the white man is at their mercy, 
and should he lose his head for a moment, or 
showy the slightest sign of wavering, the game 
is lost; for Kaffirs are very acute in gaging 

I must admit that the first time this trick was 
played upon me, it completely took me by sur- 
prise ; and for a second or two I was at a loss 
what to do. Recovering my senses in a moment, 
I told the natives it was a beautiful spot at which 
to camp, and that I could easily stay where I was 
for a few days and secure other carriers. I told 
them they might go home at once, for I was very 
thankful to them for carrying my loads so far 
all for nothing. I then lay down in the shade 
and told the boys to put all the goods in a heap. 
At first there was a great murmuring among the 
natives, then there were violent altercations be- 
tween two sections of carriers. The discussion 

was carried on for a quarter of an hour, the 
natives retiring to a distance so as not to be 
overheard. Then a deputation came to me and 
said that they had been quite misunderstood and 
M^ould gladly finish the journey at half the price 
stipulated, if that would please the white man. 
And that was the end of the trouble for the 
rest of the trip. 

Toward sunset it is necessary to look out for a 
river at which to camp, and it is well to swim 
through it at once lest rain should come in the 
night and make crossing difficult. The first 
thing to do after selecting a suitable spot is to 
make provision against the lions. The boys cut 
down a quantity of thorn-bush, and build a horse- 
shoe-shaped zareba, or hedge, some ten feet high, 
leaving a large enough space inside to accommo- 
date the whole party. Having done this, the boys 
fetch wood and water, and before long a "billy'' 
— tin can — full of water is boiling briskly. Wheat- 
cakes or dumplings are quickly cooked, and tea 
is made. Should no game have been shot during 
the day's tramp, one is reduced to the necessity 
of eating canned beef — that refuge of the desti- 

The dusk comes on very quickly, and the stars 
flash out in the sky. After the evening meal the 
whole party sits round the camp-fire enjoying 
both the cool of the evening and the warmth of 
the fire, until a delightful sense of healthy tired- 
ness — sleepiness without weariness — creeps over 
the company. The natives who have been clad 
all day in a loin-cloth made of little pieces of 
blue limbo, or calico, about the thickness of a 
pocket handkerchief, spread it on the bare ground 
and lie down on it, placing a similar piece over 
their body so as to act as a blanket. So genial is 
the climate, and so grateful is the night coolness 
that sometimes (when there are no mosquitoes 
about) the boys do not even cover themselves 
till they feel chilly at about three o'clock in 
the morning. Two fires are kept burning at the 
mouth of the horseshoe, and so every one feels 
tolerably safe from risk of attacks by lions. 

And so the days pass. An indescribable sense 
of freedom possesses one ; a man feels that the 
boundless veld belongs to him, free of all care 
and expense. He walks where he wills, he stops 
where he chooses, he shoots what he wishes, he 
swims the rivers, and when he has finished his 
day's journey he lies down on the ground just 
where he is, and sleeps beneath the open sky, 
feeling that at last he understands what it means 
to be filled with the sap of life. He may find the 
sand so hot from the merciless rays of the sun 
that it nearly blisters his feet through an inch 
of shoe-leather ; he may feel half roasted to death. 



as. clad in pith helmet, khaki trousers, and a 
flannel shirt tucked up to the elbow and open 
over the chest, he tramps across country ; he may 
know that the thermometer stands at iio° or 
115° in the shade; but when he thinks of the 
river ahead, he feels that the heat is but part of 
the fun, and the thought of the camp-fire and 
of the delight of lying in the cool night air 
gazing at the quiet heavens more than atones 
for any discomfort to be endured. 

When, after three months of such glorious 
life, one returns to civilization, coats, collars, 
and stuffy rooms, and the conventions of society, 
he feels half smothered and choked, and he won- 
ders what has possessed the human species to 
undergo voluntarily such lifelong penance, dis- 
comfort, and loss of the simple and wholesome 
joys of life. 


Russia has a terrific winter ; rivers are frozen, 
and snow covers the land for five months in the 
year; in the far north for six. But early in 
April the snow begins to melt, and the mud and 
filth of a country without real roads cannot be 
imagined by ourselves. But the mud is just 
what the peasant needs for the grain which he 
is anxious to sow as soon as he can. Winter 
has left its mark on all ; there has not been 
enough food for the family, or enough fodder 
for the cattle. Often the very thatching of the 
cottage roofs has been torn down to give some 
sustenance to the poor cattle and horses before 
they can be turned out on St. George's Day. 
They are indeed a sorry sight; thin, lean, ill, and 
lame they limp out into the fields and receive a 
sprinkling of holy water from the priest. 

The beginning of spring is of such importance 
to the Russian villages that it is not to be won- 
dered at that old customs of celebrating it arc 
still kept up. In most parts these celebrations 
begin on March i, when all the women and 
children get up very early and go to the top of 
the nearest hill, where, dancing round, they sing: 

"Spring, beautiful Spring! 
Come, O Spring, with joy! 
With great goodness, 
With tall flax. 
With deep roots. 
With abundant corn." 

Most of Russia is so flat that there is often no 
hill, so the top of a cottage or barn is used. 
Sometimes the girls make a hole in the ice and 
dance round it singing: 

"O healthful spring-tide water, 
To us also give health !'' 

If the ice is melted, they may sing this in the 
water. People who are ill are carried through 
the melting snow and sprinkled with the water 
in the hope of a cure. 

But St. George's Day is the great festival, 
for the Russian St. George did not trouble him- 
self about the slaying of dragons and rescuing 
of princesses. He looked after the farmers and 
kept their cattle and sheep from injury. And so 
important is he that no cattle are turned out 
before then, even though the grass be green and 
the air mild. In the part of Russia called W^hite 
Russia, the cattle are driven through the morning 
dew, which is supposed to be specially good on 
that day. In Little Russia the children go out 
on that morning very early and roll in it. One 
of the songs sung to St. George (Yegory) is the 
following : 

"We have gone around the field, 
We have called Yegory ; 
O thou our brave Yegory, 
Save our cattle, 

In the field and beyond the field, 
In the forest and beyond the forest; 
Under the bright moon. 
Under the red sun ; 
Frotn the rapacious wolf. 
From the cruel bear. 
From the cunning beast." 

With the beginning of spring the young men 
who have been away working in the towns return 
to help their fathers and the rest of the house- 
hold in the fields, and then there are great festi- 
vals. This lasts from Low Sunday till the end 
of June. The girls go out into the meadows to 
meet their brothers and friends, and then the 
return is celebrated by dance and song. A very 
favorite game is plctcn, where a number of 
couples with hands locked together form in line 
and imitate a fence; then they sing: 

"Be twined together, O fence! be twined together! 
And do thou be coiled up, O golden pipe ! 
Ee folded up, O rustling damask ! 
From behind the hills the maiden has dri\en out the 

Come away home, duckie ; 
Come away home, gray one." 

Then the leaders join and hold up their hands, 
while the other couples pass underneath, singing: 

"Untwine, O fence, untwine ! 
Uncoil, O golden pipe ! 
Unfold, O rustling damask !" 

There may be a couple of the khorovods, as 
these dancing circles are called, at opposite ends 



of the village street, the songs floating pleasantly 
to the ears of the old people who sit outside their 
little wooden huts. The younger women on such 
holidays gather in groups, and discuss household 
matters ; the men in other groups compare their 
flocks and herds. 

With the early showers in the spring little 
children may be heard singing : 

"Pour, O rain ! 
Over the grandmother's rye, 
Over the .father's wheat, 
Over the girls' flax, 
Pour in bucketfuls ! 
Rain, rain, let thyself go 
Stronger, quicker ! 
Warm us young ones." 

Sometimes the first rain from a thunderstorm 
is caught and kept to work cures, for the peasant 
despises a doctor, even if he can get one, and 
prefers a miracle. 

Everything is regulated by saints' days, and 
the haymaking starts on St. Peter's Day (June 
29), when the hay is fetched home in most curi- 

ous carts. The little lean pony is harnessed with 
string to two poles, the back ends of which drag 
along the ground. On to these two poles are 
tied huge bundles of hay, and this wheelless 
apology for a cart is dragged and jerked from 
the common hayfield till the load can be deposited 
in its owner's shelter. The whole village goes 
out and mows at the same time, the hayfield 
being divided into the right number of strips 
on the spot. They cast lots for the strips and at 
once mow them. 

From Elijah's Day (July 20) till the end of 
August the peasants have to work hard to get 
in the harvest — really, two harvests, one of oats 
and one of rye. Father, mother, sons, and 
daughters, all lend their aid early and late to get 
everything in by the end of September, and 
the seed sown for the following year. Then, on 
October i, comes Harvest Home, a great festi- 
val kept both with church services, attended by 
the people in their finest clothes, and with a feast 
in every cottage, the one large room having re- 
ceived its great annual scrubbing in honor of the 
invited guests. 




Before the present generation of children are 
much older, an important feature of their geog- 
raphies will be changed to describe North and 
South America as two great islands instead of 
one continuous continent. The work of cutting 
the western hemisphere in two is in charge of 
the American government, and there is no ques- 
tion about its final success. Modern machinery 
and methods of engineering work can accomplish 
what the French people failed to do in the last 
century, and the Panama Canal will soon be 
an accomplished fact. 

This great "dream of the navigator" is almost 
as old as the discovery of America. It was 
when the conviction spread abroad in Europe 
that Columbus had only discovered a new con- 
tinent, and not a new western passage to the 
wealth of the Indies, that men of science and 
travel began to think of opening a navigable 
channel from the Atlantic to the Pacific. As 
early as 1581 a survey was made to see if North 
and South America could not be cut in two. 
Captain Antonio Pereira, governor of Costa 
Rica, explored a route by way of the San Juan 

River, the lake of the same name, and the rivers 
which empty into the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa 

This early survey was the first actual begin- 
ning of the story of Panama, which now prom- 
ises to reach a conclusion within the next few 
years. Diego de IMercado, about thirty-nine 
years later, made a survey of the Nicaragua 
route, and recommended to King Philip of Spain 
the construction of an interoceanic canal along 
the lines described by him. 

From that time to the year when the French 
company, under the famous French engineer 
Ferdinand de Lesseps, essayed to cut the Isthmus 
of Panama in two, the Nicaragua and Panama 
routes have been periodically surveyed and re- 
surveyed until probably no other out-of-the-way 
corner of the earth has received half as much 
examination and geographical attention. 

Many schemes of constructing the canal were 
proposed. Navigators of all parts of the world 
realized the importance of the canal or of some 
other method of transportation across the isth- 
mus. One of the boldest conceptions was made 



by an American engineer, James B. Eads, who 
proposed to construct at Tehuantepec a railroad 
from ocean to ocean, or rather from the Pacific 
Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico, capable of carrying 
the largest ships. Gigantic engines and flat- 
cars were to be built to run on double tracks. 
These cars were to run down an incline into 
great locks, so that ocean steamers could be 
floated upon them. Then the engines would 
cross the narrow tongue of land and launch the 
steamers in the ocean opposite. In this novel 
way the journey around the world, or from Eu- 
rope to the East Indies, would not be interrupted, 
and passengers could go to sleep on the Atlantic 
and wake up the next morning on the Pacific. 
But the great ship-railroad was never built. 

shore to shore, of about 40J miles. From deep 
water on the east to deep water on the west, its 
length will be about 50 miles. 

To cut a ship-canal of this length, the early 
French company estimated, would cost 843,000,- 
000 francs, which later was reduced by M. de 
Lesseps to 600,000,000 francs, or about $120,000,- 
000 of our money. This huge cost did not deter 
the people of France from buying the bonds and 
stocks of the Panama Canal Company, and the 
money was soon raised. The genius of the 
company was the man who had constructed the 
Suez Canal, and his presence at the head of the 
undertaking was sufficient to give confidence to 
all. M. de Lesseps himself was so confident of 
his success that he extended invitations to prom- 

82" 8 




/- V 










:^ .^^em 




' "'>7W 




;> ■ 






yy^'i* p* \ 



JfM ^ 





PA C 1 F 1 C 




82' Q0° 



and the agitation for digging the canal to cut the 
western hemisphere in two was continued. The 
great scheme possessed a peculiar fascination 
for men of science and commerce ; but it was 
not until 1879 that the first positive step was 
taken to realize the dream of the ages. In that 
year an international congress was held in Paris, 
and before it appeared Ferdinand de Lesseps to 
espouse the cause of a French engineering com- 
pany, organizing to undertake the work of separ- 
ating North and South America by a ship- 

The Isthmus of Panama is a narrow strip of 
land, scarcely twenty-one miles wide at its nar- 
rowest point ; but the canal, owing to the char- 
acter of the land, would have a total length from 

H.T. &G.D. II. 15. 

inent men all over the world to attend the open- 
ing of the canal in 1888. 

The first shipment of machinery and workmen 
arrived in Colon on February 21, 1881, and al- 
most immediately began one of the most dramatic 
stories of modern times. Fraud, incompetency, 
mismanagement, and lack of knowledge of the 
grave conditions that confronted the contractors 
on the isthmus combined to delay the work, and 
in time to wreck the company. The inside his- 
tory of the story may never be made perfectly 
plain to the world. Alillions of dollars' worth of 
machinery that was never used was shipped to 
the isthmus, and even to-day much of it is rotting 
and rusting there in the tropical climate. The 
whole length of the proposed canal is marked 




by these monuments to man's mismanagement 
and greed. Extensive camps and hospitals were 
built on the route of the canal, and thousands 
of workmen were sent down, only to die in the 
fever-ridden climate or to return home disgusted. 

The French canal company purchased the 
Panama Railway in 1882 to facilitate the work 
in digging the big ditch. But so inhospitable 
was the climate that thousands of lives were 
sacrificed to the undertaking. 

What has been termed by Yankee visitors to 
the isthmus "the white ghost of the canal" slew 

The canal did not progress rapidly. Unex- 
pected engineering difficulties appeared to delay 
its completion, besides the climate and the mis- 
management of the funds. One of these was 
the control of the Chagres River, which dis- 
charged some 75,000 cubic feet of water per 
second. Another trouble was the action of the 
silt, which tended to fill up the canal almost as 
fast as it was excavated unless special precau- 
tions were taken to prevent it. A third insur- 
mountable difficulty was that of the tropical 
growth of trees, vines, and plants. So rank and 

/>2,<Lyc ^'^^i^^^^^^y^t^^ /^^-<i:_ 

':^e..-€^f •<<2-«^i^,^C'''^:-^7^ 



its victims by the hundreds. This white ghost 
was nothing more than the miasmatic fog or 
mist rising from the disturbed soil. The hot, 
moist climate of the isthmus is naturally weak- 
ening to those not accustomed to it. Rank vege- 
tation springs up in a night and covers the soil 
with thick, fleshy leaves and vines. These die, 
and decompose in layers. When disturbed the 
soil releases poisonous gases, which often have 
spread fevers and disease around. This white 
ghost of the canal hovered over the camps of 
the French contractors, and killed off their work- 
men and engineers by the hundreds. 

luxuriant were the growths that within a few 
weeks after excavation they would fill with a 
network of roots and leaves the ground that was 
opened. Work that was not properly planned 
had to be done over again several times. Por- 
tions of the canal that were neglected a few 
weeks would present at the end of that time a 
new problem for the contractors. Discourage- 
ment after discouragement followed, and finally, 
when the funds began to give out, the few hon- 
est, devoted engineers lost heart. They knew 
that the canal could not be finished under the 
auspices of their company. Much of the ma- 



chinery sent to them proved unfit for the work 

More funds were raised between 1882 and 
1888, and then the French pubhc grew suspi- 
cious and refused to subscribe more. The crash 
came in 1889, when the company was forced to 
suspend. In 1890 a commission was sent to 
the isthmus to report on the actual condition of 
affairs. It found not more than a fifth of the 
work finished, and $50,000,000 worth of machin- 
ery, houses, and equipments rotting away. At 
Colon the finished portion of the canal was filling 
in, while the harbor itself was being filled with 
the silt from the canal, so that it would re- 
quire deepening to make it navigable for large 

The whole unfortunate story of the scandal 
followed. An extension of time for finishing 
the canal was granted by the government of 
Colombia to the French Panama Canal Company, 
and an effort was made to resume operations. 
In 1892 the charge was made on the floor of the 
French Chamber of Deputies that the canal com- 
pany had wasted the funds of the subscribers, 
and had bribed no less than one hundred deputies. 
An official investigation followed. Over 800,000 
people of France had invested in the canal, and 
about $156,400,000 had been raised; but of this 
vast amount not more than $88,000,000 were 
really spent u])on the excavation and construc- 
tion of the canal. 

In spite of this stupendous fraud, a new com- 
pany was organized in 1894-95, which estimated 
the cost of completing the canal at $110,000,000. 
The following year a strike among the workmen 
on the isthmus caused uneasiness in France, and 
when charges were made of another scandal it 
was impossiijle to raise further money. These 
charges proved untrue, but French prestige on 
the isthmus was lost and French confidence in 
the scheme exhausted. France had lost her op- 
portunity through the dishonesty of those to 
whom the work was intrusted. Most of the offi- 
cers of the first company were arrested, includ- 
ing Ferdinand de Lesseps and his son Charles. 

The feeling against the company was bitter 
in France; but in spite of it there was wide- 
spread sympathy for the "grand old man" who 
had started the enterprise. M. de Lesseps was 
over eighty years of age when the exposure 
surprised the world, and he never recovered from 
it. He died within a short time, and his death 
was mourned by tens of thousands of French- 
men who had lost their money in his scheme. 
Whether he was aware of the frauds practised 
by the company is something that has never been 
definitely proved. There were not lacking plenty 

who believed him innocent. He died with the 
glory of building the Suez Canal as his chief 
recommendation for fame ; but his name will for- 
ever be intimately associated with the Panama 

The second chapter in the story of the Isthmus 
of Panama opens with the United States. Up 
to this time American engineers had favored the 
Nicaragua route ; but with the failure of the 
second French Panama Canal Company public 
attention in this country was directed to the 
isthmus. The United States government sent 
several commissioners to the isthmus to report 
on the feasibility of buying up the French rights 
and property. 

The first American commission reported that 
a canal could be completed at an expenditure of 
$67,000,000 by way of Nicaragua, but later this 
estimate was raised to $140,000,000. 

In 1889 President McKinley sent another com- 
mission south to study the problem of cutting 
the hemisphere in two. Negotiations were be- 
gun with the directors of the old French Panama 
Company, and after years of fruitless work it 
was decided to transfer the rights of France to 
America. According to this agreement, the 
United States government was to pay to the 
French Panama Canal Company $40,000,000 for 
all its rights and privileges. It was further 
estimated by the American Panama Canal Com- 
pany, which received the property and con- 
cessions, that $184,233,358 would be required to 
complete the forty-six miles of canal. 

After the ratification of this agreement by the 
two countries, events moved rapidly on the isth- 
mus, and every boy and girl must be familiar 
with the changes that created the new Republic 
of Panama. 

The third chapter of the story of the canal 
began with our treaty with Panama in 1904. 
That republic gave us control of a strip of land 
ten miles wide and extending from sea to sea 
— or about thirty miles. Through the middle 
of it lay the then partly dug canal. This piece 
of land is often spoken of as the "canal strip" or 
the "canal zone." Our government paid Panama 
$10,000,000 for the strip and the rights that go 
with it. It will in most respects be just the same 
as a part of the United States. Our soldiers 
will police the canal zone, and any special rules 
and regulations needed will come from Washing- 
ton. The cities of Colon and Panama did not 
come to us with the strip, although they lie within 
it. They remain a part of the Republic of 
Panama; but we shall have much to say about 
keeping those cities clean and healthful. 

In paying, as it did, to the French shareholders 



$40,000,000, the American company acquired the 
right to all the machinery and plant equipments 
on the isthmus; but the engineers in calculating 
the cost took no note of this neglected property. 
Of the $20,000,000 worth of machinery on the 
isthmus, including miles of steel rails, scores of 
steamers, dredges, scores of machine-shops, and 

In the spring of 1904 there were some 2500 
buildings on the isthmus belonging to the com- 
pany, and accommodations for nearly 20,000 
laborers. The hospitals were valued at $1,000,- 
000, and the machine-shops at half as much 
more. But everything was in a sad state of 
decay and neglect. On all sides stood monu- 




acres of dump-cars, only a small part has proved 
of actual value. So injurious to iron and steel 
is the effect of the tropical climate that much 
of the machinery had rusted beyond repair. 
Some of it, we are told, had become so rotten 
that one could push a hat-pin through it almost 
as easily as if it had been so much cheese. 

ments to the criminal folly and mismanagement 
of the early company. The canal route was then 
covered over with a luxuriant growth of plants, 
vines, and trees ; but scratch the surface any- 
where and there came to light the most unex- 
pected signs of French workmanship. Every 
sort of article, from kitchen utensils to locomo- 



tives and dump-carts, appeared half embedded 
in the soil. 

During the progress of the work all facilities 
have, of course, been greatly increased. En- 
gineering science and sanitary science have 
both advanced with wondrous strides since those 
early days of activity on the isthmus, and it may 
be that the difficulty of digging the canal has 
proved less formidable than many imagined 
it would be. For one thing, engineers know 
how to fight fevers and disease in the tropics as 
never before, and the workmen have been safe- 
guarded from the climate in every possible way. 
Numerous hospitals and sanitary camps were es- 
tablished among the first things, and those who 
came to dig the canal did not leave behind them 
all hope of surviving their work. 

christened it the South Sea as he waded into its 
thundering surf four centuries ago. 

The Panama Canal will fulfil the dream of 
Columbus, by opening a direct route from Eu- 
rope and Africa to the Orient. Since the day 
of the great explorer many new lands have been 
populated. Besides the great ports of China 
and the Indies, there are all those of western 
America, from Chile to Alaska ; and those of 
Australasia and the Pacific islands. Then, in 
addition to our own busy Atlantic seaboard and 
that of South America, there is the Mississippi 
Valley. Down through its center rolls the 
"Father of Waters" — a splendid river-course out 
of the greatest food country, the greatest iron 
country, the greatest cotton country, which the 
world has from which to draw its supplies. 


The government of the United States agreed 
to complete the canal and keep it open for the 
use and benefit of all countries forever. The 
canal is to be, in the truest sense of the word, 
a highway for all nations. 

One would naturally expect, in traversing the 
canal from the Atlantic (or Caribbean) side, to 
be journeying westward; but instead, he is trav- 
eling in a southeast direction, and when he 
arrives at Panama he is some miles cast of Colon, 
his starting-point. This is perplexing until we 
glance at the map. The trend of the isthmus 
itself is not north and south, as many imagine, 
but east and west. And the northernmost part 
of the isthmus is not at the end but at the middle. 
To its people the great Pacific is a southern, 
not a western, ocean. And this is why Balboa 

And one thing more : we are the busiest manu- 
facturing country in the world. East and west, 
north and south, the nations of the earth are 
buying, not alone our grain, our cotton, and our 
beef, but also the things we make — the tools and 
machinery, the clothing, and the thousand and 
one articles to be found in every house. And 
by cutting the isthmus we make a gateway 
through which to carry this enormous mass of 
trade products to the peoples of the Pacific. 

The canal will probably carry the lion's share 
of the traffic of all these vast populations. The 
Panama and the Suez canals will be rivals for 
the world's ocean commerce ; the Strait of 
Magellan and Cape Horn will know the cur- 
rents of trade no more. They may be forgotten, 
and the white sails of ships and the black smoke 
of steamers may almost disappear from those 



stormy latitudes. The expression "rounding the 
Horn" may become a saying of other days. The 
wild Fuegians may scan their blank horizon 
and tell their children of the great fire-ships 
that used to pass, and wonder why they come 
no more. 

The Panama passage will shorten the sea 
journey from New York to San Francisco by 
over eight thousand miles. A freight steamer 
on this route will save $3000 in coal each trip; 
and she will be able to make five trips a year 
instead of two. Peru will be 4000 miles from 
New York instead of 10,000, and 6000 miles 
instead of 12,000 from Europe. 

No story can better illustrate the great need 
of the Panama Canal than that of the splendid 
race against time made by our huge battleship 

the "Oregon," during the Spanish-American 
War. She lay in far-away Puget Sound, and 
was wanted at once in Cuban waters. In the 
great need of the moment, how tantalizing be- 
came that narrow neck of land, the Isthmus of 
Panama ! Only thirty miles across, yet that 
thirty miles compelled Captain Clark to take his 
battleship clear around the South American con- 
tinent 14,000 miles instead of 4000! Fifty-nine 
days of furious steaming under forced draft in- 
stead of less than twenty-one days ! That was a 
wonderful race, "around the Horn," and it was 
equally wonderful that the big fighting ship 
sighted the blue mountains of Cuba just in the 
nick of time to do her full share in the great 

CoPi/Ti[)hl by Underwood & Underwood. New York. 





The history of a country, of a city, or of a 
man means only the story of that country, city, 
or man. Like any other story, it begins with 
the very earliest things we know, and goes on, 
day by day, or year by year, until there is noth- 
ing more to tell. Some histories, like some other 
stories, are very long, because they begin very 
far back, or because a great many things hap- 
pened that must be told about. 

Some histories begin many, many years ago, 
because we have known about the countries they 
tell about ever since people have known anything. 
Thus, when we tell the history of Greece or of 
Rome we have to begin at a time about 2500 years 
ago. The history of Egypt begins over twice as 
far back, or 7000 years ago; and the history 
of the Jews is nearly as long. 

But the history of the United States, where 
we are living now, covers only a little more than 
400 years, for until a little more than 400 years 
ago no one who knew how to tell histories had 
ever heard of America. 

The history of our country begins with the 
year 1492, when America was discovered by a 
man named Christopher Columbus. Up to the 
time when he was born nearly every one thought 
that the world was flat, that it was somewhat 
like a tea-tray filled with water and with a saucer 
in the middle. The land, they thought, was like 
the saucer, and the ocean like the water all 
around it; so that, if any one should sail far 
enough on the ocean, he would come, sooner or 
later, to the end of the world, which would be 
like the sides of the tea-tray. Then, unless he 
took care, he would be likely to fall off and never 
stop falling. 

But Columbus had known some men who were 
wiser than most people in their time, and these 
men had told him that the world could not be 
flat, but must be round, like a ball or an orange, 
with all the lands and oceans on its outer surface. 
Columbus felt so sure that they were right that 
he made up his mind that he would try to sail 

round the world, and to find out what kind of 
people lived on lands in the ocean beyond Europe 
and Africa. 

After he had asked many persons to buy a 
ship for him to make this voyage in, all of whom 
had laughed at him, Columbus went to see the 
King and Queen of Spain, whose names were 
Ferdinand and Isabella, and when they heard 
what he had to say they gave him money enough 
to buy three ships. These ships were nothing 
like the ships we have to-day. They were very 
short and very high out of the water. People 
would think them unsafe now for a long ocean 
voyage ; but they were the best to be had in 
those days, and Columbus was glad enough to 
get them. When everything was ready he sailed 
away from Palos, which is a city in Spain, on 
the third day of August in the year 1492. Two 
months and nine days later, on the twelfth of 
October he landed at a little island, which he 
called San Salvador, a name meaning Holy Sav- 
iour in the Spanish language. Wc are not sure 
on exactly which of the many small islands in 
the West Indies Columbus landed, hut most peo- 
ple agree that it must have been either the one 
now known as Cat Island or else that called 
Watling Island, both in the Bahama group, just 
north of Cuba. 

Columbus and the 120 men who sailed with 
him in his three ships were not the first people 
in America. The Indians had been here for 
thousands of years before his time, and there 
were other great nations, who built wonderful 
cities in Mexico and in Central and South Amer- 
ica. About five hundred years before Columbus, 
a man from Norway, named Leif Ericson. 
reached America, as some people think, and 
landed somewhere between Newfoundland and 
the coast of Rhode Island. Some of the people 
with him are said to have reached places far 
inland, and to have left buildings and carved 
rocks, which have been found in recent years. 
But none of these people or their descendants 
were here when Columbus came, so we know 
nothing for certain about them. This is the rea- 




son that history begins for the New World in 

When Columbus returned to Spain with the 
story of his voyage, taking with him some of 
the Indians of America to prove the truth of 
what he said, every one was much surprised, 
and people agreed that the discovery of America 
was the greatest event in all the world's history. 
Many other men, most of them Spanish or Ital- 
ian, came to America in the next few years, each 
one discovering some new part of the New 
World, and making way for colonists from Eu- 
rope who wished to come here to live. 

About forty years after Columbus the first 
French explorers came to Canada, and within 
about fifty years more the first Englishmen ar- 
rived. The Spaniards settled mostly in South 
and Central America and in the West Indian 
islands, the French in Canada and in parts of 
North America along the Gulf of Mexico, and 
the English in the eastern part of what is now 
known as the United States. 

Our early history is largely an account of the 
doings of the English explorers and settlers, 
and much of our later history has to do in great 
part with their descendants. But in some re- 
spects those things in our earlier and later his- 
tory that deal with other settlers and their de- 
scendants are equally interesting and important. 

When we learn history it is best to remember 
the years in which things happened. Thus, we 
will arrange the history of America here so that 
any one can see right away in which years all 
of the great events belong. 

1492 — Christopher Columbus, an Italian born 
in Genoa, sails from the city of Palos in Spain, 
August 3. On October 12 he lands on the Island 
of San Salvador in the Bahamas, thus discover- 
ing the first land in the western hemisphere 
known to people in Europe. Later he discovers 
other of the Bahama islands ; reaches Cuba on 
October 27, and Haiti on December 4. 

1493 — Columbus arrives again in Palos on 
March 15. His discoveries create great interest 
in all Europe. — On May 4 Pope Alexander VI. 
issues a bull (a law or decree made by the Pope) 
giving all lands in the New World to Spain. — On 
September 25 Columbus sails from Cadiz on his 
second voyage with a fleet of 17 ships. 

1494 — Columbus revisits Cuba in April, and 
later discovers Jamaica, which he calls Santiago 
(Spanish for St. James). He also explores 
other islands. — Spain and Portugal make a treaty 
at Tordesillas to divide the lands in the New 
World between themselves. 

1497 — John Cabot, who is thought to have 
been a native of Venice, Italy, sails from Bristol, 

England, in April. On June 24 he discovers 
Labrador to the north of Newfoundland, which 
is the first time, so far as known, that men from 
Europe toucned the mainland of America. — 
Americus Vespucius, another Italian, sails from 
Cadiz on his first voyage, May io, and during 
the next year explores the coast of Central and 
South America. He made maps of this voyage 
and set his name, Americus (or Amerigo), on 
them; from this the name America came to be 
given to the New World. 

1498 — Columbus sails on his third voyage. 
May 30. He is deprived of command at Santo 
Domingo (Haiti) by Francisco Bobadilla, who 
sends him back to Spain a prisoner in chains. 
— Sebastian Cabot, son of John Cabot, sails from 
Bristol early in May. He skirts the coast of 
Newfoundland and New England, sailing as far 
south as Cape Hatteras. He was in search of 
the " Northwest Passage," which people thought 
was a short cut to India and Eastern Asia. We 
know now that no such passage existed, and that 
a short cut to the Far East is made possible only 
by the great Panama Canal. 

1499 — Americus Vespucius sails on his second 
voyage, May 20, with Alonso de Ojeda. They 
discover the coast of Venezuela and northern 
South America. — Thereafter, for at least twelve 
years, Spanish navigators, without touching at 
any point in the present United States, contented 
themselves with going to South America, where 
they conquered the Indians and settled in the 
country. It was over twenty years before the 
French and English did much in North Amer- 

1502 — Columbus, now free, sails on his fourth 
and last voyage from Cadiz, May 9, with a fleet 
of four vessels. Lands on the coast of Honduras 
August 14, his first arrival on the mainland of 

1506 — Columbus dies at Valladolid, Spain, May 

1512 — Juan Ponce de Leon, who had been 
Spanish governor of Porto Rico, hears of a won- 
derful fountain in some land to the northward, 
whose waters can restore youth to old men. 
Hoping to find this fountain, he sails from Porto 
Rico on March 3, and on April 2 lands on the 
coast of Florida. He gave it this name, as is 
thought, because of its discovery on Easter day, 
which in Spanish is called Pasqiia florida 
("flowery Easter"). 

1513 — On September 25 Vasco Nunez de Bal- 
boa discovers the Pacific Ocean from the sum- 
mit of a mountain near Panama. He was the 
first modern European to view this great ex- 
panse of water, and he promptly proclaimed that 




mt^y\ '^'^ 








it1 wk 







/ / 







the King of Castile was lord of every land or 
island touched by its waters. 

1519 — Francisco de Garay, governor of Ja- 
maica, discovers the mouth of the Mississippi 

1520 — Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon explores the 
coast of South Carolina. 

1624 — Giovanni Verrazano, an Italian sea-cap- 
tain, sent out by Francis I., King of France, 
sails along the coast of the United States, 
and anchors in what is now the harbor 
of New York city. Before returning to France, 
he sails a^ far north as Nova Scotia. 

1525 — Stefano Gomez, a Spaniard, explores 
the coast of North America as far as the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence. Not finding the gold for which 
he was searching, he turns back. According to 
the story told of him, he left with the exclama- 
tion, "Aca nada," meaning in Spanish, "Here is 
nothing," from which, it is said, comes the name 
Canada. It is more likely that the name came 
from a word in the language of the Iroquois 

1535 — Jacques Cartier, a French captain, ex- 
plores the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and ascends the 
river as far as the site of the present city of 
Montreal. He also was in search of the fabled 
Northwest Passage. 

1541 — Hernando de Soto discovers the Missis- 
sippi River while making a journey through 
country now lying within some of the Southern 
States. He died a year later, and was buried in 
the river. 

1565 — St. Augustine, Florida, is founded by 
Spanards led by Menendez de Aviles. It is the 
oldest city in the United States. 

1579 — Sir Francis Drake, the English naval 
hero,* sails around Cape Horni South America, 
and explores the entire Pacific coast as far north 
as Cape Blanco, Oregon. He calls the country 
here New Albion, meaning New England. He 
was the first European to enter the harbor of 
San Francisco. 

1582 — The city of Santa Fe, New Mexico, is 
founded by Spaniards, and is thus the second 
oldest city in the United States. 

1584 — Sir Walter Raleigh, a friend of Queen 
Elizabeth of England, sends Captain Arthur Bar- 
low and Philip Amidas to America. They land 
at Wocoken Island, North Carolina, and 
name the country Virginia, in honor of the 

1585 — An English colony is founded at Roan- 
oke Island, North Carolina, by Sir Richard Gren- 
ville, an agent of Raleigh. The colonists have 
troubles with the Indians and nearly starve. 
They are rescued by Sir Francis Drake in 1586, 

and return to England, taking with them the 
first samples of tobacco ever known there. 

1586 — Grenville brings other colonists to Roan- 
oke, but all of them are killed by the Indians 
within a year. 

1587 — Still -other colonists come to Roanoke 
with John White, an agent of Raleigh. They 
found the city of Raleigh and here Virginia 
Dare, the first white native of the United States, 
is born soon after the landing. Two years later 
White returns to find his colonists gone. No 
one knows what ever became of them, and they 
figure in many stories as the "lost colony." 

1602 — The first English colony in New Eng- 
land is founded by Bartholomew Gosnold on the 
island of Cuttyhunk in Buzzards Bay, Massachu- 
setts. The colonists are not satisfied and all re- 
turn to England in the same year. 

1605 — Samuel de Champlain founds the first 
French colony at Port Royal, Nova Scotia, but 
it is quickly deserted. 

1607 — An English colony is planted by Raleigh, 
Gilbert, and Popham near the mouth of the 
Kennebec River, Maine, but a'l the colonists re- 
turn to England in 1608. — On May 13 the colony 
at Jamestown, Virginia, is founded by people 
brought in three ships commanded by Christo- 
pher Newport, Bartholomew Gosnold, and the 
famous Captain John Smith. Jamestown is 
noted as the place where the "first representative 
council in America" met. It was known as the 
"House of Burgesses." The town was later de- 
serted, and the only remains at present are the 
tower of the church built by the colonists, and a 
few tombs. 

1608 — The city of Quebec in Canada is 
founded by Champlain, who in the next year dis- 
covers the lake now known by his name. 

1609 — Henry Hudson, an Englishman sent out 
by a Dutch company, sails up the Hudson River, 
hoping to find it the long-sought Northwest Pas- 
sage. He is usually thought to have been the 
first European to see this river. 

1610 — A rude establishment is made by the 
Dutch on Manhattan Island, mainly as shelter 
for sailors. This is the beginning of the city 
of New York, now the second largest city in the 

1611 — Sir Thomas Dale becomes governor of 
Virginia. He founds the city of Henrico, now 
known as Richmond. In this year the growing 
of tobacco is begun by the colonists. 

1614 — The first real settlement, a permanent 
trading-post, is made on Manhattan Island by 
the Dutch, who also take possession of all the 
part of New York called by them New Nether- 
land. — Captain John Smith explores the coast 













X VIII— 3 




from Maine to Cape Cod and first calls the 
country New England. 

1615 — Albany, New York, is founded by the 
Dutch, and called Aurania (Fort Orange). — 
Champlain discovers Lake Huron. 

1616 — Pocahontas, the Indian princess, who as 
the story is, once saved the life of Captain John 
Snrith, goes to England with her husband, John 
Rolfe. She dies there the next year, leaving a 
little son. She was only 22 years old when she 

1617 — First Dutch settlement in New Jersey 
made at Bergen opposite Manhattan Island. 

1619 — The first negro slaves are brought to 
Virginia by a Dutch trading vessel. Before this 
time white servants were purchased in England 
and sold, or bound out, in Virginia. Negro 
slaves had been imported to the Spanish colonies 
in South America and the West Indies for many 
years before this. 

1620 — The first English settlement in New 
England is made at Plymouth, Massachusetts, by 
the Pilgrim Fathers, who in i6o8 had left Eng- 
land and gone to Leyden, Holland. They em- 
bark at Southampton, England, whither they 
had come from Leyden, in the famous " May- 
flower " on July 22, and land at Plymouth De- 
cember 21. Over half of the loo souls die in the 
first hard winter, including their governor, John 
Carver. During the next ten years their num- 
bers grew, until in 1631 there were over 2000 
people in Plymouth. 

1621 — The first cotton is planted in Virginia, 
and silkworm culture is attempted. 

1622 — The Indians make war on the whites in 
Virginia, killing over 300 of them in the great 
"Virginia massacre" of March -22. This begins 
an Indian war which lasts until 1646. 

1623 — The Dutch colony on Manhattan Island 
is founded under the name New Amsterdam. 

1624 — Virginia is made a royal province by 
James I. of England. — Peter Minuit is made 
governor of the Dutch province of New Nether- 
land, with the title of director-general. — Colony 
founded at Cape Ann, Massachusetts, by Roger 

1626 — Salem, Massachusetts (the Indian 
Naumkeag) is settled by Roger Conant and 
others. — Peter Minuit, director-general, ar- 
rives in New Netherland. He purchases Man- 
hattan Island from the Indians for $24, and 
builds Fort Amsterdam. 

1628 — John Endicott settles at Salem, Massa- 
chusetts, with a company of colonists. His 
grant for his colony, that of Massachusetts 
Bay, included all land between the Merrimac 
River and a point three miles south of the bay, 

"from the Atlantic to the Pacific" — more land 
than he could ever have colonized. 

1629 — Rev. Francis Higginson and 200 colon- 
ists from England found Charlestown, now a 
part of Boston, Massachusetts. These people 
were Puritans who had separated from the 
Church of England. 

1630 — Boston, Massachusetts, is founded by 
John Winthrop and 800 Puritan colonists, and 
here on October 19 the first "General Court" of 
the colony convenes. 

1632 — Charles I. of England grants to Sir 
George Calvert, later made Lord Baltimore, all 
the country now known as Maryland, as a refuge 
for English Catholics, who were then persecuted 
in England. When, soon after, he died, the 
patent was issued to his son, Cecil Calvert, who 
prepared to send out colonists in the next year. 

1633 — Pilgrim traders from Plymouth found a 
colony at Windsor, Connecticut, then known as 
Dorchester They were followed by other Eng- 
lish from Massachusetts Bay Colony. — Leonard 
Calvert, brother of Cecil, sails from England on 
November 22 with 200 colonists bound for Mary- 

1634 — The Catholic colonists under Leonard 
Calvert arrive in Maryland on March 22 and 
found the town of St. Mary's near the mouth 
of the Potomac River. — The General Court of 
Massachusetts passes a law forbidding the wear- 
ing of short sleeves, large wigs, and other fash- 
ionable styles of dress. — The Massachusetts Bay 
Colony resists the royal decree to compel con- 
formity to the Church of England. 

1635 — Massachusetts Bay adopts a code of 
laws founded on the law of Moses, as under- 
stood by the Puritan ministers, who were the 
real rulers of the colony. — Roger Williams, one 
of the ministers, is expelled from Massachusetts 
because of his belief that the church should not 
govern in the colony. He thought that the 
vote of the people should make laws, as we be- 
lieve to-day. He finds temporary refuge in 
Salem. — John Winthrop, Jr., son of the gover- 
nor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, leaves Boston 
with many other colonists who do not believe 
in the kind of government they have there. He 
goes to Connecticut, where he founds the village 
of Saybrook, named after two English lords. 
Lord Say and Sele and Lord Brooke. This later 
became a famous place. — Rev. Thomas Hooker 
and sixty colonists from Boston found Hartford, 
Connecticut, then called Newtown. 

1636 — Roger Williams is forced to leave Salem 
in the midst of winter, but finds refuge with the 
Indian chiefs Massasoit and Canonicus. In June 
he settles on Narragansett Bay, where the city of 





Providence now stands. Many people driven 
out of Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies 
join him there, and found a new colony in which 
religious toleration is enjoyed. — The first col- 
lege in America is founded at Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts. It is called Harvard College from Rev. 
John Harvard, who left money and books to 
help endow it. — The Pequots, a large tribe of 
Indians living mostly in Connecticut, begin a 
war on the colonists by murdering several white 
persons. Roger Williams persuades the other 
Indian tribes not to join them. 

1637 — The Pequot Indians are destroyed in 
war with the colonists, helped by the Mohegan 
and Narragansett Indian tribes. — A council of 
colonists from Connecticut and Massachusetts 
meet at Boston to form a union of all the New 
England colonies. They do not succeed. — Negro 
slaves are first imported into the New England 
colonies. Slavery was discontinued in New Eng- 
land largely because it " did not pay." Negroes 
recently from, Africa died in the cold climate. — 
In Boston people known as "Antinomians," led 
by Mrs. Anne Hutchinson and Rev. John Wheel- 
wright, object to the government of the colony. 
They are tried and driven from the colony. 
Many of them settle in Providence with Roger 

1638 — New Haven, Connecticut, is founded by 
Puritan colonists from London led by Rev. John 
Davenport and Theophilus Eaton. New Haven 
was long a colony separate from the rest of 
Connecticut. — Roger Williams grants to Anne 
Hutchinson and her friends the land on which 
the city of Newport, Rhode Island, now stands. 
— Swedes settle near Wilmington, Delaware, and 
call the place Fort Christiana, and the colony 
New Sweden. This was the first settlement in 

1639 — The Connecticut colony (then separate 
from New Haven) adopts a code of laws, called 
" Fundamental Orders," which was the first writ- 
ten constitution in the world. — The first printing- 
press in America is used at Harvard College; 
the first book printed is the "Bay Psalm Book." 
Before this all books written in America were 
printed in England. — Sir Ferdinando Gorges is 
made lord proprietor of Maine. 

1641 — The Dutch in New Netherland begin a 
four-years war with the Algonquin Indians. — 
New Hampshire is annexed to Massachusetts 
Bay Colony. 

1642 — Algonquin Indians from Connecticut 
raid Dutch settlements in revenge for the unjust 
acts of Governor Kieft of New Netherland. 
Several villages are destroyed. — Indians attack 
English colonies in Maryland and Virginia. — Sir 

William Berkeley becomes governor of Virginia. 
The English Church is established there, and 
Puritans are driven out. 

1643 — A confederation called "The United 
Colonies of New England," comprising Ply- 
mouth, Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut and New 
Haven colonies, is formed. This union lasted 
for 41 years, and was effective against Indian 
attacks. — The first settlement in Pennsylvania 
is made at Tinicum Island on the Delaware River 
by John Printz, governor of New Sweden in 
Delaware. — Roger Williams goes to England to 
obtain a charter for his colony in Rhode Island. 

1644 — In March Roger Williams receives a 
charter giving the people of Rhode Island full 
power to rule themselves. The laws made by 
the colonists give liberty of conscience. — In- 
dians in Virginia massacre 300 colonists. 

1645 — A rebellion of Catholics and Puritans in 
Maryland drives Leonard Calvert, the governor, 
into Virginia. Order was restored next year, 
and the governor returned. 

1646 — The General Court of Massachusetts 
declares itself able to govern the colony without 
interference from the English Parliament. — 
Rev. John Eliot first preaches Christianity to 
the Indians at Nonantum, near Boston, Massa- 
chusetts. He is called the "Apostle to the In- 
dians," and translated the Bible into their 
language. — Peter Stuyvesant appointed director- 
general of New Netherland. He arrived in New 
Amsterdam next year, and governed till 1664, 
when the English conquered the Dutch. 

1649 — The Maryland Assembly makes a law 
tolerating all forms of Christian belief. — In 
Massachusetts many people who do not accept the 
Puritan rule are severely punished. — All Puri- 
tans are banished from Virginia. — After Charles 
I., King of England, is beheaded, January 30, 
many of his soldiers, known as Cavaliers, take 
refuge in Virginia. Puritans from Virginia 
found what is now the city of Annapolis, Mary- 
land, naming it Providence. 

1652 — Massachusetts Bay Colony annexes the 
Province of Maine as far as Casco Bay. — The 
Puritans gain control of Virginia by force. 

1653 — Colonists from Virginia settle at Albe- 
marle, North Carolina. 

1655 — A Dutch force from New Amsterdam 
conquers the Swedish colony in Delaware. The 
Puritans gain control of Maryland. For several 
years there is disorder in the colony, and strong 
feeling between rival parties. 

1658 — Order is restored in Maryland, and Fen- 
dall, agent of Lord Baltimore, gains control of 
the government. — The General Court of Massa- 
chusetts makes a law fining any one 10 shillings 







for attending a Quaker meeting. All Quakers 
are banished from the colony, and it is made a 
capital offense for a Quaker to return. 

1659 — Two Quakers are hanged in jMassa- 
chusetts for returning after being banished. 

1660 — Mary Dyer, a Quaker preacher, is 
hanged at Boston, June i, for "sedition" and for 
returning after banishment. — The English Par- 
liament passes the famous Navigation Act, which 
forbade any one but a British subject to trade 
with the American colonies, and allowing none 
but British ships to carry merchandise to or 
from their ports. This was one of the first of 
the acts that finally led to the American Revo- 
lution and the independence of the colonies as 
the United States of America. 

1661 — Massasoit, a chief of the Wampanoag 
or Pokanoket Indians, and a friend of the colon- 
ists, dies. (He is succeeded — 1662 — by his son 
Metacomet, known as King Philip, a foe of all 
whites.) Massachusetts issues a Declaration of 
Rights, claiming the power to govern itself and 
resisting the Navigation Act. — King Charles II. 
of England forbids persecution of Quakers and 
other religious sects in the colonies, saying that 
all persons have a right to "worship God as they 
think best." — John Eliot, "Apostle to the In- 
dians," publishes his translation of the New 
Testament in the Indian language. No one can 
now read this book, all the Massachusetts Indians 
having died. 

1662 — Charles II. grants a charter to the Con- 
necticut colony, and joins the colony of New 
Haven to it. — The first victims of the witchcraft 
craze are put to death in Hartford. The sense- 
less killing of many aged and unfortunate people 
in the New England colonies, because they were 
thought to be witches, is a sad chapter in Amer- 
ican history. 

1663 — The colonies of Rhode Island and Provi- 
dence are united by a new charter granted by 
Charles II. — In March the King grants to eight 
lords-proprietary the whole territory of Caro- 
lina. — A rebellion of white bond-servants breaks 
out in \'irginia. It is soon put down. These 
people were really slaves, being prisoners of war 
and other unfortunates. 

1664 — An English force under Sir Richard 
Nicolls take possession of the Dutch province 
of New Netherland, and rename it New York. 
— The Duke of York, brother of King Charles 
II., grants New Jersey to Lord Berkeley and Sir 
George Carteret.- — Puritans from Long Island 
obtain a grant of land on Newark Bay, and found 
Elizabethtown, now the city of Elizabeth, New 
Jersey. — The boundaries of the colonies of 
Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island 

are fixed by a royal commission, but the Massa- 
chusetts colonists resist its decisions. 

1666 — In the war between France and England, 
the New England colonists attempt to raise an 
army to conquer Canada, a French province. A 
few privateers, or armed ships, are sent from 
Boston, but they do little fighting. — Virginia 
passes a law to allow the baptism of slaves. 

1668 — A French Jesuit mission is established 
at Sault Sainte Marie, Michigan, by Jacques 
Marquette (Pere Marquette). This is the earli- 
est settlement in Michigan. 

1669 — John Locke draws up a constitution for 
Carolina, known as the "Grand Model." It is 
rejected by the colonists and never goes into 

1670 — Colonists are sent to South Carolina in 
three ships and settle on the Ashley River, above 
the present site of Charleston. This was the 
most southerly of the English colonies. 

1671 — Dutch emigrants from New York join 
the new settlement in South Carolina. — George 
Fox, founder of the Society of Friends, or 
Quakers, visits America, preaching on Long 
Island, in North Carolina, and elsewhere. — 
Massachusetts Colony still resists the laws of 
England on trade and commerce. 

1672 — Wisconsin and Illinois are first explored 
by the French Jesuit missionaries Allouez and 
Dablon. — James Carteret is chosen governor by 
the people of New Jersey, in place of the royal 
governor, Philip Carteret. 

1673 — Marquette, Joliet, and others explore the 
northern waters of the IMississippi River, sail- 
ing down nearly 1000 miles. They also explore 
the Des Moines River, and are the first white 
men to set foot in Iowa. — A Dutch fleet recap- 
tures New York, during the two years' war 
between England and Holland (1672-74). The 
Dutch hold it for over a year, when it is again 
restored to the English. 

1674 — Sir Edmund Andros becomes governor 
of New York. — King Philip is accused of urging 
the Indians in New England to attack the colon- 
ists. A converted or "praying" Indian named 
Sausamon is murdered for informing the colon- 
ists of his plans. 

1675 — The New England colonists hang the 
murderers of Sausamon, the Indian informer, 
and this leads to the killing of colonists at Swan- 
sea, Massachusetts, by other Indians. This is 
the beginning of King Philip's War, in which In- 
dians from Maine to Rhode Island fight against 
the colonists. It lasted for nearly two years. 
Several villages, such as Springfield, Deerfield, 
Hadley, and Brookfield, in Massachusetts, are 
burned by the Indians. The tribe of the Narra- 



H.T.&GD. II. 16. 




gansetts is nearly destroyed in a battle at South 
Kingston, Rhode Island, on December 19, by an 
army of colonists under Josiah Winslow, gover- 
nor of Plymouth. 

1676 — King Philip's War is continued. Other 
towns are burned and many Indians are killed. 
In August King Philip himself is shot by another 
Indian, while trying to escape. Philip's death 
ends the war. — In Virginia the colonists led by 
Nathaniel Bacon resist Berkeley, the royal gov- 
ernor, who would not protect them from the 
Indians, and elect Sir Henry Chicheley in his 
place. Bacon burns the old city of Jamestown, 
but dies soon after — in October. His death ends 
Bacon's Rebellion, as it was called, and Governor 
Berkeley returns to his office. — Colonists in New 
York resist Governor Edmund Andros, and de- 
mand liberties, which the Duke of York, pro- 
prietor of New York, will not grant. 

1677 — Berkeley, governor of Virginia, returns 
to England in disgrace. — The right of self-gov- 
ernment is granted to the New Jersey colonists. 
— Massachusetts purchases Maine from Gorges 
for £1250, when the King decides that its claim 
to the territory is invalid. 

1678 — The people of North Carolina imprison 
Miller, the royal governor, and make laws for 

1679 — A foreign Protestant colony is settled 
in South Carolina by Charles II., also an Irish 
colony. — New Hampshire becomes a royal 
province in July.— Massachusetts colonists again 
resist the Navigation Act. 

1680 — La Salle builds Fort Crevecoeur on the 
Illinois River below the site of Peoria. — New 
Hampshire colonists claim the right of self-gov- 
ernment, and resist the royal governor. — William 
Penn asks for a charter for Pennsylvania, as a 
refuge for Quakers. — Charleston, South Caro- 
lina, is founded by an English colony, being laid 
out by John Culpeper. 

1681 — Charles II. grants a charter to William 
Penn to found a colony in Pennsylvania. — Lord 
Baltimore interferes with the colonists' govern- 
ment formed while he was absent in Europe — 
The English government orders him to place 
only Protestants in public offices. 

1682 — La Salle sails down the Mississippi 
River to the Gulf of Mexico. He claims all the 
country drained by the river for the King of 
France, and calls it Louisiana. This includes the 
vast territory which the United States bought 
from France in 1803, known as the Louisiana 
Purchase. — William Penn comes to Pennsylvania, 
and founds the city of Philadelphia. He makes 
wise laws for the colony, and a treaty of peace 
with the Indians. — Massachusetts Colony sends 

agents to England. — New Hampshire resists the 
demands of Cranfield, the proprietary governor, 
and keeps its popular liberties. 

1683 — Thomas Dongan becomes governor of 
New York. The "Charter of Liberties" is 
passed, allowing all sects of Christians full 
liberty. — The charter of Massachusetts is de- 
manded by royal writ, on account of the people's 
constant resistance of law. 

1684 — Penn and Lord Baltimore both claim 
Delaware. Penn goes to England to present his 
case to the King. — In New Hampshire the con- 
test with the governor causes rioting. — The 
Massachusetts charter is declared forfeited. — 
Virginia again becomes a royal province, after 
having been governed by lords proprietors since 
1675. — "'^ colony of Scotchmen settle Beaufort, 
now Port Royal, South Carolina. — The English 
colonies make peace with the Indians, who are 
at war with the French in Canada. — The last 
council of the United Colonies of New England, 
formed in 1643, is held at Hartford, Connecticut, 
September 5. 

1685 — James II. becomes King of England and 
makes all the colonies dependent on the crown, 
taking away the rights of all proprietors. — The 
Navigation Acts are resisted in South Carolina. 

1686 — Joseph Dudley is made president of the 
English colonies from Nova Scotia to Rhode 
Island, and makes many oppressive laws. Sir 
Edmund Andros, as governor of New England, 
demands the charters of Massachusetts, Con- 
necticut, and Rhode Island. The charter of Con- 
necticut (according to tradition) is preserved by 
being hidden by Captain Wadsworth in a hollow 
oak-tree, famous as the "Charter Oak." Rev. 
Increase Mather goes to England to complain of 
Andros's cruelty. — Spaniards destroy the Scotch 
colony of Beaufort, South Carolina. 

1688 — New York and New Jersey are made 
crown colonies with Andros as governor. He 
continues his unjust acts. — An old woman in 
Boston is hanged as a witch on the complaint 
of a girl of 13 years. This starts persecution 
for witchcraft, which is encouraged by the 
preaching of Rev. Cotton ]\Iather. 

1689 — The people of South Carolina rebel 
against their governor, James Colleton, who, 
being without soldiers, is obliged to submit. — 
The colonies of New England and New York 
rebel against Governor Andros, who is first im- 
prisoned, then driven away. Jacob Leisler, a 
German, makes himself lieutenant-governor in 
New York, having led a rebellion against the 
acting lieutenant-governor, Francis Nicholson. — 
In Maryland the Catholics and Protestants con- 
tend for the government, the Protestants being 





finally successful. — Cotton Mather publishes a 
book on witchcraft, which does great harm and 
leads to the death of many innocent persons. — 
The war between France and England, known as 
King William's War (from William III., King 
of England), leads to trouble between the Amer- 
ican colonies and the French in Canada. The 
French stir up the Indians against the colonists 
in Maine and New Hampshire. 

1690 — French and Indians under Frontenac 
invade New York and massacre the people of 
Schenectady. — The New England colonies at- 
tempt an invasion of the French provinces, but 
do not succeed. 

1691 — Henry Sloughter becomes governor of 
New York, and hangs Governor Leisler. Slough- 
ter dies soon after. — King William HI. ofifers a 
new charter to Massachusetts, which is refused. 

1692 — The French and Indians massacre the 
people of York, Maine. — Sir Edmund Andros is 
made governor of Virginia, an office which he 
holds for six years. 

1693 — The people of Salem, Massachusetts, 
tire of the persecution of witches, and secure 
the release of all accused persons. Rev. Samuel 
Parris, a leader against witches, is expelled from 
the city. — The French and Indians kill many 
people in New Hampshire, but are beaten by 
an army from New York. 

1695 — The French make a settlement at Kas- 
kaskia, the first in Illinois. — All the English 
colonies send troops to protect New York against 
the French invaders. 

1697 — Hannah Duston, of Haverhill, Massa- 
chusetts, with her infant son, is captured by In- 
dians. She kills eight of them at night and es- 

1698 — The French, under Iberville, form a 
colony in the Louisiana territory, at the mouth 
of the Mississippi. 

1699 — French colonists found Biloxi, Missis- 
sippi. — Lord Bellamont, governor of New York, 
Massachusetts, and New Hampshire, arrests 
Captain William Kidd, the pirate, and sends him 
to England, where he is afterward hanged. 

1700 — Pennsylvania makes a new constitution 
for itself. William Penn receives Indians as 
citizens of the colony. 

1701 — Yale College is founded at Saybrook, 
Connecticut, by the gift of Elihu Yale. — A bill 
is introduced in the English Parliament to for- 
feit all colonial charters, because "the independ- 
ency the colonies thirst after is now notori- 
ous." — French colonists under Cadillac found 
Detroit, Michigan, the "City of the Strait." — 
Negro slavery is made unlawful in Massachu- 

1702 — Iberville founds Mobile, the first settle- 
ment in Alabama. — Joseph Dudley becomes gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts. — Lord Cornbury be- 
comes governor of New York and New Jersey. 
— French colonists from Canada found Vin- 
cennes, Iowa. — Queen Anne's War between 
France and England causes the colonies in Amer- 
ica to fight again. — South Carolina troops at- 
tack St. Augustine, Florida. 

1703. — Lord Cornbury steals money raised to 
fortify New York harbor. — The first permanent 
clergyman is appointed in North Carolina. 

1704 — The first authorized newspaper in Amer- 
ica, the "Boston News-Letter," begins its issue 
April 24. 

1705 — Governor Moore of South Carolina at- 
tacks the Spaniards in Florida, and claims 
Georgia for England. 

1706 — French and Spaniards attack Charleston, 
but are driven away. 

1707 — Ships from Boston try to capture the 
French city of Port Royal, Nova Scotia, but are 
driven off. — Lord Cornbury is accused of ac- 
cepting bribes. 

1708 — Lord Cornbury is removed from the 
office of governor, and Lord Lovelace succeeds 
him. — The English Parliament declares that the 
"slave-trade is important and ought to be free." — 
Haverhill, Massachusetts, is attacked by French 
and Indians, buildings burned, 16 persons killed, 
and 20 or more captured. 

1710 — A fleet from Boston captures Port 
Royal, Nova Scotia, and names it Annapolis 
after Queen Anne of England. 

1711 — A fleet from New England sails to con- 
quer Canada, but most of the ships are wrecked 
in the St. Lawrence River. — Indians in North 
Carolina kill many people who attempt to settle 
on their lands. — The English Parliament says 
that the slave-trade ought to be extended. 

1712 — The Quaker government of Pennsyl- 
vania states that it is not just to free the slaves. 
— Nineteen negroes are hanged in New York for 
supposed attempt to burn the city. 

1715 — Indians and Spaniards attack the South 
Carolina colonists, but are defeated by a force 
under Governor Charles Craven. — The Marquis 
de Aguayo is made governor of the Spanish 
colonies in Texas. 

1716 — The first bank is opened in Massachu- 

1718 — Bienville, governor of Louisiana, founds 
New Orleans. 

1719 — In the war between France and Spain 
(1718-21) the French capture Pensacola, Flor- 
ida, and the Spaniards attack Mobile, Alabama. 

1721 — Virginia imposes a tax on the import 












of negro slaves, fearing that they would increase 
too rapidly. 

1723 — Benjamin Franklin leaves Boston and 
goes to Philadelphia. 

1725 — The first newspaper in New York is 
issued; it is called the "Gazette." 

1728 — Sir William Keith, governor of Pennsyl- 
vania, suggests a stamp act on trade in the col- 
onies. — James Edward Oglethorpe plans a colony 
in America for debtors, who were then impris- 
oned. — Vitus Bering discovers Bering Strait 
between Alaska and Asia. 

1729 — Indians massacre French people at Nat- 
chez, killing several hundred. Only 26 escape. 
This was the greatest of all Indian massacres in 
this country. — The city of Baltimore is founded. 

1731 — The Natchez Indians who killed so 
many people are wiped out by the French at 
Natchitoches. Their chief and 400 of their 
people are sold as slaves to the Spaniards. 

1732 — George Washington is born, February 
22. — Vincennes, the first settlement in Indiana, 
is founded by the French. — James Edward Ogle- 
thorpe receives a charter to found a colony for 
poor debtors in Georgia. 

1733 — Oglethorpe arrives with 120 colonists, 
and forms a settlement at Savannah, the first in 
Georgia. He makes many good laws, and for- 
bids slavery in the colony. 

1734 — John Peter Zenger, an editor of New 
York, criticizes the royal government. He is 
tried and acquitted. Greater freedom of the press 
follows — a victory that has been described as "the 
morning star of that liberty which subsequently 
revolutionized America." 

1736 — Augusta, Georgia, is founded, under a 
charter by Oglethorpe. 

1738 — A negro rebellion arises in South Caro- 
lina, and is put down. 

1741 — The boundaries of Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire, and Vermont are settled, and the 
three colonies are finally separated. — Bering dis- 
covers Alaska. 

1745 — During the war between France and 
England (1744-48) an expedition from Boston, 
organized by Governor Shirley and commanded 
by William Pepperell, captures Louisburg, Nova 

1747 — French and Indians capture Fort Massa- 
chusetts on Lake Champlain and attack several 
villages in New England. — The colonies begin 
raising an army to conquer Canada, but peace 
is declared before it starts out. 

1749 — Slavery is allowed by law in Georgia, 
provided the slaves are taught religion. The 
Ohio company is formed in England to settle a 
tract of 500,000 acres on the Ohio River. 

1754 — The French in the Louisiana territory 
claim land in Virginia and Pennsylvania. They 
erect Fort Duquesne on the site of Pittsburg. — 
George Washington first serves as a soldier in 
this dispute, and has several fights with the 

1755 — General Braddock with two English reg- 
iments leaves Cumberland, Maryland, to attack 
Fort Duquesne. He is killed and Washington 
leads the soldiers back. — The entire French pop- 
ulation of Acadia (or Nova Scotia) are trans- 
ported in September to the British colonies. — 
All the colonies engage in war against the French 
and Indians. 

1756 — The English Parliament tries to tax the 
colonies to meet the expenses of war with 
France. The colonists object, and the taxes are 
not collected. — General ^Montcalm attacks forts 
at Oswego and other places in New York, doing 
much damage. 

1758 — A colonial and English army under 
General Abercrombie again captures Louisburg, 
July 27. — The French leave Fort Duquesne which 
is occupied by the English and renamed Fort 
Pitt, in honor of the elder Pitt, whence the name 
of Pittsburg. 

1759 — The French give up Ticonderoga and 
Crown Point. — Quebec is captured by General 
Wolfe in the battle on the Plains of Abraham, 
where Wolfe and the French general, Montcalm, 
are killed. 

1760 — The French surrender ^Montreal and 
other cities to the English and Americans. — 
South Carolina attempts to limit the slave-trade, 
but is rebuked by the English government. 

1763 — The Treaty of Paris ends the war be- 
tween France and England. France gives up 
Canada and all lands east of the. Mississippi 
River. — Spain gives Florida to England in ex- 
change for Havana province, in Cuba. — Indians 
under the chief Pontiac attack colonists in 
Pennsylvania and Virginia. 

1764 — The French found the city of St. Louis, 
Missouri. — England levies duties on imports of 
cofifee. sugar, molasses, etc., into the colonies, 
in order to raise money for an army to defend 
her dominions. The colonies object, and then 
first assert that "taxation without representation 
is tyranny." — Thomas Pownall. governor of 
Massachusets. and other Englishmen, propose 
admitting colonial agents to Parliament. 

1765— Parliament passes the famous Stamp 
Act, taxing paper, books, etc. It also passes the 
Quartering Act requiring the colonies to pro- 
vide houses, food, etc., for English soldiers sent 
among them. — The colonies, particularly Massa- 
chusetts, Virginia, and New York, object to the 














Stamp Act, and many stamps are destroyed. 
Colonists agree to import no goods from England 
so long as this law is in force. 

1766 — The Stamp Act is repealed, but its ef- 
fect is seen in the growth of revolutionary senti- 
ment in the colonies. 

1767 — Massachusetts tries to restrict the slave- 
trade. ]\Iany negroes sue their masters for 
wages, and are allowed judgments by the courts. 
— The English Parliament passes a law to raise 
money in the colonies by customs duties on 
imports. The colonies object vigorously. 

1768 — John Hancock, in Massachusetts, is ar- 
rested and tried for smuggling wine. He is de- 
fended by John Adams, later President of the 
United States. — Great riot in Boston. — Several 
colonial assemblies are dissolved by the gover- 
nors, and meetings sending petitions to the King 
are accused of treason. — Troops from Ireland 
and Halifax are sent to Boston, but the people 
refuse to give them quarters and food. 

1769 — The Massachusetts General Court asks 
that the soldiers be removed from Boston. 
Parties are first formed in the colonies, the Eng- 
lish sympathizers being called Tories, the colon- 
ial sympathizers, Whigs. — The English Parlia- 
ment removes all customs taxes except those on 
tea, but still claims its right to tax the colonies. 
— Daniel Boone and others explore parts of 

1770 — British soldiers fire on a disorderly 
crowd in Boston, killing several. This is called 
the "Boston Massacre." — Lieutenant-Governor 
Hutchinson orders all soldiers to leave Boston. 
Others threaten to fight. The soldiers leave for 
a short time. 

1771 — In North Carolina militia defeat the 
"Regulators," who stand for the people's rights. — 
New York's claim to Vermont is allowed. 

1772 — The "Gaspee," a British revenue schoon- 
er, is destroyed in Narragansett Bay for attempts 
to enforce the unpopular Navigation Acts, and 
prevent smuggling. — By a court decision slavery 
is ended in England. 

1773 — A popular committee in Boston denies 
the authority of the English Parliament. Sim- 
ilar committees are formed in other colonies. — 
The General Court of [Massachusetts asks the 
King to remove Governor Hutchinson. — In Bos- 
ton a band of fifty men disguised as Indians 
board tea-vessels in the harbor and destroy their 
cargoes on December i6. This is called the 
"Boston Tea-party." 

1774 — On March 25 Parliament passes the 
"Boston Port Bill," closing Boston harbor. Ed- 
mund Burke tries to have the tea-tax repealed. — 
Tea-ships are turned back from the harbors of 

various cities. — General Gage is made governor 
of Massachusetts and arrives in Boston on May 
13. The several colonies begin working together 
to resist British tyranny. — The first Continental 
Congress meets at Philadelphia, September 5. 
All colonies except Georgia are represented. — 
A Provincial Congress is formed In Massachu- 
setts which assumes the government of the col- 
only and enrolls 12,000 minutemen. — Similar 
committees are formed in Connecticut, Rhode 
Island, ]\Iaryland, and other colonies. 

1775 — General Gage sends a force of 800 men 
to seize the arms and stores of the patriots at 
Concord. The advance, under ]Major Pitcairn 
(April 19), finds itself confronted by a small 
body of militiamen, drawn up on Lexington com- 
mon, under command of Captain John Parker. 
The British fire, and nearly a score of Ameri- 
cans fall, killed or wounded. Then the British 
move on to Concord, destroy what stores they 
can, and after the famous "Concord Fight," in 
which several on both sides are killed, retreat 
through Lexington to Boston, losing many 
through the firing of the minutemen along the 
route. — The second Continental Congress meets 
at Philadelphia on ^lay 10. It votes to raise an 
army of 20,000 men, and on June 15 chooses 
George \\'ashington commander-in-chief of the 
Continental Army. — On June 17 the patriots try 
to resist the British advances, which they oppose 
mainly from a redoubt on Breed's Hill, connected 
with Bunker Hill, in Charlestown, Massachusetts. 
They withstand two charges, but retreat before 
the third. This is known as the Battle of Bun- 
ker Hill. 

1776 — General Howe evacuates Boston March 
17. Colonel IMoultrie repulses the British at 
Charleston, South Carolina, June 28. — The Dec- 
laration of Independence is passed by Congress 
on July 4. — Washington fights several battles 
with the British in and around New York. 

1777 — Washington wins the Battle of Prince- 
ton January 3. The Americans are defeated by 
Howe at the battles of Brandywine and German- 
town. — The British general Burgoyne is defeated 
by General Gates, and surrenders October 17. — 
The French general Lafayette comes to the aid 
of the Americans, and is attached to the stafif 
of Washington. 

1778 — The British evacuate Philadelphia, 
which they had taken the previous year. — Tories 
and Indians in Wyoming \'alley, Pennsylvania, 
massacre many patriots. — On June 28 the battle 
of IMonmouth, New Jersey, is fought between 
Washington and Sir Henry Clinton. — The Brit- 
ish capture Savannah, Georgia. 

1779 — General Anthony Wayne captures Stony 

.s o 




O 4) 

Qi V) 
(/I Pi 

■ j;. 

tt^ ^ (— ( C/^ O 
N W CI rO f^ 

o ^-^ 

>; t> - 

Qri C C 

-; >>° 

^^ rt ^ (A 

m Pac 
my Wi 

as Nel 

■ en o c 

tc >~^ o 




N f^ -4- U^^O 

« <N N W « 







o C "^ 

.■yj= 2 


r Ame 
rt Livi 
lel Hu 


« ui C = « 

to ■— — ^ >* 


.— — - 4j 


t^OO O M 











i;S ^ 

.o.A s 







N ro -^ u-)>o 


M M m M M 








|rc -je u 

^r-" !>" jC 

^ ,. •a*t/2 

ohn A 






u !S c " • c 

M " « ax o 

73 E 11 o o - 

u ><^ ° =•= 

pi; »)•* E rt o 

"^ 5C . B t; bt 

C ^ c/: ■— iJ u 

_c o c ::= c o 

"% vjzir V u 




Point on the Hudson, on July 6. — Paul Jones cap- 
tures the British ship "Serapis" near the coast 
of England. 

1780 — General Clinton captures Charleston 
May 12. — General Sumter defeats the British 
at Hanging Rock. South Carolina, August 6. 
— General Benedict Arnold agrees to surrender 
West Point to General Clinton. This is discov- 
ered by the arrest of Major Andre, who is 
hanged October 2. Arnold escapes. — The Brit- 
ish are defeated at King's Mountain, South 
Carolina, October 7. 

1781 — Lee and Pickens recapture Augusta, 
Georgia, June 5. — General Arnold, with a Brit- 
ish force, burns Richmond, January 5. Corn- 
wallis, after several battles in South Carolina 
and Virginia, comes to Yorktown, where he is 
besieged by Washington, and surrenders his 
whole army October 19. 

1782 — Holland recognizes American independ- 
ence April 19. — The British withdraw from all 
cities occupied in the South. — Preliminary articles 
of peace are signed November 30. 

1783 — American soldiers threaten insurrection 
because Congress has no money to pay them. — ■ 
Congress declares the war at an end April 11. — 
The Treaty of Paris, definitely ending the war, 
is signed September 3. — The British army leaves 
New York city November 25. Washington re- 
signs his commission as commander-in-chief and 
retires to private life December 23. 

1784 — Connecticut passes a law forbidding 
slavery. — The first daily newspaper in the United 
States, the "Pennsylvania Packet," is issued in 

1785 — Philadelphia issues the first city direc- 
tory in the United States. — Cotton is first ex- 
ported from Charleston, Philadelphia, and New 

1786 — In Massachusetts Daniel Shays heads 
an insurrection known as Shays's Rebellion, 
which is suppressed by the militia. — People from 
North Carolina and Tennessee try to form a new 
State which they call Franklin. — All the States 
except Rhode Island appoint delegates to meet 
at Annapolis and discuss a constitution for the 
United States. 

1787 — Congress passes an ordinance forming 
the great Northwest Territory, including the 
present States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michi- 
gan, Wisconsin, and part of Minnesota. — The 
convention meets in Philadelphia May 25 to 
frame a constitution. Washington is its presi- 
dent. The Constitution is completed and signed 
on September 17. — The Constitution is ratified 
by Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. 

1788 — The Constitution is ratified by all re- 

maining States except North Carolina and Rhode 
Island. — The first settlement in Ohio is made at 

1789 — George Washington is elected President. 
He is inaugurated at New York April 30. — The 
first Congress of the United States assembles in 
New York April 6. 

1790 — The first census of the United States 
is taken. This shows a population of nearly 
4,000,000. — The Territory of Tennessee is 
formed. — The District of Columbia is formed 
of land given by Maryland and Virginia. — John 
Fitch builds a steamboat which makes several 
trips between Philadelphia and Trenton. — The 
Constitution is ratified by Rhode Island, last of 
the original thirteen States to take this action. 

1791 — \'ermont is admitted to the Union. — The 
first national bank is established. — Coal-mining 
begins in Pennsylvania. — The new federal capital 
is laid out and called Washington. 

1792 — Kentucky is admitted to the Union. — 
Washington is reelected President. — The first 
mint is established in Philadelphia. — Eli Whitney 
invents the cotton-gin, which saves labor by 
separating cotton-seeds from the fiber. 

1793 — The first fugitive-slave law, requiring 
the return of all slaves fleeing from their mas- 
ters, is passed by Congress. 

1794 — A treaty is made with England settling 
many matters in dispute. — General Wayne de- 
feats the Indians in Ohio, forcing them to cease 
molesting settlers. — The Whisky Insurrection in 
Pennsylvania protests against taxes on distilled 

1796 — John Adams is elected President and 
Thomas Jefferson Vice-President. — Tennessee is 
admitted to the Union. 

1797 — John Adams is inaugurated President. 
— Envoys are sent to France to protest against 
the seizure of American ships during her war 
with England. They are asked for tribute, but 
refuse indignantly. 

1798 — French and American ships fight in the 
West Indies. — French troubles lead to the pass- 
ing of Alien and Sedition Laws, allowing Con- 
gress to expel undesirable foreigners and to sup- 
press newspapers, etc., speaking against the 
government. These laws are very unpopular, 
and give rise to the "Virginia and Kentucky 
Resolutions," containing the earliest suggestions 
of the State-rights doctrine. 

1799 — Naval battles with French ships con- 
tinue. Peace is made when Napoleon comes into 
power. — General Washington dies at Mount Ver- 
non, Virginia, December 14. 

1800 — The Presidential election of 1800 result- 
ing in no choice, it becomes necessary for the 







House of Representatives to choose the Presi- 
dent and Vice-President. — The seat of govern- 
ment is removed from Philadelphia to Washing- 
ton. — The Territory of Indiana is formed. — The 
second census shows a population of 5.308,483. 
— Spain returns the Louisiana territory to 

1801 — In February the House of Representa- 
tives elects Jefferson President, and Aaron Burr 
becomes Vice-President. — \\'ar with Tripoli is 
declared on account of attacks on American ships 
by pirates. The United States navy captures 
Tripolitan war-ships. 

1803 — Ohio is admitted to the Union as a 
State. — The United States purchases the Louis- 
iana territory from France for $15,000,000. It 
contained at least 1,000,000 square miles, and 
now includes in whole or in part — mainly in 
whole — thirteen States. — The war with Tripoli 

1804 — The IMissouri River and Oregon regions 
are explored by Captains Lewis and Clark. — 
The United States frigate "Constitution" bom- 
bards Tripoli. — Aaron Burr kills Alexander Ham- 
ilton in a duel. — Thomas Jefferson is reelected 
President and George Clinton is chosen Vice- 

1805 — The Bey of Tripoli makes a treaty 
agreeing to respect American ships. — England 
issues decrees forbidding American ships to bear 
cargoes to French ports during the war then go- 
ing on against Napoleon. — The Territory of 
Alichigan is formed. 

1806 — American commerce is seriously af- 
fected by British and French decrees blockading 
the ports of Europe. — England begins searching 
American vessels to find and arrest English sea- 

1807 — The American frigate "Chesapeake" is 
fired on by the British frigate "Leopard," and is 
searched for British seamen. This act angers 
the Americans. — Aaron Burr is tried for treason 
for attempting to found an empire in the Missis- 
sippi \'alley. He is acquitted because he has not 
fought against the United States. — France and 
England issue decrees against American ships 
entering European ports. — The United States 
Congress passes the Embargo Act forbidding 
American ships to leave American for foreign 
ports. — Robert Fulton's steamboat, the "Cler- 
mont," makes its first trip between New^ York 
and Albany in August. This is the successful 
beginning of steam-navigation. 

1808 — The first settlement in Oregon is made. 
— The Embargo Act is resisted and appeals are 
made against it. — James Madison is elected 

JVesident and George Clinton is reelected Vice- 

1809 — The Territory of Illinois is formed in 
February. — The Embargo Act is first enforced 
and finally repealed. American ships are al- 
lowed to sail anywhere but to England and 
France. — Public schools for poor children are 
established in Pennsylvania. 

1810 — France seizes many American ships on 
the ground that they had been trading with 
British ports. — The impressment of American 
sailors continues. — The third census shows a 
population of 7,239,881. 

1811— The British frigate "Little Belt" and the 
United States frigate "The President" fight a 
serious battle oft' Cape Charles. — General Will- 
iam Henry Harrison defeats the Indians, under 
the "Prophet," brother of Tecumseh, on the Tip- 
pecanoe River in the Territory of Indiana. 

1812 — Louisiana is admitted to the Union as a 
State. War is declared against Great Britain 
on June 18. — Governor Hull of Michigan plans 
an invasion of Canada from Detroit. He is at- 
tacked by British and Indians and surrenders 
without a fight. — General \*an Rensselaer in- 
vades Canada at Niagara. In the attack on 
Queenstown Heights, October 13, the British 
general Brock is killed. — Several famous naval 
battles take place, particularly between the "Es- 
sex" (U. S.) and the "Frolic" (Brit.) ; between 
the "Constitution" (U. S.) and the "Guerriere" 
and the "Java"; the "Wasp" (U. S.) and the 
"Frolic. "^ — James Madison is reelected President, 
with Elbridge Gerry as \"ice-President. 

1813 — Three American armies starf to invade 
Canada. — General Dearborn (U. S.) captures 
York, and advances on Fort George. — The Brit- 
ish attack Sackett's Harbor, New York, but are 
repulsed. — An expedition to take Montreal is 
unsuccessful. — The British are defeated by Gen- 
eral Harrison at Fort Meigs. — The naval 
battle of Lake Erie is won by Ameri- 
cans under Commodore Perry. — General Harri- 
son defeats the British under General Proctor, 
who surrenders. — The British ship "Peacock" is 
captured by the "Hornet" (U. S.) ; but the 
"Shannon" (Brit.) captures the "Chesapeake" 
(U. S.). 

1814 — Generals Scott and Ripley capture Fort 
Erie ; Americans defeat the British at Chippewa, 
July 5, and at Lundy's Lane. July 25. — The Brit- 
ish are defeated in the land and naval battles of 
Lake Champlain. — The British capture Washing- 
ton and burn the government buildings. They 
are repelled from Baltimore. — General Jackson 
defeats the Creek Indians at Tallapoosa, March 
27. — Jackson drives the British from Pensacola, 




Florida, and fortifies New Orleans. — The Treaty 
of Ghent, December 24, concludes peace. 

1815 — The British are defeated, with great 
loss, by General Jackson at New Orleans, Jan- 
uary 8, news of peace not having arrived. — Com- 
modore Decatur is sent against the Barbary 
States, and ends all trouble from pirates by cap- 
turing and destroying many of their ships. 

1816 — A protective tariff bill is passed. — Indi- 
ana is admitted to the Union as a State. — A 
national bank is established on a new basis. — 
James Monroe is elected President, with Daniel 
D. Tompkins as Vice-President. 

1817 — The Creek and Seminole Indians cause 
trouble and General Jackson makes an expedi- 
tion against them into Florida. — The Erie Canal 
is begun, between the Hudson River and the 
Great Lakes. — Mississippi is admitted to the 
Union as a State. 

1818 — Congress pensions officers and soldiers 
of the Revolution, $20 monthly to officers, $8 to 
privates. — General Jackson subdues the Indians 
in Florida and seizes Pensacola, which is later 
returned to Spain. — Oregon is occupied jointly 
by the United States and Great Britain. — Illinois 
is admitted to the Union as a State. 

1819 — Florida is ceded to the United States 
by Spain. Congress takes measures to suppress 
the slave-trade. — The "Savannah," the first 
steam-vessel to cross the Atlantic, sails from 
Savannah to Liverpool. — Maine and Missouri pe- 
tition for statehood. — Alabama is admitted to the 
Union as a State. 

1820 — The feeling against slavery is already 
strong, and an increase of slave States is ob- 
jected to. — The admission of Missouri as a slave 
State March 2, is provided for by a bill called 
the "Missouri Compromise," forbidding slavery 
in all future States north of latitude 36° 30'. 
— Maine is admitted to the Union as a State. 
— James Monroe is reelected President. 

1821 — General Stephen F. Austin founds the 
first American colony in Texas. 

1822 — Florida is made a Territory, March 30. 
— Many pirate ships are destroyed in Cuban 
waters. — The American Colonization Society 
colonizes free negroes in Liberia, Africa. — The 
United States recognizes the independence of 
Mexico and the republics of South America. 

1823 — England and the United States make a 
treaty to suppress the slave-trade. — Commodore 
Porter virtually destroys the West-Indian pirates. 
— President Monroe states the "Monroe Doc- 
trine," that the attempt of European powers to 
extend their influence in this hemisphere is dan- 
gerous to the peace and safety of the United 

1824 — Congress passes a protective tariff bill, 
to protect the cotton manufacturers of New 
England. — General Lafayette revisits America. 
— The national election fails to choose a Presi- 
dent, and the choice goes to the House of Rep- 
resentatives, as provided by law. 

1825 — John Quincy Adams is elected Presi- 
dent, and John C. Calhoun, Vice-President. — The 
Erie Canal is completed and formally opened. 

1826 — A new treaty is made with the Indians 
in Georgia by which they give up nearly all their 
lands. — William Morgan writes a book exposing 
freemasonry. He is arrested and forcibly taken 
to the Niagara frontier where he is last seen. — ■ 
The Anti-Masonic party is formed. — The first 
railroad constructed in the United States with 
metal tracks is opened. — An attempt is made in 
Texas to renounce Mexican authority. Both 
Jefferson and John Adams die July 4. 

1827 — A body of Texans have a skirmish with 
Mexican soldiers and rout them. — Mexicans 
form an alliance with the Indians. — Albert Gal- 
latin sent as minister to Great Britain to make 
an agreement on trade with the West Indies. 
He concludes a treaty. — A bill for a general re- 
vision of the tariff is brought before Congress. 

1828 — The committee on revision of the tariff 
submits a report imposing heavy import duties 
on woolen and cotton fabrics, which in May be- 
comes a law. — The Anti-Masonic party in New 
York nominates Francis Granger for governor; 
the Jackson party nominates Martin Van Buren 
for governor, and he is elected. — The Adams 
party renominates President John Quincy Adams 
with Richard Rush for Vice-President ; the 
Democrats name Andrew Jackson for President 
and John C. Calhoun for Vice-President; Jack- 
son and Calhoun are elected. 

1829 — The legislatures of Georgia and South 
Carolina protest against the Tariff Act on woolen 
and cotton goods. — General Jackson is inaugu- 
rated President. — The first session of the 21st 
Congress opens December 7, both houses having 
a Democratic majority. 

1830 — A treaty is signed between the United 
States and Turkey. — Louis McLane, minister 
to England, reopens the discussion with Great 
Britain regarding colonial trade. — The Anti- 
Masonic party holds, in Philadelphia, the first na- 
tional convention of a political party. — The city 
of Chicago is founded. 

1831 — The President's cabinet is dissolved by 
resignations and successors appointed. — Ex-Pres- 
ident James Monroe dies July 4. — The Anti-Ma- 
sonic convention in Baltimore, nominates 
William Wirt for President and Amos Ellmaker 
for Vice-President — the first nomination ever 





made by a national convention. — The convention 
of National Republicans nominated Henry Clay, 
of Kentucky, for President. — The first session of 
the 22d Congress opens December 5. 

1832 — The first Democratic national conven- 
tion meets in Baltimore, in May, and renominates 
General Jackson for President, and ]\Iartin Van 
Buren, of New York, for Vice-President. — Black 
Hawk, the Indian chief, repudiates the treaty 
made with Chief Keokuk, and after a series of 
battles he is captured by General Atkinson. — 
The State Rights Party in South Carolina holds 
a convention, passes the Ordinance of Nulli- 
fication, and declares the acts of Congress re- 
garding protection to be henceforth "null and 
void." — The President issues a proclamation as- 
serting that the laws of the United States must 
be executed, and the government takes steps to 
maintain them. A treaty is made with the Sem- 
inole Indians, and they agree to remove from 
their lands. — Congress passes a new tariff act, 
favoring a general system of ad valorem duties, 
and proposing a reduction of duties. — General 
Jackson is reelected President, and Martin Van 
Buren Vice-President. 

1833 — Henry Clay introduces a bill to prevent 
the destruction of the tariff policy and to avert 
civil war. It passes both houses, and the South 
Carolina ordinance is repealed. General Stephen 
F. Austin is arrested in 'Mexico, when on an 
embassy from the people of Texas, and is thrown 
into a dungeon. Two parties arise among the 
Americans in Texas, one opposing Mexican gov- 
ernment and the other upholding Santa Anna, 
president of Mexico. — General Jackson begins 
his second administration March 4. 

1834 — The Seminole Indians cause trouble. 
The Indian Territory is organized. — Lafayette 
dies in France, May 20. — Santa Anna deserts the 
republican party in Mexico, dissolves the national 
congress, and summons a new and unconstitu- 
tional one. 

1835 — Chief Justice John Marshall dies at 
Philadelphia, July 6. — General Santa Anna equips 
a large army to conquer the Texans. — After sev- 
eral skirmishes the Texan colonists adopt a 
declaration of rights and independence. Henry 
Smith is elected governor and Sam Houston 
commander-in-chief of the army. — Osceola, the 
Seminole chief, takes the warpath. — General 
Clinch and his troops fight a battle with the 
Seminoles. — A Democratic national convention 
in Baltimore unanimously nominates Van Buren 
for President. The Whigs nominate William 
Henry Harrison. 

1836 — Santa Anna storms the Alamo, an old 
mission building, at San Antonio, Texas. After 

a terrible siege it is taken by assault, and the 
garrison of Texans and Americans are nearly all 
killed. — A convention of colonists decides upon 
a constitution for the Republic of Texas. — The 
Seminole and Creek Indians kill many people in 
Georgia and Alabama. — The Treasury Depart- 
ment issues the Specie Circular, requiring col- 
lectors of public revenue to receive nothing but 
gold and silver in payments. — General Sam Hous- 
ton is elected the first president of the Republic 
of Texas. — Vice-President Martin Van Buren is 
elected President of the United States by the 
Democratic party. — Congress is daily asked to 
abolish slavery in the United States. 

1837 — The independence of the Republic of 
Texas is recognized by the United States govern- 
ment. — ]\Iartin Van Buren is inaugurated March 
4. — General Jessup, angered by Chief Osceola's 
treachery, arrests and imprisons him and all the 
Indians with him. — Nine thousand soldiers carry 
on the war with the Seminoles until Colonel 
Zachary Taylor defeats them in December. — 
Samuel F. B. Morse successfully operates an 
electric telegraph. 

1838 — General Scott is ordered to the Cana- 
dian border, because of a revolution in Canada. 
The Canadian forces are disbanded. — Many 
Americans are tried and convicted under British 
laws for making trouble in Canada. — A treaty is 
signed between the United States and Mexico. 

1839 — Mexico fails to perform its obligations 
to the United States. — General Macomb, com- 
mander-in-chief of the United States army, 
makes a treaty with the Seminoles, which they 
break. — The Republic of Texas endeavors to es- 
tablish friendly relations with Mexico, but fails. 
— France recognizes the independence of Texas. 
— The United States bank is forced to suspend, 
the government losing $2,000,000. — The Whig 
national convention at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 
nominates William Henry Harrison for Presi- 
dent, and John Tyler for Vice-President. 

1840 — The Democratic national convention 
unanimously nominates Martin Van Buren for a 
second term as President. — Harrison is elected. 
— Great Britain recognizes the independence of 
the Republic of Mexico. 

1841 — General Harrison is inaugurated March 
4. He dies April 4, and Vice-President Tyler 
succeeds him. — A riot occurs in Cincinnati be- 
cause some people advocate freeing all the slaves. 

1842 — The Ashburton Treaty with Great Brit- 
ain is made, fixing the boundary between Maine 
and Canada. — The President brings the Seminole 
War to an end by settling land on the Indians 
who are able to bear arms. — Professor Samuel 
F. B. Morse lays the first submarine telegraph 

■ Id 


< 5 

— ■ lb 

— i o 

X. 2 

^ H 

"^ Z 

•J ^• 

y. s 

— o 

—I fc. 

H.T.&G.D. II. 17. 




line (in New York harbor). — The followers of 
Thomas W. Dorr, in Rhode Island, attempt to 
seize the State arsenal at Providence. (Dorr 
fled, but returned, was convicted of high treason, 
and — in 1844 — sentenced to imprisonment for 
life. In 1847 he was released.) — Petitions are 
sent to Congress favoring the annexation of 

1844 — The new Mexican Congress votes $4,- 
000,000 for the prosecution of the war against 
Texas. — Santa Anna's government is over- 
thrown. — John C. Calhoun, Secretary of State, 
makes a treaty for annexing the Republic of 
Texas to the United States. This treaty is re- 
jected by the Senate. — The Whig party nomin- 
ates Henry Clay for President. — The Demo- 
cratic national convention nominates James K. 
Polk for President and George M. Dallas for 
Vice-President. Polk and Dallas are elected. 

1845 — A joint resolution for the annexation of 
Texas is passed by Congress and signed by the 
President, and Texas becomes a State of the 
Union. — An act of Congress establishes a uni- 
form time for choosing Presidential electors. — 
James K. Polk is inaugurated March 4. — Ex- 
President Jackson dies at the Hermitage, near 
Nashville, Tennessee, June 8. — President Her- 
rera of Mexico issues a proclamation asserting 
the rights of Mexico in Texas. — President Polk 
orders General Zachary Taylor to Texas with 
an army. — Lieutenant John C. Fremont starts 
on his survey of Oregon and California. 

1846 — General Taylor encounters a Mexican 
army at Palo Alto, May 8, and defeats it. He 
defeats the Mexicans again May 9 at Resaca de 
la Palma, and takes possession of Matamoras, 
May 18. — Congress authorizes the appropriation 
of $10,000,000 to carry on the war with Mexico. 
— The Wilmot proviso is introduced in Congress. 
— September 24 the city of Monterey, Mexico, 
surrenders to General Taylor. — A new treaty is 
made with Great Britain on the rights of Eng- 
land and America in the Oregon country. 

1847 — General Taylor defeats Santa Anna at 
Buena Vista, February 23. General Scott is 
made commander-in-chief of the forces in Mex- 
ico. He captures Vera Cruz March 29. — He 
defeats Santa Anna at Cerro Gordo, April 18, 
and enters Puebla, May 15. — The Americans are 
victorious at Contreras and Churubusco, August 
20. — General Worth storms Molino del Rey, Sep- 
tember 8. — Chapultepec is stormed by General 
Pillow, September 13. — September 14 General 
Scott enters the City of Mexico. — Peace negotia- 
tions begin. 

1848 — Mexico concludes a treaty of peace with 
the Unjtpd States February 2, at Guadalupe-Hi- 

dalgo. — Gold is discovered at Sutter's Mill, in the 
Sacramento Valley, California. — Ex-President 
John Quincy Adams dies February 23. — The 
Democratic national convention nominates Gen- 
eral Lewis Cass for the Presidency. The Whig 
convention nominates General Taylor for Presi- 
dent, with Millard Fillmore for Vice-President. — 
Taylor and Fillmore are elected. 

1849 — General Zachary Taylor is inaugurated 
March 5. — Gold-seekers start for California. — 
Congress assembles December 3. 

1850 — Henry Clay submits to Congress bills 
for settling the disputes on slavery. — The Fugi- 
tive-Slave Law passes both houses of Congress. 
— A bill for prohibiting slavery in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia passes the Senate and the 
House. — General Lopez invades Cuba. — The 
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty with Great Britain is 
concluded. — President Taylor dies July 9, and 
Vice-President Fillmore succeeds him. 

1851 — General Lopez makes an unsuccessful at- 
tempt again to invade Cuba. — The Mormons 
defy the Federal government in Utah. 

1852 — Congress makes an appropriation for 
the survey of three routes to the Pacific Ocean. 
— The Democratic national convention at Balti- 
more nominates Franklin Pierce of New Hamp- 
shire for the Presidency. — The Whig convention 
nominates General Scott. — Henry Clay dies June 
29. — The United States sends the "Princeton" 
and the "Fulton," steam-vessels of war, to pro- 
tect American fishermen at Nova Scotia. — Dan- 
iel Webster dies October 24. 

1853 — Franklin Pierce is inaugurated March 4. 
— An act of Congress authorizes surveys for the 
construction of a railroad across the continent. 
— A world's fair is opened by the President in 
New York, July 14. The Territory of Wash- 
ington is organized. 

1854 — Senator Stephen A. Douglas introduces 
in the Senate a bill providing for the formation 
of the Territories of Kansas and Nebraska 
(Kansas-Nebraska Bill), and allowing the inhab- 
itants to decide the slavery question, thus repeal- 
ing the Missouri Compromise of 1820. — The bill 
passes both houses of Congress and is approved 
by the President May 30. — A homestead bill, 
providing that any free white citizen may make 
a homestead on a quarter-section of land, is 
passed by Congress. — Commodore Matthew C. 
Perry negotiates a treaty between the United 
States and Japan, opening Japan to American 
trade. — A fugitive slave named Anthony Burns 
is arrested in Boston; this causes great excite- 
ment, and an unsuccessful attempt to rescue him 
is made. — A treaty is signed between the United 
States and Mexico fijcing the boundary-line. 








1855— William Walker and Colonel H. L. Kin- 
ney, known as "filibusters," organize a civil gov- 
ernment in Nicaragua. — The Free-State settlers 
of Kansas apply for admission into the Union. 

1856 — A special House committee is appointed 
by Congress to investigate troubles that have 
arisen in Kansas between those believing 
in slavery and those opposing it. — The na- 
tional convention of the American or "Know- 
Nothing" party nominates ex-President Mil- 
lard Fillmore for President. The anti-Ne- 
braska men, at their first convention, nominate 
Colonel John C. Fremont, of California, for 
President. — The President recognizes Walker's 
government in Nicaragua.— The village of Osa- 
watomie, Kansas, is sacked and burned by a 
proslavery mob. — Leavenworth, Kansas, is seized 
by a large force from Missouri. — Cyrus W. Field 
organizes the Atlantic Telegraph Company. 
— The Democratic national convention nominates 
James Buchanan, of Pennsylvania, for President, 
and he is elected. 

1857 — The Free-State legislature of Kansas 
meets.— James Buchanan is inaugurated March 
4. — Dred Scott, a negro slave, is taken from 
Minnesota to Missouri and sold as a slave. He 
sues for freedom and obtains judgment in Mis- 
souri Circuit Court. The Supreme courts of the 
State and of the United States reverse the de- 
cision. — Walker is compelled by the opposition 
of citizens of Nicaragua and the influence of 
other Central American states to surrender his 
Nicaraguan government.— A National Emanci- 
pation Society is formed at Cleveland, Ohio. 

1858 — The legislatures of New York, Maine, 
Massachusetts, Connecticut, Michigan, and Wis- 
consin pass "personal liberty laws" opposing 
slavery. — Great political debates are held be- 
tween Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Doug- 
las.— The first public message by the Atlantic 
cable is sent by Queen Victoria to President 

1859 — The Kansas legislature passes an am- 
nesty act. — John Brown leads a party of slaves 
from Missouri to freedom in Canada.— Brown 
attempts to cause an uprising of slaves at Har- 
per's Ferry, Virginia. He is captured and tried, 
and is hanged December 2. 

1860 — Congress is much stirred up by the 
slavery discussion.— The Democratic national 
convention at Charleston nominates Stephen A. 
Douglas for the Presidency. — Other Democrats 
who object to Douglas hold a convention at 
Richmond and nominate John C. Breckenridge, 
of Kentucky, for President. The Republican 
national convention meets in Chicago and nom- 
inates Abraham Lincoln for President, with 

Hannibal Hamlin for Vice-President.— The 
United States vessel "Mohican" captures a slave- 
ship off the coast of Africa. — Abraham Lincoln 
is elected President in November. — The South 
Carolina convention resolves to secede from the 

1861 — Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, and Texas 
secede. — Delegates of the seceded States meet 
at Montgomery, Alabama, and organize the 
Confederate government. Jefferson Davis, of 
Mississippi, is elected President and Alexander 
H. Stephens, of Georgia, Vice-President of the 
"Confederate States of America." — Abraham 
Lincoln is inaugurated March 4. — Fort Sumter 
evacuated by INIajor Anderson April 14. — Presi- 
dent Lincoln calls for 75,000 volunteers to defend 
the Union. — Tennessee and North Carolina se- 
cede. — A Federal army of 13,000 men crosses the 
Potomac into Virginia. — The Federal army is 
defeated at the Battle of Bull Run, July 21. 
General McClellan is appointed commander-in- 
chief of the armies of the United States. — Cap- 
tain Wilkes of the United States Navy takes 
Mason and Slidell, Confederate commissioners, 
from the British mail-steamer "Trent," Novem- 
ber 8. By this act the United States narrowly 
escapes war with England. 

1862 — General Grant captures Fort Donelson, 
and takes 15,000 prisoners, February 16. — He 
captures Nashville, Tennessee, February 23.— The 
Confederate steamer "Merrimac" is defeated by 
the Federal ironclad "Monitor," March 9. — Grant 
fights the battle of Shiloh, April 6-7. — The 
forts on the Mississippi, below New Orleans, are 
passed on April 24 by a naval force under Cap- 
tain Farragut. — General Butler takes possession 
of New Orleans, May i. — President Lincoln calls 
for 300,000 volunteers. — The Federals are de- 
feated at the second battle of Bull Run, August 
29-30. The battles of Antietam (September 16- 
17) and Fredericksburg (December 13) are 
fought. — General Bragg enters Kentucky.— The 
Sioux Indians go on the war-path. 

1863 — President Lincoln issues his Emanci- 
pation Proclamation, freeing more than 3,000,000 
slaves. — General Hooker is defeated by General 
Lee at the battle of Chancellorsville, May 2-4.— 
Lee marches into Pennsylvania, and is defeated 
at Gettysburg, July 1-3. — Vicksburg, Mississippi, 
surrenders July 4.— Draft riots (riots caused by 
"drafting," or compelling men to serve in the 
army) break out in New York in July. 

1864 — President Lincoln orders a draft of 500,- 
000 men. — General Grant is appointed com- 
mander of all the armies of the United States.— 
Grant and Lee fight battles of the Wilderness, 
Spottsylvania Court House, and Cold Harbor.— 




Lincoln is renominated for President, and An- 
drew Johnson for Vice-President. The United 
States ship "Kearsage" sinks the Confederate ship 
"Alabama" near Cherbourg, France. — General 
Hood is besieged at Atlanta, Georgia. — Atlanta 
is evacuated by Hood and occupied by General 
Sherman. — Abraham Lincoln is reelected Presi- 
dent. — General Sherman begins his march from 
Atlanta to the sea November i6. — The Confed- 
erates are defeated in the Battle of Nashville, 
December 14-16. — Sherman occupies Savannah 
December 21. 

1865 — General Sherman captures Columbia, 
South Carolina, February 17, and occupies 
Charleston, February 18. — President Lincoln is 
inaugurated March 4. — Richmond is taken April 
3. — General Lee and his army surrender to Gen- 
eral Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, 
April 9. — President Lincoln is assassinated April 
14 by John Wilkes Booth. The President dies 
April 15. Vice-President Johnson succeeds him. 
— Jefferson Davis is captured May 10, and is im- 
prisoned. — President Johnson issues a proclama- 
tion of amnesty to those who have fought against 
the United States, May 29. — The Thirteenth 
Amendment, abolishing slavery, becomes a part 
of the Constitution December 18. 

1866 — Congress passes the Freedmen's Bureau 
Bill and the Civil Rights Bill.— The Fourteenth 
Amendment to the Constitution is adopted in 
Congress. — A new Atlantic cable is successfully 

1867 — Alaska is purchased from Russia for 
$7,200,000. — Congress passes the Reconstruction 
Acts to restore the seceded States to the Union. 
— Congress passes the Tenure of Office Act, re- 
quiring the consent of the Senate to removals 
from office. — President Johnson removes Secre- 
tary of War Stanton, who had served under Lin- 
coln throughout the Civil War. 

1868 — President Johnson is impeached. He is 
tried by the Senate, and acquitted. — All of the 
Southern States except Virginia, Mississippi, and 
Texas are readmitted to Congress. — The Four- 
teenth Amendment to the Constitution is offi- 
cially adopted July 20. — General Grant is elected 
President and Schuyler Colfax Vice-President. — 
A final amnesty, pardoning all concerned in the 
war against the Federal government, proclaimed 
December 25. 

1869 — President Grant is inaugurated March 
4. — The gold-panic of "Black Friday," when hun- 
dreds of people lost their entire fortunes, occurs 
in New York, September 24. 

1870 — The Fifteenth Amendment to the Con- 
stitution, giving the right to vote to former 
slaves, is adopted March 30, 

1871 — The first Civil Service Reform measure 
passes Congress. — The exposure and downfall of 
the "Tweed Ring" of corrupt politicians occurs 
in New York city. — The great Chicago fire de- 
stroys 200 lives and nearly $200,000,000 in prop- 
erty, October 8-10. 

1872 — A Labor Reform convention, held in 
Columbus, Ohio, nominates Judge David Davis 
for President and Judge Joel Parker for Vice- 
President. — Congress passes a bill creating Yel- 
lowstone National Park. The Liberal Republi- 
can national convention assembles in Cincinnati, 
and nominates Horace Greeley, editor of the 
"New York Tribune," for President. — The regu- 
lar Republican national convention meets at 
Philadelphia, and renominates General Grant for 
President. — The Geneva Tribunal awards the 
United States $15,000,000 in settlement of the 
Alabama claims, September 14. — The Democratic 
national convention is held at Baltimore, and in- 
dorses the candidacy of Horace Greeley for 
President. — General Grant is reelected. 

1873 — General Grant is inaugurated March 4. 
— The "Credit Mobilier," a money-making scheme 
in which several congressmen are interested, is 
exposed and many men are disgraced. 

1874 — The Senate committee on finance report 
a bill to provide for the issue and redemption of 
United States notes. — Southern States attempt to 
overthrow negro domination ; many State gov- 
ernments being run entirely by former slaves. 

1875 — Samuel J. Tilden is inaugurated govern- 
or of New York. — Congress passes an act pro- 
viding for the resumption of specie payment in 
1879, paying all debts in coin, instead of paper 
money. — Congress passes a second Civil Rights 
Bill. — The "Whisky Ring" is exposed. 

1876 — The Centennial Exhibition is opened in 
Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, May 10. — The 
Prohibition party nominates General Green Clay 
Smith, of Kentucky, for President. — The Green- 
back party nominates Peter Cooper, of New 
York, for President. — The Republican national 
convention nominates Rutherford B. Hayes, of 
Ohio, for President. — General George A. Custer 
and his command are killed in battle with the 
Sioux Indians June 25. The Democratic na- 
tional convention nominates Samuel J. Tilden, of 
New York, for President. — Tilden receives a 
majority of the popular vote, but, as determined 
by the Electoral Commission, lacks one vote of a 
majority in the electoral college. 

1877 — Rutherford B. Hayes is inaugurated 
March 4. — Alexander Graham Bell, of Boston, 
perfects the telephone. Extensive railroad 
strikes spread over the country. 

1878 — The United States Senate passes the 

From stereograph, co; 






Bland-Allison Act fixing a common ratio for 
gold and silver. 

1879 — The United States government resumes 
specie payment January i. — Congress passes the 
first Arrears of Pensions Bill, resulting in the 
payment by the government of millions of dol- 
lars. — An Indian outbreak occurs at the White 
River Agency, Colorado, September 29. 

1880 — The Republican national convention, at 
Chicago, nominates General James A. Garfield 
for the Presidency, and Chester A. Arthur for 
the Vice-Presidency. — The Democratic national 
convention, at Cincinnati, nominates General 
Winfield Scott Hancock for the Presidency, and 
William H. English for the Vice-Presidency. — 
Garfield and Arthur are elected. — The tenth 
census shows the population of the United States 

as 50-I55.783- 

1881 — James A. Garfield is inaugurated March 
4. — President Garfield is shot by an insane man, 
in the railroad station at Washington, July 2. 
He dies at Elberon, New Jersey, September 19. — 
Vice-President Chester A. Arthur succeeds to 
the Presidency. — The centennial of the Battle of 
Yorktown is celebrated, October 19. — The At- 
lanta (Georgia) Exposition is held this year. 

1882 — A great flood of the Mississippi River 
makes 100,000 people homeless. Congress sends 
them assistance. — A law forbidding Chinese la- 
borers to come to America for ten years is 
passed. — The Edmunds Act against Mormons 
who have more than one wife is passed. 

1883 — The Brooklyn Bridge across the East 
River at New York city is opened. — Congress 
makes the Civil Service Law requiring people 
in government offices to pass examinations for 
appointments. — Letter-postage is reduced from 
three cents per half -ounce to two cents. 

1884 — President Arthur opens the Interna- 
tional Cotton Exposition, at New Orleans, by 
telegraph from Washington. — Grover Cleveland, 
of New York, is elected President, after a hard 
campaign. Thomas A. Hendricks is elected 

1885 — Grover Cleveland is inaugurated March 
4. — The President recommends a reduction of 
tariff duties on imports. — The Mills Bill, reduc- 
ing the tariff, is introduced in Congress by Roger 
Q. Mills, of Texas. It fails to pass. — General 
Grant dies at Mount McGregor, New York, July 
23. Vice-President Hendricks dies November 25. 

1886— The great Bartholdi statue of "Liberty 
Enlightening the World" is erected in New York 
harbor. — The Apache chief Geronimo is cap- 
tured after doing much harm in the far West. — 
Charleston, South Carolina, is partially de- 
stroyed by an earthquake. 

1887 — The Supreme Court of the United States 
decrees that all the property of the Mormon 
Church, except $50,000, is forfeited. (This de- 
cision was set aside in 1890, when Mormons 
gave up polygamy.) — Congress passes the Inter- 
state Commerce Act for regulating commerce 
between the States. 

1888 — The Chinese Exclusion Law, to keep 
Chinese laborers out of the country, is enacted 
by Congress. — The first practical electric trolley- 
line is built at Richmond, Virginia. — Benjamin 
Harrison, of Indiana, is elected President, and 
Levi P. Morton, of New York, Vice-President. 

1889 — Benjamin Harrison is inaugurated 
March 4. — Oklahoma Territory is opened for 
white settlers April 22. Over 50,000 people rush 
across the border and take claims. 

1890 — The Sherman Silver Law is passed by 
Congress. It forbids the coining of silver ex- 
cept as needed. — The McKinley Tariff Bill is 
passed, raising duties on nearly all articles im- 
ported into the United States. 

1891 — Several Italians are killed in a riot at 
New Orleans. Italy demands reparation,, and is 
paid a generous sum by the United States gov- 
ernment. — Two sailors of a United States battle- 
ship are killed at Valparaiso, Chile. The gov- 
ernment exacts $75,000 for this outrage. 

1892 — Serious strikes occur >at .Homestead, 
Pennsylvania, among the steel workers, and at 
Buffalo, New York, among the railroad switch- 
men. Militia regiments are called out in both 
cases and much trouble follows. — Several ships 
carrying cholera sufferers enter American ports, 
but the spread of the plague is prevented. — Grov- 
er Cleveland is again elected President, and 
Adlai E. Stevenson is elected Vice-President. 

1893 — President Cleveland is inaugurated 
]\Iarch 4. — The World's Columbian Exposition, 
in commemoration of the 400th anniversary of 
the discovery of America, is held at Chicago. — 
The Hawaiian Islands depose Queen Liliuokalani, 
and form a republic. President Cleveland tries 
to restore the Queen. — The ballot is given to 
women in Colorado. 

1894 — The \\'ilson Tariff Law, reducing duties 
on most imports, is passed by Congress. — A strike 
of railroad employees begins at Chicago. Presi- 
dent Cleveland sends troops to stop rioting. 

1895 — -President Cleveland interferes in a dis- 
pute between England and Venezuela regarding 
the boundary-line separating British Guiana 
from Venezuela. He insists that the Monroe 
Doctrine be observed and the matter arbitrated. 
(It was arbitrated, mainly in favor of Great Brit- 
ain, in 1899.) 

1896 — The Presidential campaign of this year 




is exciting. The Democrats nominate William 
J. Bryan, of Nebraska, who stands for the "free 
and unlimited coinage of silver." The Republi- 
can candidate, William McKinley, of Ohio, is 

1897 — President McKinley is inaugurated 
March 4. — The Dingley Tariff Law, raising the 
import duties on nearly all items, is enacted by 
Congress. — Congress votes $50,000 to relieve the 
starving Cubans who had been cruelly treated 
by Spain. 

1898— The United States battleship "IMaine" 
is destroyed by an explosion in Havana harbor, 
February 15. Of her crew 266 men are killed. 
— The United States declares war against Spain, 
and prepares for the invasion of Cuba. — 
Commodore Dewey captures Manila, in the 
Philippine Islands, and destroys the Spanish fleet 
in the bay, May i. — Dewey is made Admiral 
of the Navy. — On June 22 an army of 16,000 men 
lands at Daiquiri, Cuba, and marches on Santi- 
ago. — The Spanish fleet, "bottled up" in the har- 
bor of Santiago for nearly two months, tries to 
escape July 3 ; the American fleet, under Sam- 
son, and now led by Schley, destroys it, and 
makes prisoners of all its crews. — Santiago, 
Cuba, is taken by the army under General Shaf- 
ter, July 14. — Manila surrenders to Dewey and 
General IMerritt, August 13. — The Americans, 
under General Miles, take formal possession of 
Porto Rico October 18. — The war is officially 
ended by the Treaty of Paris, December 10, by 
which Spain relinquishes sovereignty in Cuba, 
Porto Rico, and the Philippine Islands. — The 
Hawaiian Islands are annexed to the United 
States August 12. 

1899 — The American army occupies Cuba, and 
establishes a government for the island. — A ter- 
ritorial form of government is established in 
Porto Rico. — A Filipino named Emilio Agui- 
naldo begins an insurrection at Manila. (After 
much fighting, in 1901 Aguinaldo was captured 
and took the oath of allegiance to the United 

1900 — The United States acquires the Island of 
Tutuila in the Samoan group. — American troops 
in the Philippines and marines on the United 
States ships near China join with other foreign 
forces to suppress the Boxer uprising in China. 
— During September and October there is a 
great strike in the coal regions of Pennsyl- 

1901 — The Pan-American Exposition is opened 
at Buffalo, May i. — The Boxer troubles in China 
end in May. — President McKinley is shot at Buf- 
falo, September 6, by an insane anarchist. The 
President dies on September 14. — The Vice- 

President, Theodore Roosevelt, succeeds him. — 
The Hay-Pauncefote Treaty on the proposed 
Panama Canal is ratified December 16. 

1902 — A great coal strike begins in Pennsyl- 
vania in May. It lasts over five months, and 
causes great suffering throughout the country. 
President Roosevelt succeeds in having it settled 
by arbitration. — The United States troops with- 
draw from Cuba, and leave it to its own govern- 
ment. — The President tries to make a treaty 
with Colombia permitting work on the Panama 
Canal to begin. He is unsuccessful. — Civil gov- 
ernment is established in the Philippines. 

1903 — A joint commission meets January 24 
to settle the dispute on the boundary of Alaska. 
The matter is made subject of treaty on Febru- 
ary II. — The Department of Commerce and La- 
bor- is created. — On January 18 the first wireless 
messages are sent across the Atlantic Ocean. — 
A treaty of reciprocity is made with Cuba. — 
The Pacific cable is opened July 4. — Decision on 
the Alaska boundary is rendered October 17. — 
The new Republic of Panama is recognized by 
the United States, and a treaty is made for 
building the Panama Canal. 

1904 — A great fire in Baltimore destroys 
property valued at $70,000,000. — The Panama 
Canal Zone is transferred to the United States 
April 22. — The Louisiana Purchase Exposition 
is opened at St. Louis, April 30. — By the burn- 
ing of the excursion steamer "General Slocum," 
in the East River, New York, June 15, over 1000 
persons, mainly women and children, lose their 
lives. — Great strike in the meat-packing works 
at Chicago. — The first subway in New York is 
opened, October 27. — Theodore Roosevelt is 
elected President, and Charles W. Fairbanks, of 
Indiana, Vice-President. 

1905 — President Roosevelt is inaugurated 
IMarch 4. — The Lewis and Clark Exposition, cele- 
brating the centennial of Lewis and Clark's ex- 
ploring expedition, is opened at Portland, Ore- 
gon, May 28. — On June 9 President Roosevelt 
asks Japan and Russia to consider terms of peace. 
— The Chinese declare a boycott on American 
goods, July 19. — The Russian and Japanese peace 
envoys, at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, reach an 
agreement on a treaty of peace, August 29. — 
The envoys sign the treaty of peace, Septem- 
ber 5. 

1906 — An earthquake and fire at San Fran- 
cisco, California, April 18-20, destroys over 
$500,000,000 of property. — The Senate concludes 
to construct a lock canal at Panama. — President 
Palma appeals to the United States, September 
8, to intervene in Cuba and end a rebellion. — 
The United States intervenes in Cuba, September 

From a Copley Print copyright 1897 by Curtis & Cameron, Publishers, Boston. 

(From the mural decoration by Edward Simmons in the Criminal Courts Building, New York.) 

XVIII— 5 ="67 



29, W. H. Taft being made provisional governor. 

1907 — The Pure Food Law goes into effect 
January i. — John D. Rockefeller donates $32,000,- 
000 to the General Education Board. — Okla- 
homa is admitted to the Union as a State No- 
vember 16. — Secretary Taft opens the first 
Philippine Assembly October 16. — United States 
fleet starts around the world December 16. 

.1908 — First conference of State governors, at 
the White House, May 13-15. — Commander R. 
E. Peary sails on his final voyage to the arctic 
regions July 6. — Two-cent letter-postage to Eng- 
land and Germany is established. — William H. 
Taft is elected President, and James S. Sherman 

1909 — The Newfoundland Fisheries Treaty is 
signed January 27. — The battleship fleet anchors 
in Hampton Roads after its world-voyage, Feb- 
ruary 21. — President Taft is inaugurated March 
4. — Peary reaches the north pole, April 6. — ^The 
Payne Tariff Bill is introduced in Congress 
March 17. — American troops leave Cuba March 
31. — Payne Tariff Bill passed the House of Rep- 
resentatives April 9. — The Alaska-Yukon-Pacific 
Exposition is opened at Seattle, Washington, 
June I. — The National Conservation Congress 
meets at Seattle August 27, with tj States rep- 
resented. — The Hudson-Fulton Celebration opens 
in New York September 25. 

1910 — Bill providing for separate statehood 
for Arizona and New Mexico is passed by the 
House of Representatives, January 17. — In June 
ex-President Roosevelt returns from \x long 
hunting-expedition in Africa.- — Socialists elect 
all city ofiicers in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. — Glenn 
H. Curtiss flies from Albany to New York in 
an aeroplane, May 29. — Ex-President Roose- 
velt is publicly welcomed in New York, June 
18. — A serious insurrection breaks out in Mex- 
ico soon after the national elections in Decem- 

1911 — A treaty with Japan removing certain 
restrictions on Japanese coming to the United 
States is ratified February 24. — The great Roose- 
velt dam for irrigation, in Arizona, second larg- 
est in the world, is opened by ex-President 
Roosevelt, March 18. — The work of raising the 
battleship Maine, sunk in Havana harbor in 
1898, is begun in June.- — Postal savings banks are 
opened in many cities. — A bill permitting trade 
reciprocity with Canada is passed by Congress, 
but Canada refuses to agree. — President Diaz of 

Mexico resigns in May, and in October Fran- 
cisco Madero, Jr., is elected to the presidency. 

1912 — New Mexico is admitted to the Union 
as a State, January 6. — Raising of the Maine 
successfully accomplished. — Arizona also becomes 
a State. Woodrow Wilson and Thomas R. 
Marshall elected President and Vice-President. 

1913 — Parcels post inaugurated. — XVIth and 
XVI Ith Amendments ratified. — Underwood Tar- 
iff Bill adopted. — Trouble over revolutionary 
conditions in Mexico. 

1914 — Clashes with Mexico continue; Amer- 
ican war vessels seize \"era Cruz. — U. S. troops 
sent to Colorado mines to restore order. — Fed- 
eral Reserve banks established. — The President 
proclaims neutrality with the countries at war in 

1915 — General Pershing's expedition sent into 
Mexico to restore order. — Arbitration treaties 
signed Avith 26 nations. — Increasing violations of 
neutral rights by the nations at war. — The sink- 
ing of the Lusitania, May 7, by the Germans. — 
Generous work for the relief of Belgium goes 
on under the Red Cross. — Austrian ambassador 
and two German attaches dismissed by our gov- 
ernment for intrigues and conspiracies against 
the United States. 

1916 — Sinking of the channel passenger ship 
Sussex, by the Germans without warning, in 
May precipitates the demand that Germany con- 
duct her warfare in accordance with interna- 
tional law. — Unsuccessful peace overtures to 
both parties by President Wilson, December. 

1917 — Germany notifies the United States, 
January 31, of ruthless submarine warfare. — 
President Wilson dismisses the German ambas- 
sador, February 3, and Congress issues a declara- 
tion of war, April 6. — Tremendous war prepara- 
tions begun by us, and during the year 250,000 
soldiers transported to France, under General 
Pershing. — War declared with Austria-Hungary, 
December 7. 

1918 — President Wilson makes statements as 
to the purposes of the war and suitable condi- 
tions of peace, generally acceptable to the 
Allies. — He expresses the sympathy of the na- 
tion with the hapless condition of Russia and 
arranges with the Allies for a joint relief ex- 
pedition. — Reinforcements of American troops 
begin to turn the tide against the Central Powers 
at the second Battle of the Marne, in July, the 
fourth anniversary of the war. 





In these days of wonderful cannon, — dynamite, 
Catling and machine guns,— we are likely to for- 
get the contrivances used by the soldiers of an- 
cient times for throwing projectiles great dis- 
tances, or for battering down walls;— or if we 
think of the matter at all. it is with considerable 


scorn when we compare them, as we must, with 
the great and powerful guns of modern times. 
Nevertheless, the machines used by the ancients 
for warlike purposes were very powerful, quite 
ingenious, and to some extent even wonderful. 

In its widest and truest sense, the word artil- 
lery is used to designate every engine of war for 
use on the field of battle in throwing projectiles 
or battering down walls. The first and earliest 
mention of them in history is found in the Bible, 
where, in II. Chronicles, chapter xxvi., verse 15, 
•it is recorded that Uzziah, King of Judah, made 
engines to be put on towers and to discharge 
stones. The simplest engines used were batter- 
ing-rams, for destroying the walls of towns and 
cities. These battering-rams were so called from 
the habit of the ram to butt with its head, which 
mode of attack was imitated by the engine of war. 
The technical name for a battering-ram was Be- 
lier. and the rams were of three general classes. 
The first were quite rude, and consisted only of a 
large strong beam with its front end, or head, 
covered with iron. A number of soldiers carried 

this beam on their shoulders toward a wall, and 
when they rushed forward, the iron head of the 
beam would strike with great force against the 
masonry. But of course the beam could not be 
very large, or it would be too heavy to carry ; so 
the second class came into use. A long beam was 
fixed securely several feet from the ground on 
two or more supports, and from this beam was 
loosely suspended a much larger and heavier one 
with an iron head. This machine was placed close 
against the wall, and the suspended beam, being 
drawn back and then released, would swing for- 
ward with great force. The third class cost the 
most, and was, of course, more powerful than the 
others. In this, the beam was mounted on a num- 
ber of little wheels, which traveled in grooved, 
tracks laid for them, leading up to the wall. It 
can readily be seen that in this class the beam 
could be made of any size or weight, and that 
when pushed by a large number of strong sol- 
diers, the enormous machine would travel with 
great velocity and strike the wall with terrible 
force. But the defenders on the top of the wall 





could easily throw down darts and arrows to kill 
the soldiers, and great rocks or boulders to crush 
the rams. So the besiegers and the ram were pro- 
tected by a strong roof and walls which were 
fastened to the axles of the little wheels and thus 
always covered the ram and the soldiers, since the 
cover traveled with the machine, and indeed was 
part of it. 

As to the power of these engines of war, his- 
tory has preserved for us several very interesting 
examples. The Emperor Vespasian, during the 
siege of Jerusalem, built a ram having a brass 
head as large as ten men. It was armed with 
twenty-five horns, each the size of a man's body, 
while the weight of the beam was 150,000 pounds, 
that is, seventy-five tons, or about three times the 
height of an ordinary locomotive. It took three 
hundred pairs of mules to draw it, and fifteen 
hundred men to operate it. Now, the momentum 
or moving power of a body is measured by the 
product of its weight and its velocity. Therefore 
if this ram, when worked against a wall of stone, 
was moved at the rate of two feet a second (a 
moderate estimate), its force on striking the wall 
would be 300,000 pounds, which would be exactly 
the same as the force exerted by a weight of 
300,000 pounds in falling from a height of one 
foot. That is, it would exert greater power than 
any gun or cannon invented up to the year i860. 
These battering-rams were probably as effective 
in knocking down a wall or staving in the side of 
a ship as the best modern cannon, but for making 
a breach, the guns are far superior. Such was 

moving-tower rams was that constructed by De- 
metrius Poliorcetes at the siege of Rhodes. The 
base of the tower was seventy-five feet square. 
The ram itself was an assembly of large square 
beams resting on wheels in size proportioned 
to the weight of the structure, and all riveted 
together with iron. The felloes of the wheels 
were three feet thick and strengthened with 
iron plates. From each of the four angles of 
the tower a large pillar of wood was carried 
up to a height of 150 feet, and these pillars were 
inclined toward one another. The tower had 
three stories, communicating by two staircases 
each. Three sides of the machine were plated 
with iron to protect them against fire. In front 
of each story there were loop-holes, screened 
by leather curtains, to keep out darts, arrows, etc. 
Each story was provided with machines for throw- 
ing large stones and darts ; and in the lower story 
was the ram itself, thirty fathoms long, and fash- 
ioned at the end into an iron beak, or prow. The en- 
tire machine was moved forward by 3500 soldiers. 
But it can easily be understood that among so 
many men some must be more or less exposed to 
the enemy's darts and arrows ; and so, to drive the 
enemy from the walls and open places, to break 
the roofs of his houses, and otherwise annoy him, 
machines were necessary for throwing missiles, 
from small darts up to huge boulders. All these 
were included under the general name, Tor- 
menta ; and the catapult may be said to have been 
the Catling gun, and the Ballista, the siege can- 
non, of the ancients; while the Onager, the Scor- 
pion, the Trebuchet, the Mangonel, and others 
variously named, all were varieties of one or an- 
other of these classes. They received special 
names because it was fancied they possessed some 
characteristic of the animal after which they were 
named. Thus, the Onager is the wild ass of the 
desert, which kicks up showers of small stones 
with its hind feet when pursued ; and the machine 
called the Onager flung showers of small stones 
by a sort of kicking action. The Scorpion flung 

the solidity and thickness of the walls of Je- 
rusalem that, Josephus tells us, it took all of 
one night for this battering-ram to dislodge 
four stones ! 

Vitruvius has left us the description of 
a ram weighing 480,000 pounds ; but prob- 
ably the most celebrated of all the ancient 




showers of poisoned darts. All varieties of the 
Catapult flung showers of small stones, darts, ar- 
rows, javelins, etc., while all varieties of the Bal- 
lista flung but one large stone, or large dart, at a 
time or single discharge. But the motive power 

Notwithstanding the great force with which the 
ballista and catapult threw projectiles, there was 
wonderful accuracy in their aim. Josephus tells 
us that he himself saw the head of a man taken 
off and carried more than six hundred yards by a 

was the same in all, and was obtained either from 
weights or from springs, made of cords of hide or 
sinews, stretched or drawn back by levers. The 
power thus produced was sometimes very great. 
Weights as great as 1200 pounds could be thrown 
a distance of 800 yards. Think of that,— a power 
great enough to throw a big horse a distance of 
over half a mile ! It is surprising, is it not? 

These machines were carried about with the 
armies ; but often the largest were built before the 
besieged walls ; and when the army moved away 
these were taken apart and transported in pieces. 
Besides throwing great stones, the ballista was 
often used to hurl fire-pots and red-hot iron balls 
over the walls into the city, to set fire to it. The 
fire-pots were filled with resin and the wonderful 
composition known as Greek fire. This latter was 
made of naphtha, pitch, and sulphur ; and, once 
lighted, it could not be put out, even by water. It 
was used against fleets ; and the whole surface of 
a harbor was sometimes covered yvith the blazing 
mixture, so that vessels could escape it only by 
sailing away. 


large stone thrown from a ballista. Again, it is 
told that during the siege of Palmyra, the Empe- 
ror Aurelian, on visiting the outer trenches of his 
army, was exposed to a storm of fierce invective 
and bitter sarcasm from the garrison assembled 
on the walls. One of the enemy was particularly 
exasperating. A soldier in charge of a catapult 
offered to rid the emperor of the foul-mouthed 
fellow. The emperor consented, the catapult was 
discharged, and a huge arrow, going swift and 
straight to the mark, hit the man in the breast 
and passed through his body, killing him instantly. 
So much for the ingenious and ponderous ar- 
tillery of olden times. When it comes to modern 
engines of war, so great a subject is opened up- 
mammoth guns, smokeless powder, war balloons, 
and the enormous fighting-machines we call war- 
ships—that it must be described in other pages. 




To the marine architect or artist there is no more 
interesting study than that of the growth of the 
modern ship from its earliest forms. Ancient 
ships of war and of commerce equally interest 
him ; but as he studies the sculptures, the coins, 
and the writings of the ancients, he finds that 

records of war-ships far outnumber those of the 
ships of commerce. 

Among the ancient nations, the Greeks, the Ro- 
mans, and Carthaginians were by far the best 
ship-builders, and, judging from the description 
of their works, as well as from the images upon 




coins, their craft must have been elegant, swift, 
and seaworthy— more than can be said for many 
of the more showy productions of the ship-yards 
of Britain, France, and Spain even so late as the 
middle ages. 

To the uninformed the statement that some of 
the ancient war-craft were over three hundred 
feet in length seems incredible ; for a comparison 
immediately rhade between them and modern 
"ocean greyhounds" would seem to discredit the 
statement. Facts are facts, however, and there is 
no doubt that ancient vessels were nearly as large 
as those of to-day. 

There is no question now that the ships of the 
ancients made extended voyages urged by oars 
alone, or occasionally, when the wind was fair, 
by sails. A thousand oarsmen (in relays) were 
sometimes required to man the sweeps, besides a 
crew of five hundred sailors and soldiers ; and the 
splendid vision comes before the mind's eye of a 
fleet of these ancient war-ships moving swiftly 
along the white villa dotted shores of Greece or 
Italy, or majestically sweeping into some mirror- 
like harbor, and with flashing oars, waving ban- 
ners, and trumpets saluting the setting of the sun. 

The three ancient nations I have named were 
foremost in maritime enterprise, and the great 
kingdom of Egypt across the Mediterranean was 
far behind; not that the people of that country 
lacked bravery or the spirit of commerce, but 

their religious beliefs stood in the way. Their 
priests taught them that the sea was a "swallower 
of rivers." The Nile, that great "mother of the 
land," the giver of all blessings, always generous, 
flowed continually into the great "swallower," 
which took all that was offered but returned noth- 
ing save monsters and wrecks. To so great a de- 
gree was this silly notion spread among the peo- 
ple, that almost all foreign intercourse by way of 
the sea was discouraged. Mariners, whether com- 
ing to anchor peaceably at their doors, or thrown 
in shipwreck on their coasts, were alike treated 
with suspicion and avoidance, or even cruelty. 




Certainly it is not strange that to Tyre and Sidon, 
their near neighbors, was left the leadership in 
commerce and ship-building which has made 
those two cities famous in history. 

We are able to make from old records very 
fair models of the war-ships of the ancients. One 
writer describes the heptareme used by Pyrrhus, 
king of Epirus, and also the great galley of Ptol- 
emy Philopator, propelled by forty banks of oars. 
This statement, however, is ques- 
tioned, for, however plain the descrip- 
tions of these old war-ships may be, 
no one has yet shown the precise 
manner in which forty banks of oars 
were worked. A bank of oars, ac- 
cording to our modern ideas, means a 
row or line of oars on one deck ; and 
while there are many pictures and 
sculptures of galleys, they show noth- 
ing more than a trireme, that is, a 
ship of three tiers or banks, an ar- 
rangement which, however uncom- 
fortable for the men whose duty or 
fate it was to handle the top bank of 
oars, is readily recognized as a possi- 
bility. But how a ship of forty banks 
of oars, or even of ten, was arranged, 
puzzles our imagination. 

John Charnock, a very able writer 
upon marine architecture, in the year 
1800 submitted a theory which in- 
geniously supposes the word "bank" 
to have meant a group of oars, or the 
men who worked them ; and he gives 
the restoration of a war-ship of the 
first class, constructed in a manner 
plainly showing how there could be 
room for three tiers of oars on each 
side, in groups of five, on a ship the 
size of Ptolemy's, which was four 
hundred and eighty feet long, fifty- 
seven feet wide, eighty feet high at 
the stern, was steered by four oars 
each forty-five feet in length, and car- 
ried a crew of "4000 rowers, and 400 
other persons necessary to navigate 
the ship." However marvelous the 
statement regarding such a craft managed by 
oars under the forty-bank arrangement, it is 
reduced, under Mr. Charnock's theory, to a pos- 
sibility, and so far as the size of the ship is 
concerned, to a question merely of the desires 
and means of the builders. Mr. Cartault, the au- 
thor of an interesting work on the subject, writ- 
ing of the arrangement of oars on these great 
vessels, declares that no theories can quite agree 
with the positive statements of ancient writers; 

H.T.&G.D. II. 18. 

so that at the present day we are still as much in 
the dark concerning this very interesting problem 
as we are concerning the manner in which the 
pyramids of Egypt were built. Discoveries are 
being constantly made, however, that clear up 
quite as obscure points in history, and we have 
therefore good reason to hope that at some fu- 
ture time new (or rather, old) light upon this 
subject may in like manner disclose the arrange- 


ment of the forty banks. The finding of the 
mummy of Pharaoh Ramescs II. in its desert 
tomb explains, by its inscriptions, several histori- 
cal mysteries; and the discovery of the almost 
entire hull of one of the Viking ships of the 
Norsemen, in a burial mound near Christiania, 
encourages us still further in our hope. 

The voyages of the ancient ships were often 
long, — for example, that of the Goths from Sicily 
in the Mediterranean around to the coast of Hol- 




land; and, if the writers of the middle ages con- 
sidered the statements of such deeds to be fabu- 
lous, they must have formed their judgment more 


from lack of similar ability in their own vessels 
than anything else. Compare the length and 
speedy lines of one of the old galleys, and their 
beautiful proportions, with the tower-like, Chi- 
nese-pagoda style of naval architecture of the 
middle ages. A mere glance at the picture of 
the "Great Harry," or of some of the famous 
ships of the Spanish Armada, will show the dif- 
ference; but when g, comparison is made of the 
seas for which the two styles of ships were con- 
structed, we may not smile at the builders of 
those towering, melon-sided old warriors any 
more than at the seemingly improbable voyages 
of the ancients. The blue Mediterranean was not 
the rough Bay of Biscay, or the turbulent North 


have been outstripped in a voyage on the inland 
sea by Ptolemy's ship with its thousand oarsmen, 
yet we can hardly doubt that the galley, with its 
great length and small width, would soon have 
been racked or twisted to pieces in the rougher 
Northern waters. Both styles of craft were de- 
signed for the waters they were to know, and the 
ancients, with their many seaports, where they 
could shelter at night or in stormy weather, might 
work their way along coasts and amid shoals and 
currents where even a modern steam-frigate 
would be at a disadvantage. The Duke of North- 
umberland made a voyage to India by way of the 
Cape of Good Hope, in 1594, in a "galuzabra," 
which was but a modernized form of galley. 

And those old-time shipwrights, in spite of the 
generally accepted belief that sheathing was an 
invention of the middle ages, were well acquainted 
with various methods of sheathing the bottom of 
a ship, not alone for preservation, but for freer 
progress through the water. It is recorded that 
hardened hides were firmly nailed to ships' bot- 

Sea, or the Channel at Dover; and while the 
Great Harry or "Santissima Trinidad," built for 
Ihe higlj choppy seas of thp North, might easily how could the obelisk now at Rome, which once 


toms, and we are also told that "when the re> 
mains of Trajan's galley were raised from Lake 
Riccio, where it had lain for over thirteen hun- 
dred years, the pine and cypress of which it was 
built had endured, and were then in so sound a 
state as to be nearly incredible." "The bottom 
was, according to the modern and easily compre- 
hended scientific term, 'doubled,' the seams had 
evidently been calked with linen, and the whole 
exterior part was carefully smeared or paid with 
a coat of Greek pitch, over which was brought an 
exterior coating, or what now is called a 'sheath- 
ing,' formed of lead rolled or beaten to a proper 
thinness and closely attached to the bottom by a 
sufficient number of small copper nails." 

The modern constructor must remember that 
the early ships were likewise good carriers; else 



stood before the temple of the sun at HeliopoHs, 
have been removed from the Nile to the Tiber? 


It is 115 feet in length, and weighs not less than 
1500 tons. 

How the great English war-ship "Harry Grace 
a Dieu" could ever have stood upright under such 
a mass of lofty cabins and top-hamper as she is 
pictured with is a marvel ; the drawing* of her 
bow alone, shown upon this page, indicates but 
little stability. Nor do the bows of several more 


of the large ships of that age show any more sea- 

The Greek and the Roman galleys when com- 
pared with the ships of the middle ages show 
not only greater stability but fitness for many 
uses besides that of merely cutting the water. In 
one we find at the water's edge a sheaf of twelve 
huge swords or prongs for tearing an enemy at 
the water-line, while above are two iron spear- 

cealed crew, and shaped either to smash in bul- 
warks, or to hook on to or cut the enemy's rig- 
ging. From the platform above archers could 
discharge their arrows, or repel boarders. 

Other war-galleys were provided with cata- 
pults, from which great masses of stone or mar- 
ble shot were hurled upon the enemy's ship or 
amid his rowers. Some of the larger ships car- 
ried great cranes, which, being lowered to an 
opposing ship, lifted with great grappling-irons 
her bow or stern high enough in air to render her 
helpless for attack or defense. These machines, 
called "corvi," were invented by the famous en- 
gineer Archimedes, and were used by him with 
terrible effect at the siege of Syracuse, where the 
attacking galleys, according to Plutarch, advanc- 
ing too close to the walls, were speared or grap- 
pled with great iron prongs, and after being lifted 
from the water by the ends were swayed to and 
fro, whirled in mid-air, and dashed to fragments 
against the rocks. 

Though we may doubt the saying that "there is 
nothing new under the sun," we certainly find 
naval architecture repeating itself, for our mod- 
ern men-of-war are abandoning the open fighting- 
tops at their mastheads, and using the round 
basket-shaped fighting-towers which appear so 
often in old designs of Roman ships, especially 
of the time of Julius Caesar— in which we also dis- 
cover a prow, ram, or beak so closely resembling 
those of the ships of to-day, that we might accuse 
the later designers of plagiarism. One has a bow 
the exact counterpart of the British ironclads 
"Lord Warden" and "Royal Oak," now in the 
Royal Navy. 

What a grand sight it must have been when 
two great fleets of old war-ships bore down upon 
each other for battle— their bulging sails dyed in 
blue, red, or purple, or embroidered in gold and 
silver stripes and emblems ; some divided in 
squares of colors like a checker-board, or strewn 
with stars, suns, or gigantic figures of gods or 
beasts or eagles. How the thousands of oars, 
painted in all colors of the rainbow, must have 
dazzled the eye as they flashed in the sunlight ! 

As the lines of battle draw together, and the 
lighter galleys, acting as skirmishers, come within 
striking distance of the wings, they dash forward 
at racing stroke, and after discharging flights of 
arrows, which fly across the heavens like streams 
of locusts, retreat again. The larger ones now 
come on, and, as the hail of arrows increases, the 
creak and groan of the great 'catapults are heard 
as they are wound up and drawn back to fire ; and 
above the jar of their discharge are now and then 
heard the rush and the crash of the rocks and 

headed rams to be run out violently by a con 

* Taken from a print engraved during the existence of the vessel 



stone shot they let drive. Some are throwing 
masses of red-hot iron, which burst through op- 
posing decks and set them on fire. Huge hulks 
now single out and grapple with one another, and 
lie side by side for the boarders to work. Cranes 
swing over the enemy's decks, and great caldrons 
suspended at their ends are upset, and pour cas- 
cades of living fire upon the decks and amid the 
frantic oarsmen, for a large proportion of the 
rowers were slaves chained to the seats. What a 
picture ! And as the smoke lowers over the scene, 
the smaller galleys take advantage of its obscur- 
ity, and dash against their larger oppo- 
nents, sweeping off whole rows of oars, 
biting and rending with their grappling- 
hooks, tearing down whole sections of 
bulwarks, and cutting away supporting 
'■'gging until the swaying masts come 
hurtling down with their yards, sails, 
and burning caldrons in a cascade of 
ruin and fire. A ship thus partly dis- 
abled is ready for boarding, and the sec- 
ond stage of the battle is begun. Plat- 
forms are lowered to her decks, and the 
soldiers cross in a charge, while large 
baskets filled with armed sailors are 
run to the ends of the cranes in place 
of the caldrons and lowered swiftly to 
assist the charging soldiers. It rains 
men in place of fire, and surrender or 
ruin ensues. 

And now the unconquered ships, like 
great wounded centipeds, with count- 
less oars waving and straining, slowly 
back from out the press to refit or re- 
treat, while packs of smaller ones fol- 
low, like bandogs after a wounded bull, 
to worry and annoy. 

The smoke slowly drifts away, disclos- 
ing a scene of ruin and triumph. The defeated ones 
are fleeing in all directions. Trumpets blare forth 
the news of victory, and triumphant shouts arise. 
The least-injured and swiftest skirmishers dash 
off in pursuit of the flying, while others gather 
beside some foundering vessel mortally rammed 
in the fight. In the distance one of the largest 

galleys is a roaring mass of flames, her oar-ports 
spouting hundreds of jets of flame, her black 
smoke a column against the setting of the sun. 
As night falls over the scene, and the stars 
come out, the victors draw together and sail for 
home, where their captives, if rich, are ransomed, 
if poor, are sold as slaves or chained as rowers 
to their galley-benches, and the captured craft, 
if too damaged for use, are deprived of their 
bows to grace a triumphal march, or to adorn 
some temple of war or public building, as we may 
see in the Stairway of the Galleys which was 


constructed before Hamilcar's palace at Carthage. 
The naval battles of those days were battles 
of Titans afloat. The struggles were cf neces- 
sity hand to hand, in comparison with which 
modern naval engagements, where a few shots 
from long-range guns decide the issue in as many 
minutes, sink into insignificance. 


Ox Id^arT^ Ir^eimn.. 


HEN we crane our 
necks trying to look 
to the top of the 
"sky-scraper" twen- 
ty-story office build- 
that disfigures our 
modern cities, we fancy 
we know something about 
big buildings. If, how- 
ever, we compare our 
greatest structures with 
some of those built in the 
Orient four thousand years ago, they will cease 
to appear so imposing. 

Imagine a stone about three times the size of 
a railroad freight-car— a stone from which three 
or four obelisks like that in Central Park, New 
York, could be made. Imagine it to be carried 
two miles from the quarries, and hoisted many 
feet from the ground in the position in the an- 
cient wall in which you see it in the illustration. 
Surely we must conclude that "there were giants 
in those days," or that some superhuman means 
was used in the construction of this gigantic 
foundation. If you ask any of the Arabs dwell- 
ing for miles around Baalbec as to how the walls 
were built, and by whom they were built, all will 
tell the same story : " 'T is the work of Solomon, 
assisted by the genii." These he must have kept 

bottled up, to help him in the great enterprises 
that are attributed to him ! Such is the conve- 
nient "Arabian Nights" way of explaining the 
gigantic work. Whether there is any connection 
between the Arabian legend and the old Bible 
story describing "the tower of Lebanon looking 
toward Damascus," supposed to have been built 
by Solomon for the Queen of Sheba, I cannot 
say. It is, however, a curious fact that from one 
end of Syria to the other, whenever you meet 
with a great piece of engineering or architectural 
work seeming too difficult for the modern man, 
the native always tells you it was the work of 
Solomon and his genii. 

Our obelisk in the Central Park (one of a 
group of monoliths— "Cleopatra's Needles," as 
they are called in Europe) has a close connection 
with this subject. It is a complete mistake to 
connect them in any way with the Egyptian 
queen, for they belong to a period many hundreds 
of years before her reign. They were ancient 
religious symbols connected with the sun (Baal) 
as an object of worship. The Egyptian priests 
called these monoliths "fingers of the sun." 

They originally stood in front of the Temple 
of the Sun at Heliopolis ; but they were carried 
away by Pontius, the engineer of Augustus Cae- 
sar, A.D. 21, to adorn his palace at Alexandria. 
This last piece of information was engraved in 




Latin and Greek on the 
claw of one of tlie four 
bronze crabs at the base 
of the obelisk. 

Try to realize the di- 
mensions of the "big 
stone" that still rests in 
the quarry, attached to 
the living rock, as you see 
it in the heading illustra- 
tion, and note, packed on 
the camel's back, the size 
of the stones that are 
quarried to-day. There 
are three other huge blocks 
in the foundation of the 
Temple of the Sun at 
Baalbec, but the great 
corner-stone far exceeds 
them all. It is sixty-seven 
feet long, eighteen feet 
wide, and thirteen feet 
high. Its weight is esti- 
mated at eleven hundred 
and thirty tons. These 
stones at Baalbec are. in- 
deed, the largest that have 
ever been moved by hu- 
man power. 

There have been many 
theories as to how such 
huge masses were carried 
from the distant quarry 
to their resting-place in 
the wall. The most likely 
one suggests that a slightly 
inclined plane was built C^, 
from the great stone ; ^ 
thousands of men, proba- part of the ruin- „. . 
bly prisoners of war, were 

harnessed like beasts of burden, and, under the 
lashes of their taskmasters, were made to drag 
this immense mass slowly up the incline to its 
place in the wall. As time, life, and labor were 
considered as nothing in those days, it is quite 
likely this was the way it was accomplished. But 
certainly our old friend King Solomon had noth- 
ing whatever to do with it. The Romans have 
been credited with the work, but long before 
Rome was in existence the mighty stones were in 
place. The praise is without doubt due to those 
wonderful old people, the Phenicians— the enter- 
prising race that lived here during the palmy 
days of Syria; the brave people who, without 
chart or mariners' compass, ventured in their 
funny little ships out into the open and stormy 
northern sea as far as the coast of Cornwall, in 

England, to work the 
tin-mines, and some- 
times went even far- 
ther north. 

They are the people, 
you will remember, who 
discovered the art of 
glass-making, and other 
things by which you 
and I profit to-day. 

One night, I was sit- 
ting by a camp-fire built 
on the sands of the 
coast of Syria, where 
a little river ran in 
from the hills to the 
east, not far from the 
walls of Acre. To en- 
liven the long evening, 
my dragoman told me, 
among other tales, how, 
once upon a time, 
some thousands 
of years ago, a 
I party of Pheni- 
cians were sit- 
ting chatting over 


their camp-fire, near this very spot, when they 
noticed some queer, greenish, transparent, worm- 
like things creeping slowly out of the fire over 
the sand. When cool enough, they held them 
up to the declining sun. and they sparkled like 
gems — and glass was discovered ! A fusion of 
the sand and seaweed silica, and lime, and other 
things necessary to the construction of glass, had 
by accident been melted in the fire, and for this 
accident we are still debtors. 

This story has long been believed ; but students 
of the long ago tell us that glass was known to 
the Egyptians before the Phenicians sailed the 

I wish I might give you some idea of the 
majesty of those grand old masses of stone of 
Baalbec ! 



We arrived in the dusk of the evening, and 
found our camp pitched in the courtyard of the 
inner temple ; but we were too tired, after ten 
hours in the saddle, to admire much as we stum- 
bled over the broken ruins in the thickening dark- 
ness.' Rest and dinner, I am afraid, seemed then 
far more important than all the temples in the 
world. But later in the evening, on lifting up 
the tent-flap to see what were the prospects of 
weather for the morrow, I was almost overcome 
by the transformation that had taken place in 
two hours. The darkness had fled, and the full 
moon was flooding the snowy peaks of Lebanon, 
and still against the mountains of whiteness stood 
the six huge columns, their glorious capitals just 
coming into the mysterious light. It seemed as if 
they reached up to the very stars. The people 
who built them disappeared thousands of years 
ago, and their history has been forgotten ; but 
the grandeur of their idea remains, and men of 
to-day travel weary miles, as we did, to come in 
touch with the handiwork of men who never 
dreamed that America existed. 

The name Heliopolis ("City of the Sun") is a 
little confusing when used in connection with the 
Baalbec of which we are talking, because the 
former, you will remember, is the name of the 
old, old city in the north of Egypt where Joseph 
and Mary took the child Jesus for safety at the 
time of the persecution by Herod. The story 
goes that the Romans, who worshiped, among 
other deities, the lord of the sun, Baal, stole the 

golden god from the defeated Egyptians, and car- 
ried it far up north into the mountains of Anti- 
Lebanon, in Syria. There they built a great 
acropolis on the foundations of much older struc- 
tures of the Phenicians, with temples, courts, and 
columns by the thousand, and called it Heliopolis, 
the City of the Sun. The tenacious natives con- 
tinued, nevertheless, to use their own name for 
the place, Baalbec. Baal was a sort of double 
divinity, both Jupiter and the sun— a beardless, 
life-sized figure of solid gold, holding in his right 
hand a whip (to symbolize his driving the horses 
of the chariot of the sun), in his left hand a thun- 
derbolt and ears of wheat. 

He was consulted by all sorts and conditions 
of people who were about to engage in doubtful 
enterprises. We read of Trajan, the Roman em- 
peror; coming to consult the oracle of Baalbec 
upon the success of his intended Parthian expe- 

Now, the Phenician Baal was Melkart, whom 
the Greeks, according to their usual custom of 
identifying the gods of other nations with their 
own, confounded with Hercules, and designated 
"Hercules of Tyre." In reality he was a very 
different idol from their own deified hero, and 
would appear to have been an incarnation of the 
sun. It was allowed, even by the Greeks, that of 
all the gods and demigods who bore this name, 
he of the Phenicians was the most ancient of all. 
In the initial letter of this article you will see pic- 
tures of two coins, both in the British Museum — 



""fRe ^rebt- corntr slone. , 

' ' ;p St ' {p^ g, • 'f ^ feet Nji/i de , 
j' I'S'feet hi^rK; 



the first, Melkart, a copper coin of Cossyra, show- 
ing the Phenician Baal, and the second, a much 
later silver coin of Tyre, showing the Tyrian 

Syria, as well as northern Egypt, was given up 
at one time to the worship of Baal, and Baalbec 
was the center of that worship. I could not but 
sympathize, in part, with the symbol of their wor- 
ship. Our camp was pitched in the courtyard of 
one of the great temples. For two weeks, with- 
out a cloud, each morning at sunrise the snow- 
peaks of the Lebanon glowed like molten metal 
against the green-blue sky, the first herald of the 
god of day. 

The worship must have been an imposing one. 
The rising sun was waited for by the priests of 
Baal, who watched the summit of Dhahr el Kho- 
dib, upon whose western slope are situated the 
cedars of Lebanon. The moment the first rose- 
colored rays struck the snow-peaks, the great 
daily ceremony of the grandest temple of ancient 
or modern times began. 

Imagine the long line of priests, trumpeters, 
and choristers waiting and watching, their faces 
turned to catch the first flush upon the snow- 
peaks, which was announced by a mighty blast 
upon a hundred trumpets. 

The moment the glowing edge appeared above 
the eastern hills, five hundred voices of the chor- 
isters broke into a grand hymn to the sun— the 
god of day, the lord of life. 

Speaking of the structures, an eminent writer 
upon such matters calls them the "boldest plan ever 
attempted in architecture." Nothing that I can 
say or draw— alas ! — will give you an idea of the 
overpowering immensity of the buildings, par- 
ticularly the great Temple of the Sun, with its 
enormous fluted golden columns, that helped to 
reflect the glory of the coming day. Many people 
describe Baalbec as being built of white marble, 
but it is really indurated (hardened) limestone, 
that has retained the wonderfully delicate detail 
of column and peristyle as sharply as though it 
had been finished yesterday. And it is a thrilling 
thought that our obelisk in Central Park may 
have looked— nay, did, in its far-off Egyptian in- 
fancy, look into the very Temple of the Sun, and 
saw our golden god at Heliopolis thousands of 
years ago. 





History would be the pleasantest sort of learning 
in existence if all the nations of the past had left 
memorials such as the Romans have, and if we 
could take our class-books afield and read of 
events there where they actually happened. This 
thought occurred to me last summer when I was 
bicycling alone in the wild, unpeopled fell coun- 
try which still separates England from Scotland, 
and came almost by chance upon the remains of 
the great wall which the Emperor Hadrian built 
to keep those lively gentlemen, the Picts and 
Scots, out of the Roman province of Britain. 

I had read of it before, as every boy has, and 
traced the long seventy-mile line of that wonder- 
ful fortification on my map right across Northum- 
berland from the Atlantic to the German Ocean ; 
but it was just a line to me, as it probably is to 
you. And then all of a sudden that day, miles 
from even a shepherd's hut, I came upon the 
splendid ruin zigzagging across hill and vale as 

far as one could see on either hand, solitary and 
forgotten, yet impressive even in its decay. It 
was just as if I had tumbled right out of this 
humdrum, latter-day world right into the old one 
of emperors, prefects, centurions, and all the gold 
and glitter, the splendor and wrong-doing of that 
great empire which once embraced all the known 

I forgot the busy life behind me as I jumped 
from my bicycle and threw myself down, surprised 
and delighted, in the heather, in the very midst 
of one of the best-preserved bits of the wall, and 
let my fancy call into being again all the inci- 
dents of the place. I remembered how the Ro- 
mans had landed in Britain, and then in long 
years of endless conflict, while emperors came 
and went in the far-away city on the Tiber, had 
pushed their way ever northward with that steady 
purpose which was their chief characteristic, seiz- 
ing tract after tract, until at last they arrived 








here on what was to them the very edge of the 
world. Beyond lay all modern Scotland, a region 
then from which even their stubborn valor re- 
coiled. Unfortunately for the invaders, the ex- 
tensive Scotian forests 
were full of a people 
who would not surren- 
der and who could not 
be caught ; and after 
they had grown weary 
of chasing these naked 
savages over hills cov- 
ered in blue mist, the 
General Agricola re- 
called all his legion- 
aries within the North- 
umberland border, and 
dug the first great ditch 
to mark the edge of the 
imperial empire. 

There it was just as 
his men had left it 
when history was only 
beginning, overgrown 
with grass and with 
coarse white-flowered 
brambles in which the 
linnets build— a great 
cleft in the moorside, 
and a notch against the 
blue sky where it 
climbed over the hill- 
tops to east and west. 
But little those ramp- 
ing Picts cared for the 
sacredness of boun- 
daries ; they poured 
through Agricola's 

great ditch whenever 
they got a* chance, and 
killed and burned right 
down to Eboracum in 
middle England. So 
presently Hadrian came 
over in turn, and 
northward by horse 
and chariot till he was 
here in the fell-country 
— a man not to be 
trifled with, quick, dark, 
and keen, with fierce 

bright eyes shining out under those penthouse 
eyebrows you may note in the portraits which his 
coins bear in your museum cases. By his orders, 
it is supposed, they built, eighteen hundred years 
ago, that wall from Tyne to Solway, over hill and 
dale, which shines to-day in the summer sun al- 

most as perfect in places as it was when the last 
stone was set and fixed, and the hard Roman mortar 
settled down to withstand all that the Picts and the 
blows and buffets of eighteen hundred northern 





winters could do. Eight feet wide at the base, six- 
teen feet high when it was perfect, the great wall 
turned an adamant face to the northward. Not a 
stoat or a weasel could pass through between the 
two seas save at some half dozen gates placed at in- 
tervals of several miles along its course, and each 



of these portals led directly into military camps, 
whereof the walls and buildings are still traced 
by ruins even to-day. Between Hadrian's wall 
and Agricola's foss to the south of it is a strip 
of country about a quarter of a mile wide, and it 
was this the Romans garrisoned with necessary 
soldiers— tall Belgians, fair-haired Goths, dusky 
Spaniards, even Africans and Arabs from the 
outlying provinces of their realm. How the hill 
sheep must have stared, and the ancestors of 

Gaul or Belgium, and if you try hard enough, 
how easy it is to imagine, there where the mili- 
tary road between ditch and wall comes out of 
the shadow of oak and hawthorn, the high-sided 
cattle-wagons with a new season's supplies toil- 
ing in from the east. A great event for all those 
hungry exiles, thirsting for the pleasant things of 
the south, and, above all, for news of home ! The 
sentinel pacing along the wall in that never-end- 
ing tramp of theirs spreads the news, and all the 


those very plovers piping in the solitudes over 
my head have screamed and wheeled, to see that 
garrison settle down for its four hundred years 
of watch and ward, a glittering band of steel and 
gold across the immensity of the lifeless bogs 
before and behind it ! And when the last mile 
was finished and Hadrian had gone south again, 
the life there must have been an almost unendur- 
able monotony, broken by intervals of the wildest 

A few hundred yards away from where I sit 
is the famous camp of Borocovis, under shelter 
of the gray rampart which runs up to it on either 
side, and the nodding fir-trees. You can still see 
the pretorian's house and the ruined gateway, 
while the slope below is all in terraces, where the 
soldiers tried to grow their southern vegetables 
on the cold northern bogs ; and in the dip is a 
carefully leveled place where they had gladiato- 
rial shows or chariot races. Like all the other 
troops in the long line of neighboring camps, they 
got the main part of their supplies overseas from 

garrison turns out to see them. They wind along 
the main road, then turn off to the camp itself 
across the amphitheater and up the hillside until 
they are at the gate itself and speedily enveloped 
in a crowd of eager welcomers. Among all the 
motley stuff they bring, there is something for 
everybody. There are letters for the pretorian 
from Rome itself— always a matter of interest 
when you never know for certain whether the 
next communication will announce your election 
as emperor or order you to get your head cut off ! 
There is a pay-chest for the soldiers— not so 
heavy as it ought to be ; a hundred rolls of crim- 
son cloth from Tyre for buying the good-will of 
a Pictish chieftain; a few great earthen jars of 
Cyprus wine, the last survivors of many broken 
on the journey ; two tubs of cockles and limpets 
from Tynemouth. delicacies which always brought 
great joy to the Roman officers, who loved shell- 
fish above all things; new armor for the merce- 
naries; more bales of cloth from Aries, and stacks 
of weapons from Iberian forges ; oil for the lamps 



in the long Avinter nights; corn and honey, nails, 
tools, horse-harness, plows, seeds for sowing— 
everything, in fact, that these military Robinson 
Crusoes could desire : but no letters for the com- 
mon soldiers, no newspapers ! Those few travel- 
stained warriors who tramped in behind the con- 
voy are the garrison's postmen and newspapers 
in one; they are fresh from the Imperial City, 
and, in an age when gossip w:as a virtue, it is to 
them that all go for news; it is they who for the 
next fortnight will have to sit by twenty camp- 
fires and pour out for straining ears all the facts 
and fancies of the great world of Rome. 

There is high fun that night by the red blazes 
when all the stores have been replenished, and all 
the troopers paid, and the next day, perhaps,— if 
that letter did indeed bring the pretorian good 
news,— there are games in honor of the event: 
chariot races, mimic combats, and wrestling, with 
games for "the common people." And the next 
day after that the officers get up a wild-boar hunt 
down by where Carlisle now stands, and have 
good sport, as the altars they erected to fallen 
monarchs of the forest tell us they often had. 

What fun they had to make up for all those 
dull days gone before ! How they sampled the 

good things just come from Tiber, and ate the 
roasted boar and venison their spears had brought 
down that day in the forests ! As I sit on the 
hillside opposite, though it all happened nearly 
two thousand years ago, I can imagine the shine 
of the lights at dusk in the little casements all 
along the walls of the old camp ; and the strange 
shadowy groups about the camp-fires of the sol- 
diers, and the darker outline of the sentinel, 
whose golden armor catches a twinkle now and 
then from the flames below as he walks solemnly 
to and fro against the black northern sky beyond. 
It is all so real that I fancy I can almost hear 
their laughter and shouting and the yapping of 
the dogs quarreling over fragments of the feast — 
and then ! The sentinel halts suddenly in his 
pacing ! 

Little do the revelers know what is coming : 
but the man on the wall stares hard out into the 
barbarian forest for a minute or two, and then, 
snatching down a bugle from where it hangs on 
its nail by his watch-towers, blows a long wail- 
ing blast ; and at that sound all the merriment dies 
suddenly out of the Roman camp till not a chirrup 
is heard where all was noise before. Again the 
soldier stares hard into the night to make sure. 





and then sounds the alarm again with redoubled 
energy ; and as the blast dies away a wild roar of 
excitement rises from the imperial troopers. 

The barbarians are coming ! 

While two or three horsemen throw themselves 
upon their ready chargers and go thundering 
away east and west to warn other garrisons or 
ask for help, the camp-followers fly to hiding; 
the fortress gates ring down their stony grooves; 
doors and windows are hastily barricaded ; the 
centurions swarm out to the walls, buckling 
swords and armor as they run ; and when the 
cressets flare upon the battlements, a mile up and 
down each way, they shine on a living line of 
glittering brass and steel. 

Rome is ready ! 

And none too soon. The Pictish spies have 
told their countrymen that the strangers feast to- 
night, and, hoping to catch them unawares, they 
have come down at dusk, ten or twelve thousand 
of them, and creeping forward in the darkness 
where a tongue of shadowy forest comes within 
a quarter of a mile of the wall, were just about 
to make their rush when the sentinel saw them. 
His warning note started the fierce tribesmen, 
and here they come across the intervening bog 
and heather. There is no artillery to check their 

progress, nothing to do but wait that moment 
when the short Roman sword can get to work ; 
and it is not long in coming. 

The Picts sweep forward like ten thousand 
wolves ; yelling hoarse cries as they run, they 
swarm up the steep approach, and surge against 
Hadrian's bulwark as though they would bear it 
down by their sheer weight. The foremost men 
carry short lengths of pine-tree, with a foot of 
each branch still left upon them, and these they 
slope against the stonework by way of ladders ; 
ten, twenty, thirty are planted, the stormers 
scrambling up, stabbing and thrusting as they 
come. Others, with long poles with hooks at the 
ends, try to crook these over the necks of the Ro- 
mans and drag them down, and all the while the 
slings and bowmen pour in a withering storm of 
missiles on the defenders. Wilder and wilder be- 
comes the uproar — with thousands of men at 
arm's length fighting for life. The mere rattle 
of the swords makes a noise like thunder ; the 
cressets flare and splutter ; the great black bar- 
barian flood rises and rises, till at last even the 
gallant defending legion — "the valorous and ever 
victorious" — cannot stand that enormous pressure, 
the golden Roman line parts and reels back, and 
through the gap the barbarians pour over the wall. 





But it is a short-lived triumph. As they come 
shouting, overbearing along with them in the im- 
petus of their rush scores of Romans, whose ar- 
mor flashes now and then in the confused mid- 
stream of bear- and wolf-skins, the reserves that 
have been mustering in the shadow of the wall 
swing round and charge,— that straight, deadly 
charge, a running wall of linked shields, with the 
lightning of swords playing above, that settled a 
thousand disputed questions of ancient history. 
And it settles the Picts. They halt, and hesitate, 
and fly ; they die under the wall like wolves at 
bay; they scramble back on to the ramparts, 
where a wild chaos of struggling forms heaves in 
the uncertain light ; they tumble headlong back 
among their kindred— those of them who ever get 
so far. The wall is won again, and as the exulting 
shout of the Romans echoes into the hills and 
startles the red deer in far-away glens and the 
sleepy kites upon the crags, the Northmen slowly 

fall back, dragging their wounded with them, and 
disappear into the forest shadows whence they 

That is the sort of episode which varied the 
monotonous lives of those old fighters. But the 
famous landmark they left behind them is quiet 
enough now as it shines in the pleasant English 
sun. I stroll over to it, and there in the crevices 
of the mortar the little Italian flowers, which 
have outlived a great empire and grow nowhere 
else in the neighborhood, are making the old ma- 
sonry pleasant with their buds; the larks are 
building under the forum steps in the camp, the 
mountain hares playing about the pretorian's 
ruined doorway ; and as I climb into the very gap 
that was defended so desperately some two thou- 
sand years ago, and sit down to eat a sandwich 
from my shoulder-bag, it is difficult to imagine 
a lovelier or more stately peace than hangs over 
that ruined memorial of a great episode in history. 

■S«-5 ti 





The continent of South America stretches its 
great length from the warm shores of the Carib- 
bean Sea to the cluster of cold and desolate is- 
lands ending at Cape Horn. Its outline is as bold 
and simple as that of the other two southern con- 
tinents, and in size it is very nearly twice as large 
as Europe. 

Look at a map of South America, and you will 
see that its shape, like that of Africa and Aus- 
tralia, is a very easy one to model in sand. 
Rounded at the north, broadest a few degrees be- 
low the equator, it tapers to its extreme point 
much nearer the south pole than does the most 
southerly point of Africa. 

The mountains on the face of this vast penin- 
sula—joined to the rest of the New World by the 
narrow Isthmus of Panama— are equally easy to 
show on a sand model, for its great backbone of 
the Andes forms one mighty unbroken rampart 
close to the Pacific shores, from Panama to Cape 
Horn, for 4500 miles. 

The Andes, those western heights of the south- 
ern continent, are the continuation of the Rockies 
in the north, through Mexico and the central 
bridge of isthmuses. It needs some thinking to 
take in the immense length of the Andes chain. 
A comparison or two will help us. The Pyrenees, 
so important in French and Spanish history, are 
about 300 miles long. The noble arch of the 
snowy Himalayas is generally reckoned 1500 
miles in length. 

The height of the Andes chain is very grand, 
second only to those of the Himalayas and the 
mountains of Tibet. From end to end, the peaks 
are always covered with snow, even where the 
sun beats down fiercely in the region of the equa- 
tor. There are more than twenty peaks consid- 
erably higher than Mont Blanc, loftiest of the 
Alps, one of them being the highest volcano in 
the world. The highest point in the chain of snow 
giants is Aconcagua, nearly 23,000 feet above sea- 

H.T.& G.D. II. 19. 280 

Then, again, the Andes are very wide in parts, 
especially toward the middle, where the coast 
makes a bend inward, something like the Gulf of 
Guinea, on the western coast of Africa. Several 
chains run side by side, forming a triple wall, 
with high plateaus between them, as high as the 
tops of the Pyrenees, and on these plateaus, so 
hot at midday, so frosty at night, are lakes and 
the beginnings of mighty rivers. 

In a sand map you can show Lake Titicaca 
with a piece of looking-glass laid on the sand, 
near the central bend of the coast, just about 
where the Andes are broadest. And those rivers ! 
The position of the Andes on the extreme west 
of the continent gives plenty of room for great 
rivers to form and flow eastward and southward 
to the Atlantic Ocean. 


None of the rivers that run westward are long, 
though at the melting of the snows the vast num- 
ber of streams dash as torrents down the steep 
slopes and over the dry and narrow coast plain 
to join the mighty Pacific. But, looking east- 
ward, there is a vast difference. The streams 
gather, as they do in the high Alps, and come 
tumbling and foaming down from the plateaus 
and upper valleys, till they reach the bottom of 
the mountain slope. They then roll steadily on, 
getting ever larger and larger, across the bound- 
less plains to the far distant Atlantic. 

"Across a continent in a boat" sounds almost 
as impossible as "across the sea in a motor-car," 
when we think of every other continent ; but such 
a voyage is almost possible in South America, 
where the sources of the mighty Amazon rise less 
than 200 miles from the Pacific coast, and soon 
after the stream has settled down to a steady flow 
at the foot of the mountains it is navigable. 



21,060 FEET HIGH. 






Large steamers can sail it from its immense 
mouth, about 2200 miles across the plains. 

Many of its great tributaries are navigable, 
too, for hundreds of miles. Its width is most 
imposing. When it enters the great plain it is 
half a mile broad, increasing in different parts of 
its long course to a mile, two miles, four miles, 
and to fifty miles at its mouth. The water of the 
Amazon is fresh enough to drink 180 miles from 
the coast, and is distinguishable from the ocean by 
its color. The Father of Waters, the Mississippi- 
Missouri, is reckoned to be nearly 1000 miles 
longer than the Amazon or the Nile, but the Ama- 
zon drains twice as much country as either river. 

The Amazon's course is just south of the equa- 
tor, and most of the country is taken up with vast 
tropical forests, where wonderful trees, palms, 
tree-ferns, rubber, mahogany, and many others, 
all grow in the greatest luxuriance and profusion, 
thickly bound together with creepers whose 
beauty would make our finest clematis and honey- 
suckles look like weeds. 

And these thick, dark, damp, hot forests are the 
natural home of many of the animals we shut up 
in cages in our zoos. The terrible boa-constrictor 
and many other snakes wind their horrid scaly 
bodies round the tree-trunks, waiting for their 
prey to come within reach ; the chattering mon- 
keys swing freely from branch to branch, as if 
engaged in an endless gymnastic display. 


The plains of the Orinoco River are called the 
llanos. Very heavy rains visit them at times, and 
the rivers swell and flood the country far and 
near— even making it possible to pass in a canoe 
to the Amazon River — causing rich food to grow 
for vast herds of cattle and flocks of sheep. In 
the dry season there is a great change ; hot winds 
scorch up the grass, the animals move away, and 
the land, once so moist and full of life, becomes 
a desert till the rain comes again. Like the Ama- 
zon, the stream of the Orinoco carries fresh 
water far out to sea. 

The river Plate, or Silver River— Rio de la 
Plata — is an immense estuary, far south of that 
of the Amazon. Into it pour the waters of several 
rivers, running chiefly south and east from the 
Andes over bare uplands and vast and low val- 
leys of fertile soil, and some come from the east- 
ern heights which separate the north and south 
drainage. The length of this great system is 
reckoned to be over 2000 miles. 

North and south of the river Plate are the 
pampas, wide tracts of land where animals feed 
and thrive in great numbers. Trees grow here 
chiefly by the banks of rivers, and as far as the 
eye can see is tall, waving, feathery grass that 
we call pampas-grass. 


It is a very pretty sight to see the mother mon- 
keys bring their babies down from the tree-top 
to have a morning toilet and bath by the river. 
The toucan, with its great bill, outscreams even 
the monkeys, and the gorgeous parrots of nearly 
every color— plaid parrots, a little girl called them 
— make their share of noise as they fly hither and 
thither. The only quiet folk seem the dainty, 
tiny humming-birds, that dart swiftly about in 
the flickering shade and sunlight, some as small 
as bees, others the size of a little canary. 

There is also rich vegetation, in summer, in the 
basin of the Orinoco, a great river about as long 
as the Zambesi, in Africa. The Orinoco drains 
eastward some fifteen hundred miles across the 
north of South America. Here can l)e seen miles 
of the great water-lily called the Victoria Regia, 
which also grows on the Amazon. It has won- 
derful round leaves, five or six feet across, turned 
up at the edge, and beautiful pink-and-white flow- 
ers. Picture to yourselves what it must be to see 
the great expanses of water covered with it ! 


W^iiEN we look, as some of us may do, at clumps 
of pampas-grass, in a park or garden, we must 
think of this district in South America, where it 
grows so thickly that a horseman can scarcely 
be seen above the sea of fleecy white plumes, ris- 
ing and falling with the breeze almost like real 
waves. To the south of the pampas, the conti- 
nent, ever narrowing, becomes bare and desert 
for the most part, though there is fertile land at 
the base of the Andes. The islands at the ex- 
treme south are called Tierra del Fuego, the 
Land of Fire, so named, it is said, from the red 
color of the soil. Here the chief height is named 
Mount Darwin, after the famous naturalist who 
visited and described this bare and rocky part of 
the world. The Strait of Magellan, the winding 
rocky channel that separates the Land of Fire 
from the mainland, is a terrible place in which to 
be shipwrecked, for there is nothing to eat be- 
sides shell-fish and a few birds, and the natives 
are practically uncivilized. 

This brings us to the question of the people 
who now live on this vast continent, and those 



who have lived on it in the past. We think again 
of the great size — nearly twice as large as Europe 
— and find it very difficult to realize that there 
are not many more people now living in South 
America than there are in a single country of 
Europe, like France. 


We shall visit these people in their homes, and 
enter into the wonderful progress and interests 
of to-day, after we have glanced at the past. But 
first we must study the map of to-day, showing 
the various countries or divisions of the conti- 

The three foreign settlements of Guiana— Brit- 
ish, Dutch, and French — lie between the mouths 
of the Orinoco and the Amazon. All the rest of 
South America is divided up among ten indepen- 
dent republics. It is quite different in this re- 
spect from all the other continents. We shall study 
these divisions more closely later; now we just 
want to know their names and where they are. 

The great Andes run through Colombia, Ecua- 
dor, Peru, Bolivia, and Chile on the west. The 
mighty Amazon takes its majestic way from Peru 
across Brazil, which touches the borders of all 
the countries except Chile and covers nearly half 
the continent. The Orinoco drains Venezuela; 
the Plate streams bring health and wealth to 
Argentina, and to the smaller states of Uruguay 
and Paraguay. We notice at once how many 
Spanish names are on the map; with good reason, 
for Spain owned nearly all South America, ex- 
cept Brazil, during nearly three hundred years. 
So once more we willingly join Columbus, who 
discovered the West India Islands, and coasted 
the Gulf of Honduras and the Gulf of Darien, 
where the Isthmus of Panama joins the great 
southern continent. 


It was here that Columbus first heard rumors of 
another ocean, which he never saw. On his way 
round the southern shores of the Caribbean Sea 
he came to the mouth of the Orinoco, and great 
was his wonder at its stream of pure, drinkable 
water which he found so far out at sea. It was 
a miracle, he thought ; he had, indeed, arrived at 
the very gates of paradise. 

Before his death in 1506, explorers had sailed 
round this north coast and discovered the delta 
of the Amazon. Portugal, in 1500, had discovered 
Brazil by accident, when the strong winds blew 

Cabral and his little fleet of ships, that were try- 
ing to sail round the Cape of Good Hope, so far 
westward that they reached the other side of the 
Atlantic. Fourteen years later La Plata was 
reached, and soon Balboa caught the first sight 
of the Pacific from Panama, and Cortes began 
his wonderful career in Mexico and Central 

And so, bit by bit, the New World in its beauty 
loomed into the sight of the Old World, and the 
wonderful voyage begun by Magellan— who was 
the first European to push through the strait that 
is now called after him, into the Pacific — not only 
found a westward way to the Spice Islands, but 
a way right round the round world, hitherto be- 
lieved by most people to be flat. 


The natives whom the first explorers found in 
South America were called Indians by them, just 
as happened in other parts of the New World, 
and a certain amount of organizing that took 
place in the new lands led to difficulties with the 
dispossessed "Indian" natives. The colonists 
brought over horses and cattle and poultry, hith- 
erto unknown in the Western lands, as well as 
shrubs and trees and seeds for crops, which all 
flourished exceedingly in their new home. 

Unfortunately, rumors of vast treasures of gold 
and silver to be found in distant spots turned 
men's attention away from quietly settling down 
to peaceful employments and improving the coun- 
try, and for long years the vain hunt for gold 
drew men from Europe and led them round the 
coast, and up the rivers, in all directions, ever 
exploring and opening up new ground, but seldom 
settling down in content. 

Missionaries came out from Europe to teach 
the Indians the Christian faith from the first; 
but settling down and working hard, whether in 
the fields or in the mines, as they were discov- 
ered, did not suit the races who had ever been 
free to wander over the wide plains and gain 
their food without effort, and the Indians be- 
came fewer and fewer in numbers as time went on. 


It was in 1526 that Pizarro, a bold adventurer, 
with great experience of the country, determined 
to prove for himself whether the rumors of gold, 
and of the existence of civilized people in the 
high valleys of the Andes, were true or not. The 
deeds of Cortes in Mexico were breathlessly ex- 





O uT 

— 2 














citing and daring, but those of Pizarro matched 

It is a deeply graphic story— how he planned 
his expedition and equipped his little band of fol- 
lowers ; how he dealt treacherously with the na- 
tives and with their ruler, the Inca ; and how, 
after many difficulties and much endurance, he 
climbed up the mountains from the Pacific side. 
Like those of Cortes, his horses and little can- 
nons brought amazement to those who had never 
seen them before. One hundred and sixty-eight 
Spaniards pushing into an unknown, difficult, 
mountainous country, of rumored riches, civiliza- 
tion, and great resources, seems a foolhardy feat 
indeed, but it succeeded. 

All round about Lake Titicaca and Cuzco, and 
the valleys and plateaus of the Central Andes, are 
found the remains of irrigation works, temples, 
palaces, and burial-places that belonged to the 
highly civilized people the Spaniards found when 
they reached Peru. These people understood well 
how to fertilize the soil by carrying water to it. 
The legends relate that the Incas, or "Rulers of 
the Wide-spreading Kingdom," were descended 
from the Sun-god. On the strength of this dis- 
tinction they claimed and obtained absolute power 
over their subjects. The stories of their blood- 
less victories over their enemies, of their state 
and family government, of the dazzling ceremo- 
nial of their worship, of their schools, and the 
work of the sun-maidens, all read like wild ro- 

The sun-maidens worked up the fleece of the 
llama, the only domestic animal in the New 
World before the coming of the Spaniards. It, 
too, was supposed to be the special property of 
the Incas. Like the yak of the Tibetans, it car- 
ried the burdens over the difficult hill-country, its 
hair was made up into fine clothing, and its flesh 
served for food. 


The Incas destroyed most of the sculpture and 
work of the tribes that went before them, but 
wonderful pottery of various kinds, some dating 
back to very ancient times, has been found, as 
well as many traces of various tribes of different 
degrees of civilization. We can find interesting 
specimens of this pottery in museums. Some of 
the tribes were conquered by the Incas, others 
lived in the far past in the north of the conti- 
nent. The most interesting of these were the 

It is difficult to get at the truth of Pizarro's 
conquest of the Inca kingdom. Some say the 

Spaniards treated these unoffending peoples with 
great cruelty; others that their methods were no 
worse than those of other conquerors. Arrived 
at Cuzco, the capital of the Incas, Pizarro's first 
anxiety was to get hold of the person of the rul- 
ing Inca, as Cortes did with Montezuma, and in- 
fluence the country through him, rather than to 
attempt force with his few followers. 

Imagine the scene in the high country, among 
the inaccessible snowy peaks. Pizarro boldly 
sends an invitation by his horsemen to the Inca, 
to request the honor of a visit, in the name of his 
master, Charles V., ruler of a great part of Eu- 
rope. The Spaniards have an anxious day, watch- 
ing and waiting to see if the invitation will be 
accepted. Great is Pizarro's relief when he sees 
the Inca's train setting out in his direction. The 
great ruler, on a litter, has to listen to a long 
speech, through interpreters, beginning with the 
creation of the world, and setting forth, with vari- 
ous references to the Bible, how the Pope has 
given the kingdom of the Incas to the Spaniards. 


It must have been sufficiently bewildering to the 
Inca, and he asks to see the Bible, the wonderful 
book that ordered so much. When he impatiently 
throws it down, it is as a signal for the uprising 
of the waiting Spaniards. 

The daring scheme succeeded. It is said that 
two thousand Peruvians were killed that day ; the 
Inca was made prisoner, and the country was left 
open to the Spaniards at one blow. 

There were many things that helped on their 
complete victory in the state of the Inca kingdom 
itself, especially the quarrel between the brothers 
as to who was the rightful Inca. 

For a time the subjection of provinces went on 
successfully, and we hear of a roomful of silver 
and gold, as high as a man could reach, being 
handed over to the Spaniards. 

But in the end both the brothers were put to 
death, and before long civil war broke out among 
the conquerors. Pizarro himself was assassinated 
in 1 541, in Lima, the new capital he had founded 
by the seacoast. On the ruins of the Inca king- 
dom rose the huge viceroyalty of Peru, which 
included the present republics of Ecuador, Peru, 
Bolivia, and Argentina. 


Though much treasure had been sent home to 
Spain from the Inca's palaces, the hunting for 



the sources of these spoils continued to be the 
great object all through the sixteenth century. 
The first explorers had passed all unknowingly 
the great mines of Potosi. By degrees many 
mines came to their knowledge, which needed 
much hard labor to work. Search as they would, 
they could never find the city paved with gold, 
nor the Golden Man who washed ofif his coat of 
gold-dust in a sacred lake into which were cast 
priceless treasures. 

Many were the gold-hunting expeditions, which 
served, as the earlier ones had done, to open up 
more and more of the country. There was Men- 
doza, who, in 1535, sailed down the Atlantic coast 
and founded the first colony of Buenos Aires, 
which means "Good Air." Great were the dis- 
couragements, and his followers went farther in- 
land, led by great rivers, to found Santa Cruz, a 
station for trade midway between the Atlantic 
and Peru. 


In Paraguay the two thousand men in Mendoza's 
expedition were specially friendly with the na- 
tives, and intermarried with them. 

More interesting still is the account of fifty 
sick and weak men floating across the continent 
on rafts— led by Orellana. They failed to keep 
in touch with the stronger members of the party, 
who were marching on the banks on the way 
from Quito to Rio Napo, which leads to the Ama- 
zon. So Orellana and his men could do nothing 
but let the rafts drift on, day after day, through 
the forest and its enchanting wonders, getting 
what food they could, till, in seven months' time, 
they reached the ocean, and a little farther north, 
to their joy, was a European settlement. 

The Amazon has been described as having be- 
come a permanent public road in the century 
after this raft-journey; it was chiefly used by the 
missionaries, who thought no dangers too hard 
when seeking for the Indians. 


Much searching for gold continued in the north, 
in Venezuela — the name, Little Venice, being 
suggested by the native lake-dwellings— as well 
as in Brazil and along the Andes range. Rich as 
are the stores of gold, silver, and precious stones, 
such as diamonds and emeralds, in various parts 
of South America, they are not even yet fully 
worked and made the most of. 

One of the most tragic expeditions was that of 

the gallant Raleigh, searching for a gold-mine on 
the Orinoco. 

As the feverish quest for gold died down, the 
organization and settlement of the colonies pro- 
ceeded more rapidly. Governors were sent out 
from Spain for the various provinces, and also 
many clergy, and matters went on much the same 
as in Mexico and Central America. Almost from 
the beginning the difficulty of obtaining labor- 
ers led to the wretched practice of making the 
Indians slaves on one pretext or another, and 
when the supply of the natives failed, negroes 
from Africa were taken across the Atlantic to 
fill their places, especially in the sugar-plantations 
round the Caribbean shores. 

Through the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies the trade of Spain and her colonies grew 
steadily, and Buenos Aires, on the Plate, and 
Para, the port of the Amazon, Cartagena, on the 
Caribbean Sea, and other towns grew to be very 
important. Spain also encouraged scientific men, 
such as Humboldt, to make surveys of the coast 
and the surface of the country, and to examine 
the minerals, flowers, trees, and animals. If ever 
we visit Madrid we can see the result of these 
studies in the fine collections exhibited in the 
museums and in the beautiful botanical gardens. 


The provinces of Spanish South America took 
part in the general uprising against the control of 
the distant motherland when new notions of free- 
dom were making themselves felt all over Europe 
and America. The rule of the Spaniards was 
thrown off early last century, after a war of in- 
dependence which lasted several years. Both the 
royalist Spaniards and the liberating patriots 
were terribly in earnest. 

The battle of Trafalgar and the schemes of 
Napoleon in Spain and Portugal all influenced 
the uneasy state of public feeling. There were 
many causes for discontent. The Creoles, or colo- 
nists born in America, felt it keenly that all the 
most important posts were given to men born in 
Spain ; and owing to one reason and another, the 
flames of revolution broke out in province after 
province, with varying success. The English took 
a part whenever the chances of war allowed. It 
was by no means a straightforward struggle, for 
civil wars began between the patriots just when 
a united front was most urgently needed. Differ- 
ences of opinion as to what form of government 
should replace that of Spain also occurred. It was 
a terrible hindrance to the Liberators that some 
of the leaders, enthusiastic as they might be for 



freedom, thought most of their own personal re- 
wards and success. This was particularly the 
case with the great Bolivar, who led as eventful 
a life in South America as Santa Anna in Mexico. 


There is a grand statue of Bolivar on a prancing 
horse in the city of Lima, to keep in remembrance 
his great share in liberating his country. He 
chiefly turned his efforts to the freeing of the 
north, and secured that Venezuela, New Granada, 
and Quito should be formed into one republic 
called Colombia, of which he became first president. 

San Martin was a great and noble general, and 
a true patriot. He had fought bravely in the 
Peninsular War, when England helped the Span- 
iards against the French, and he brought much 
experience to bear when he was needed to take 
command in the struggle to free his country. He 
knew when it was right to advance rapidly, or 
when he must, like Wellington, play a waiting 
game. He won many great victories, and set free 
Chile and Peru. 

At last all the sieges, and marches, and terrible 
loss of life in the years of war, came to an end 
after some decisive victories of the ambitious 
Bolivar over the Spaniards. Their last possession 
on the mainland, the seaport town of Callao, near 
Lima, was lost in 1826. 


Brazil had been seized from the Portuguese 
about 1580 by Philip of Spain, and his enemies, 
the Dutch, attacked his power and held their own 
in the distant province till the Portuguese were 
able to claim their own again in the seventeenth 
century. The royal family and court fled from 
Lisbon to Brazil when Napoleon threatened Por- 
tugal. From this event is dated the rise of the 
beautiful capital of Rio de Janeiro. A Brazilian 
empire was formed when the government re- 
turned to Europe fourteen years later. A republic 
followed in Brazil in 1889. There were many 
disputes, chiefly about boundaries, in the years 
that followed the departure of the Spanish gov- 
ernors, and there were many changes in the new 
republics. But these are now settling down and 
awaking in a wonderful way. 

As we look in imagination over the long past 
of South America, we see it first in possession of 
the old tribes, some of whom, thousands of years 
ago, used the utensils we can handle to-day. For 
long centuries their descendants wandered over 
the wide country, living their primitive lives. 

Then, out of the mists of time, we distinguish the 
dazzling Incas with their high civilization, living 
in the mountain districts and on the Pacific coast, 
and leaving many traces by which later genera- 
tions could study their work and their ways. And 
we see this civilization all brought to a sudden 
and tragic end as the white men from an un- 
known eastern world swarmed over the sea which 
had hidden them so long, to seize the lands and 
treasures of the unfortunate Incas. 


We see Spain and Portugal in possession of the 
continent for nearly three hundred years; explor- 
ers seeking gold up the wide rivers, through the 
great forests, over the dangerous passes of the 
Andes; and the black-f rocked priests in their 
wake, many of whom were ready to lay down 
their lives in their efforts to teach the Indians, 
whom their countrymen were ever ready to en- 
slave. What a passing, too, of ships in those 
years over the Atlantic after Columbus showed 
the way ! Among them were the treasure-ships 
from Cartagena, so often waylaid by English 
pirates; the colonists from Europe going, and 
sometimes returning ; the poor negro slaves, torn 
from their homes, for whom there was no return, 
no release but death. 

The next vision is that of the fiery times of 
revolution and suffering, for the royalist Span- 
iards, for the Creoles of the colonies, for the peo- 
ple of mixed Spanish and Indian blood, for the 
Indians themselves, descendants of the old own- 
ers of the soil. 

But the strenuous struggle, the smoke of battle, 
and pitiful horrors of war in all its aspects, have 
led to freedom. 


The great door into North America is the St. 
Lawrence River. An even greater river invites 
us to enter South America through the vast coun- 
try of Brazil. 

There are regular steamship sailings from New 
York not only to Para, near the mouth of the 
mighty Amazon, but to Manaos, a city in a clear- 
ing of the forest, where the Negro River joins it, 
1000 miles from the sea, and beyond to Iquitos, 
in Peru, at the base of the Andes, more than 1000 
miles farther still. 

It takes about thirty-five days from New York 
to Iquitos, and the wonderful journey can be done 
all in one steamer. At Para we get our first sight 
of the beautiful palm-trees, tree-ferns, and rich 
growths of flowering shrubs and creepers that 



















form such a beautiful setting to the white houses 
and fine churches and public buildings. 

Beyond Para, the largest and most unbroken 
tropical forest in the world stretches to the An- 
des. From this forest Brazil sends away much 
valuable rubber, as well as all sorts of valuable 
wood. The forest produce is collected at the 
various ports, such as Para, Manaos, and Iquitos, 
and thence distributed all over the world. In the 
clearings of the dense forests, alive with wonder- 
ful animal life, live the wandering tribes of In- 
dians in a savage state, feeding on fish and tur- 
tles, bananas, and other wild fruit. 

We must expect to have plenty of rain on our 
journey through the forest, for it is the wettest 
region of the world; and the heavy, steamy air 
reminds us of tropical hot-houses. It is diflficult 
to realize that the dense forest of palms, figs, 
mimosa, bamboo, and hundreds of other kinds of 
trees, bound together with thick tangles of creep- 
ers and orchids, stretches over an area nearly as 
large as Europe. 

Little is known of these impassable selvas, as 
the hot, wet forests are called by the Spaniards, 
except beside the river highways. The feeders of 
the Amazon are great rivers themselves ; and the 
main stream, which often breaks up into several 
branches flowing side by side, is, in many parts, 
like an inland sea. Travelers often visit the east- 
ern highlands of central and southern Brazil, for 
the most part consisting of table-lands a few 
thousand feet high, and with a much drier, 
cooler, and healthier climate than that of the 
Amazon valley. Coffee is one of the chief things 
grown ; and railways are carried to Santos, the 
chief coffee port, from the center of this district, 
where industries of all kinds are growing in every 


Animals are raised on the wide grassy uplands, 
and many mines of gold and iron are worked, as 
well as the diamond and emerald mines for which 
Brazil has long been famous. The mountain state 
of Minas Geraes, where there are large forests, 
and where many of the mines are situated, is the 
most densely peopled state in Brazil. Besides 
Indians and native Portuguese, there are many 
people of mixed descent ; also negroes, descen- 
dants of .the former slaves. Brazil was the last 
South American state to give up slavery. 

There are also flourishing settlements of Ger- 
mans, Italians, and other Europeans, as well as a 
colony of Japanese to grow the rice and other 
crops that they understand so well. It is esti- 

mated that there are about 20,000,000 people alto- 
gether in the republic of Brazil, and nearly a 
quarter of them live in these busy parts, where so 
much progress in industries of every kind is go- 
ing on. In Rio de Janeiro, the capital of Brazil, 
about 1,000,000 people live. The city is built 
round a splendid natural harbor, always full of 
shipping. The workers live in narrow, crowded 
streets, near the quays and docks ; the rich mer- 
chants dwell in the suburbs. 


People of all nations gather in Rio, as it is often 
called for short; the United States are the best 
buyers of Brazilian produce, and Great Britain 
sends most of the goods the Brazilians want to 
buy. Portuguese is the language of the country, 
and the Brazilians are very proud of their lan- 
guage and customs, and they are very much an- 
noyed when foreign business houses send them 
letters and catalogues in Spanish. The long con- 
nection with Portugal was loosened when the 
court returned to Europe in 1821, after a resi- 
dence of fourteen years in Rio de Janeiro; and 
the deposition of the second Emperor of Brazil 
brought it to an end in 1889, when the republic 
was peaceably proclaimed under a president. But 
the vast country, more than ninety times larger 
than its little old mother country — which adopted 
it as a gift from the Pope in the sixteenth cen- 
tury — still keeps in its original eastern provinces 
its Portuguese stamp. Nearly all the rest of 
South America speaks Spanish. Indeed, the larg- 
est Spanish-speaking city in the world is Buenos 
Aires, the capital of Argentina, the great country 
that stretches right down to the tip of the conti- 
nent. Between it and Brazil are the two smaller 
adjoining states of Paraguay and Uruguay. 


Paraguay is called the Mesopotamia of South 
America, because it lies chiefly between two great 
rivers, the Parana and the Paraguay, both over 
2000 miles long, which, with the Uruguay, flow 
into the river Plate. There is a railway, but the 
chief traffic is on the rivers, which pass through 
the most important cattle-raising regions in the 
world. The country is famous for "mate," or 
Paraguayan tea, used all over South America, as 
China and Indian tea is used in Europe. There 
are valuable forests, and the soil is good for 
growing all sorts of useful crops, such as corn, 
rice, coffee, indigo, and cotton. 

The rearing of sheep and cattle is the chief in- 



(Uistry in Uruguay, and it has, from its position, 
a great deal of sea trade. Uruguay reaches down 
to the Rio de la Plata, on which stands Buenos 
Aires, the busiest and most important city in 
South America. There are ships of every de- 
scription and nationality, and for every sort of 
trade, on the wide river Plate, which here meets 
the railways that are made so easily and cheaply 
on the broad, flat plains of Argentina. 

Much of the soil round the Plate and Parana 
rivers is very fertile, and a great deal of wheat is 
grown, also Indian corn, tobacco, and coffee. But 
the chief industry of the country on the boundless 
plains is sheep and cattle raising, so that in the 
mass of shipping on the Plate we distinguish not 
only the coal-ships and the wheat-ships, but also 
the refrigerator-ships loaded with tons of beef 
and mutton, besides extract of meat in tins, and 
other kinds of food for the millions of people in 
other countries. 

There are only about 7,000,000 people in the 
huge republic of Argentina, but they have lately 
carried on a foreign trade almost as large as that 
of Japan, which possesses nearly eight times the 
population. There are over 1,500,000 people now 
in Buenos Aires, including many Italians. 
' Great improvements have been made in this 
"City of Good Air," the largest south of the 
equator ; many acres have been reclaimed on the 
muddy river-banks, and trees have been planted 
in avenues down which pass the large electric 
cars ; scores of newspapers and magazines are 
published ; and fashionable crowds are seen mov- 
ing in the fine picture-galleries, theaters, open-air 
cafes, clubs, and hotels, as in the great cities of 
the United States and Europe. Great pains are 
taken to plan out wide streets when new building 
is undertaken, and there are seventy-two parks 
and gardens. The southern part of Argentina is 
taken up with the wild and desert plateau of 
Patagonia, of whose steppe-lands little is known. 
There are fertile districts along the base of the 
Andes. In the heart of these mountains stands a 
great statue in memory of the peace made be- 
tween Argentina and Chile. A good deal of trade 
is carried on over the passes between the two re- 
publics; and a railway across the continent is 
being made to connect Buenos Aires with Santi- 
ago, the capital of Chile, and its chief port, Val- 
paraiso. Santiago is a fine city, at a high level, 
with handsome churches and wide streets. It has 
a university. The houses are built low, because 
of the terrible earthquakes which from time to 
time visit places along the Andes. 

Valparaiso, with its large harbor, has a great 
trade, both across the Pacific, and with Europe 
by way of the Strait of Magellan or by the rail- 

way across Panama. The giant of the Andes, 
Aconcagua, rises in its solemn majesty not far 
from Valparaiso. South of Aconcagua is the Us- 
pallata Pass, under which a tunnel over two miles 
long has been made, two miles above sea-level. 
This tunnel connects the railway across the con- 
tinent from the river Plate with Chile. 

There is a long, fertile valley, with its railway, 
between the range near the coast and that of the 
main chain of the Andes. This central valley has 
a good climate ; and now that more care is taken 
to improve the farming, good crops are raised of 
wheat and fruits. The sugar-cane also flourishes. 

The south point of the country is in the deso- 
late Land of Fire, and the famous and stormy 
Strait of Magellan flows through Chilean lands. 
Coal is worked in this region ; and Chile has many 
other valuable minerals, including copper, silver, 
and gold. Punta Arenas, the most southerly town 
in the world, is a coaling station. 

In this southern part of Chile there is some 
grand, rugged coast scenery, consisting of fiords 
and many islands and forested mountains, crowned 
by glaciers, which remind us of Norway. The 
strip of desert coast to the north of this furnishes 
one of the best fertilizers in the world, nitrate of 
soda, especially good for making wheat grow. 


Bolivia is named after the liberator Bolivar. 
Like Paraguay, it has no seaboard ; but its largest 
town. La Paz, not far from Lake Titicaca, is 
joined by rail to ports through both Chile and 
Peru. The country in the high plateaus of the 
Andes chain, where it is widest, is very difliicult 
to reach either from east or west. Like the other 
very high countries of the Andes, it has every 
variety of climate and product, according to the 
situation and height above sea-level. 

The large and deep Lake Titicaca, in whose 
w'aters iron will not rust, lies up in the clouds be- 
tween Bolivia and Peru. The famous silver- 
mines of Potosi, from which hundreds of millions 
of dollars' worth of metal have been taken, are 
250 miles south. Gold and other minerals are 
found on the eastern side of the Andes, also sul- 
phur, so useful in treating rubber, which is an- 
other of the riches of Bolivia. Some of the soil 
is well suited to grow the best cocoa and coffee in 
the world. Railways are being made, even in the 
most difficult routes, to open up trade in all direc- 
tions, not only through Peru and Chile to the 
Pacific, but eastward through forests full of valu- 
able timber, and through rich agricultural land, 



onward to Santa Cruz, and to the river Paraguay, 
and the Atlantic beyond. 


It is possible to travel by train in these regions 
in a single day through every sort of climate — 
from great heat, low down, in the morning, 
through temperate conditions, halfway up, at 
. noon, to frosty cold, high up, at night. 

It will help us to realize the difficulties of rail- 
way-making in the Switzerland of South America 
when we think of the great height of the plateaus 
and passes. Lake Titicaca is over 12,000 feet 
above sea-level. In many parts of Bolivia horses 
cannot work and live. Many travelers, too, can 
scarcely breathe in the high, thin air in which 
most of the towns in this region are built, espe- 
cially when they first mount up to it. 

About a quarter of the population of Bolivia 
consists of native Indians. They are very kind 
and gentle to their old native animal, the sure- 
footed, docile llama, that still patiently bears 
heavy burdens over many of the old and other- 
wise inaccessible routes. 

Bolivia and Peru meet at Lake Titicaca ; and 
the busy steamers carry goods from one country 
to the other, right up in the clouds. Puno is the 
chief lake port of Peru. As in Bolivia, many 
new roads are planned in the old country of the 
Incas to connect it with the near Pacific and the 
far-distant Atlantic, opening up and developing 
the great riches of the country, many of which 
are similar to those of Bolivia. 


Peru is full of interest, not only from its connec- 
tion with the romantic days of Pizarro and the 
Incas, but from its great variety of surface and 
climate, and the extremes of every kind that meet 
us at every turn. 

Perhaps, from the map, we might expect the 
long coastal plain to be of great use ; but here are 
wide stretches, very hot and dry, of desert land, 
clothed with vegetation for a few days only after 
the rare rain has covered it with grass and bright 
flowers as if with the wand of a magician. 
Where the large rivers flow the soil is rich and 
fertile, and as irrigation is improved, the best 
results are obtained. 

The central part of the country is covered with 
the grand Andes, in all the magnificence of deep 
valleys and high table-lands, where people live in 
cool comfort, though so near the equator ; and the 
soil is good. Above them tower the huge and 

glittering white mountain masses. In parts of 
Peru the llama, alpaca, and vicuiia run wild, and 
the hair and wool of these animals make fine 
materials for clothes. 

Lima, the capital, founded by Pizarro, is con- 
nected with its port, Callao, by a railway six 
miles long. The fine Gothic cathedral, containing 
the bones of the conqueror, stands boldly out 
from among the low houses which border the 
narrow streets. 

The old city of Cuzco, to reach which Pizarro 
and his companions toiled up 11,000 feet, is also 
connected by railway with the coast, and is of the 
deepest interest, being full of reminders of the 
vanished native rulers, the Incas. 


To develop the rubber region on the head waters 
of the Amazon, where other valuable trees — such 
as that which gives the useful medicine, quinine 
— are also found, a steamboat has been put on 
one of the feeders of the great river. The boat 
was carried in sections on the backs of mules 
from the Peruvian coast to the river, and it steams 
about collecting the rubber, unloading again at 
the most available points. Mules and llamas do 
their share of the transport to the terminus of 
the railroad, and then it is an easy journey to the 
Atlantic coast. There the rubber is shifted aboard 
ship for distribution to all parts of the world. 

Railways are greatly needed to develop the old 
silver-mines. One of the lines already laid climbs 
about as high as the top of Mont Blanc, leading, 
as it does, through mining regions to Cerro de 
Pasco— the highest town in the world. 


The small republic of Ecuador is slipped in be- 
tween Peru and Colombia. Its name is the Span- 
ish for equator. The capital, Quito, is almost on 
the line of the equator, but it is so high up in the 
mountains — nearly 10,000 feet— that it has a 
climate no hotter than we enjoy in a pleasant 
spring. Round the plain of Quito stand the great 
volcanoes of the Andes, some of them active. 

As with the rest of the countries in the Andes, 
the climate varies with the height. On the sea- 
coast, and on the plains east of the Andes, there 
is moist heat which suits cocoa— the principal 
export — cotton, tobacco, and other tropical vege- 
tation. Mining is carried on, and railways are 
being made in all directions, connecting the high 
table-lands and the coast. 




Colombia incliulcs the northern part of the An- 
des, which here spread out in separate chains, 
with high plains between them. One of these 
chains passes on through the Isthmus of Panama 
to connect with the ranges of the northern conti- 
nent. The most easterly of the table-lands is 
very healthy, and here most of the people in the 
republic live. 

Along the coast is a low and fertile plain, 
crossed by many short rivers. The Magdalena 
River runs northward to the Caribbean Sea, and 
is very useful as a commercial highway, being 
navigable by steamers and boats for about 600 
miles from the sea. The capital, Bogota, is built 
upon a plateau over 8000 feet high. 

The valley country is very pretty and fertile. 
Colombia possesses thick forests of mahogany, 
cedar, rubber, and many dyewoods, and grows 
many very valuable agricultural products, such as 
cocoa, coffee, tobacco, cotton, and wheat. 


There are many self-governing states in the mar- 
itime republic of Venezuela, which unite for com- 
mon defense. 

The Orinoco is a long and great river, and much 
of it is navigable. It rises in the Parima Moun- 
tains, which form the southern border of the re- 
public, and is joined by many large tributaries. 
These flow through vast grassy plains, where 
millions of cattle, sheep, and horses feed. Among 
the plains stand, at intervals, very rich forests, 
from which much timber is exported. Most of 
the country being very hot, all the tropical vege- 
tation flourishes in a most luxuriant manner. 

The gold-mines of Venezuela are very rich ; it 
also sends away much copper. The capital is 
Caracas, 3000 feet above the Caribbean Sea, from 
which it is twelve miles distant. La Guaira is its 
port. Many of the names in this part of South 
America recall the story of Kingsley's "West- 
ward Ho '." — which we all should read. 


Between Venezuela and British Guiana is the 
famous Mount Roraima, an immense mass of 
light red rock, eighteen miles long, with straight, 
bare walls at least 1500 feet high. Its top, over 
8000 feet above the level of the sea, is perfectly 
flat. On this flat top rise several streams which 
dash over the edges of the sheer precipices, form- 
ing magnificent cascades as they hurry away to 
feed the Orinoco and the Amazon. 

In the provinces of the north are many unciv- 
ilized Indians and great numbers of people of 
mixed Indian and Spanish blood. The rest of the 
inhabitants are chiefly whites of Spanish descent, 
though Europeans of many nationalities go there 
to construct railways and bridges, thus opening up 
the country and helping to make available all the 
hidden treasures of mines, plains, and forests. 

South America is truly a wonderful continent, 
whether we look at its strange history or the 
beauties of its strongly inarked face. There are 
left, as we have seen, comparatively few traces 
of the great vista of years when the continent, 
alone and self-contained, lived its own life un- 
known to the rest of the world. 


We have before us the wonderful works of stone 
that time has spared, and we have the presence 
to-day, on the soil, of the descendants of the old 
races thrust aside by newcomers from the East 
four hundred years ago. Then follows the daz- 
zling but sad story of how the old gave place to 
the new, through the Spanish and Portuguese 
rule, and the romance of last century, during 
which the whole continent, except the three 
Guianas, formed itself into independent and free 
states, working out their own lives and fortunes 
amid their enormous opportunities. 

We have only been able to glance at these 
while trying to realize the outlook of mighty space 
and size from the heights of the Andes, or to 
take in the grandeur of the Amazon and its for- 
ests, teeming with life, from the ocean far away 
into the interior. Besides all this, we have felt 
the solitudes of the vast rolling pampas and the 
desert steppes of Patagonia, and the chill of death 
and decay in the dreary Land of Fire. 

As we think again over the map, we are filled 
with wonder at what man is doing in this great 
continent, ever pushing a little farther into its 
hidden secrets, a tunnel here, a steamer far from 
the sea there, and trains from the sea to the 
clouds. In many directions, too, he is influencing 
climate by draining and watering, settling and 
building. And when we look at the lines of the 
steamship routes round the coast, across the two 
oceans, we realize the links that bind the New 
World to the Old. Especially do these lines draw 
closely together at Panama and Colon, where the 
railway crosses the Isthmus. We seem almost to 
hear the blasting and the crash of the steam- 
shovel at the canal works. What changes it will 
bring to the ports on the Pacific side when the 
ships steam proudly through, and the dreams of 
the old explorers come true at last ' 


3=^)^ * 




The Barbary States extend for a distance of 
more than two thousand miles from the western 
extremity of Morocco to the borders of Egypt. 
On the south they approach and include part of 
the Sahara. Except toward the east the coast 
line is unbroken by inlets of any considerable 
size, and generally presents a steep and rocky 
front to the sea. Harbors are few and there is 
not one river that is navigable. 

The Atlas system is composed mostly of lime- 
stone, and yields gold, copper, lead, iron, and an- 
timony in abundance ; it can be called a mountain 
range only in Morocco, as it becomes a broad ele- 
vated plateau in Algeria and Tunis. Parallel with 
it, but some sixty to a hundred miles to the south, 
is the little known range of the Anti-Atlas. 

The population of Morocco is estimated at 
about 5,000,000; half a million of these are Jews, 
who are often badly treated, yet a heavy fine is 
imposed upon a Jew who desires to leave the 
country. Besides the three capitals, Fez, Meki- 
nez, and Morocco, a town of some importance is 
Tangier, the center of the trade carried on with 
foreign ports. 

Algeria and Tunis have vastly improved under 
the rule of France. Wells have been sunk, and 
sandy wastes have been converted into fertile dis- 
tricts, producing wheat, barley, and maize in in- 
creasing quantities. Along the coast market-gar- 
dening has been largely developed, and from this 
district the markets of London and Paris get their 
earliest supplies of potatoes, peas, asparagus, and 
other vegetables. 

The chief town of Algeria is Algiers, which is 
built on the slope of a hill. Its appearance, when 
viewed from the sea, is very beautiful. A succes- 
sion of dazzling white steps, or terraces, rising 
higher and higher, stand out in striking contrast 
to the blue sea at the foot and the dark green of 
the background. 

Bona is now considered to be one of the most 
European of Algerian cities, and has one of the 

best of the few harbors on this coast. Constan- 
tine is the most important of the inland towns. 
Tunis, still one of the largest cities in Africa, 
stands on the edge of a large salt-water lagoon, 
upon rising ground, at the top of which is the 

The Sultan of Turkey claims the country be- 
tween Tunis and Egypt, and appoints a Governor- 
General to act on his behalf. In Tripoli proper, 
along the coast to about fifty or sixty miles in- 
land, there are fertile tracts, but beyond this is 
open desert with here and there an oasis. To 
this the wooded hills, smiling prairies and well- 
watered valleys of Barca form a striking contrast. 

The dwellers among the mountains of Barbary 
are chiefly Berbers; the inhabitants of the plains 
are Arabs, while the town people are Moors. The 
chief religion is Mohammedanism, which imposes 
frequent prayers, alms-giving, fasting, and pil- 
grimage on the people. Before prayer the hands, 
face, ears, and feet have to be washed in water, 
when it can be procured ; otherwise, in sand. 
Every person must pray five times a day with his 
face turned toward Mecca, the mosques being al- 
ways open for prayer. During one month, every 
Mohammedan must abstain from eating, drink- 
ing, smoking, smelling perfumes, and every kind 
of indulgence from sunrise to sunset, when the 
restriction ceases. Sometimes the month of absti- 
nence comes during the hot season, Vv^hen to fast 
for a whole day, especially from water, is ex- 
tremely painful. 

To the south of the Barbary States lies the 
great Sahara Desert, now crossed in many direc- 
tions by caravans, which exchange the manufac- 
tures of Europe for the gold dust, ivory, ostrich 
feathers, spices, gums, nuts, dates, and palm-oil 
of the African interior. Its area is over a million 
square miles, and its population may be anything 
from a quarter to half a million. 

Unlike the sand of the seashore, that of the 
Sahara contains many particles of clay, which 
accounts for its fertility when water in sufficient 
quantity is present. The great change that takes 










place in the density of the desert atmosphere, be- 
sides causing land and sea breezes and monsoons, 
often produces the mirage — a fanciful view of 
palms overshadowing some limpid pool, that fills 
the jaded and thirsty traveler with a new energy, 
and urges him onward with fevered haste, only 
to recede and vanish utterly from his disappointed 


Shut in on the north and west by the sandy Ara- 
bian desert, bordered on the south by the deserts 
of Somaliland, and on the east by the Arabian 
mountains, lies the high plateau of Abyssinia, fully 
seven thousand feet above the level of the sea. 
Plateau though it is, it is.hard to realize the fact. 
Split up by huge rocky gorges, through which 
rush its roaring mountain torrents, it presents the 
appearance of a number of islands, on which iso- 
lated peaks rise to great heights. 

In the center of the plateau, and about three 
thousand feet below its level, lies the great Tsana 
Lake, forty-five miles long and twenty-five miles 
broad. Northeast of the lake, there is a huge fis- 
sure over two hundred feet deep, through which 
rush the waters of the Takazze to join the Black 
Nile. ■ 

From a cleft in the south side of the lake, at a 
height of six thousand feet above the sea, issues 
the river Abai. It flows in a semicircle round the 
plateau to the plains of Senaar, when it assumes 
the name of the Blue Nile, bringing the flood 
waters of the tropics to water the crops in the 
Delta, a thousand miles away. 

All along the west coast of the Red Sea runs a 
long range of mountains, broken here and there. 
Between them and the Nile lies a barren stony 
waste, dotted here and there with poor, prickly, 
scrubby vegetation, and broken by wadies, or 
water beds, which are dry for the greater part of 
the year. 

Abyssinia itself is divided into three main di- 
visions, Tigre in the north, Amhara in the center, 
and Shoa in the south. As a whole, the climate is 
pleasant, because of the elevation of the country, 
though in the river valleys the atmosphere is 
suffocating and noxious. The country is exceed- 
ingly fertile ; two and even three crops can be 
raised in a year. Cotton, indigo, date-palms, ba- 
nanas, the sugar-cane and the coffee-plant flourish 

When Africa was divided among the powers of 
Europe, Italy, who already possessed a colony at 
the seaport, Massowa, received as her portion the 
territory round Abyssinia, including the strip, 
called Eritrea, along the shore of the Red Sea. 

But much of this extensive territory has been re- 
covered by the Negus or Emperor of Abyssinia; 
and Italy has now to be content with the colony 
of Eritrea, with the valuable pearl fisheries of 
certain islands, and a narrow strip of country 
called Italian Somaliland. 

The inhabitants of Abyssinia are a varied col- 
lection. The chief element is the Abyssinian 
proper, a dark brown, well-built race. Besides 
this, there is a large number of Jews, and of Gal- 
las, a native tribe. The religion is a degraded 
form of Christianity, but the Gallas are Moham- 
medans. The chief towns are Gondar, Ankober, 
and Adua, but all the trade exports, except those 
which are carried west by caravans, pass through 


With the exception of the Nile valley, Darfur is 
the only part of Nubia that is always habitable. 
Its northern portion is sandy and waterless, but 
the rest of the land is fertile, and during the rainy 
season is covered with thick luxuriant vegetation, 
tobacco being abundant. Copper and iron are 
also plentiful, but the wealth of the country lies 
chiefly in cattle. The inhabitants, called Fulahs, 
are a fine race, numbering about four millions, 
and belong to the Mohammedan religion. 

West of Darfur is the country of the Wadai, a 
powerful and warlike race, of which little is 
known. Now it is included within the French 
and British spheres of influence. East of Darfur 
is the territory of Kordofan, the home of the 
millet, which is the chief food of its three hun- 
dred thousand inhabitants. This plant, or rather 
grass, resembles the sugar-cane ; it has a sweet, 
juicy pith and grows to the height of from four 
to eight feet. El Obeid, the chief town, with a 
population of thirty thousand, receives the agri- 
cultural produce of the native negroes. 

South of these three Sudanese countries is the 
"river land," the Zeriba district of the Arabs. 
The country is one of the most fertile in Africa, 
rich in cattle, fruit, and corn. At one period 
it was frequently raided, as indeed were most of 
the Central African States, by the Arabs in their 
search for slaves, who were marched in gangs 
either northeast to the Red Sea, or eastward to 
Somaliland and the shores of the Indian Ocean. 

Though differently named, and separated from 
Italian Somaliland by the political frontier of the 
Juba river, British East Africa is really a part of 
Somaliland. The same general features prevail, 
except in the western region round the great 

In the center of the British possession lies Lake 

H.T.&O.D. II. 20. 30s 



Rudolf, one hundred and sixty miles long and 
twenty miles broad. It is fed by streams which 
rise in the Kaffa uplands, whence comes some of 
the finest coffee that is to be had, and from which 
the name of the beverage is said to be derived. 
In the south is Mount Kenia, one of the highest 
peaks in Africa. 

The climate is very peculiar. The coast lands 
have their wet season from December to May; 
whereas in the interior the rains begin in March 
and continue till June. The hot lands, which ex- 
tend from the coast up to the height of five thou- 
sand feet on the plateau ridges, grow cotton, 
indigo, ebony, sugar-canes, date-palms, coffee- 
plants and banana trees. 

Higher up, that is, above eight thousand feet, 
is the temperate zone, where grow most of the 
grasses and cereals of Europe, and also the tere- 
binth (or turpentine) and juniper trees. Orange, 
citron, apricot and peach trees also flourish in 
this district. Higher still is the cold zone, which 
provides only pasture for goats, cattle, and the 
thickly-wooled sheep. 

The chief town of British East Africa is Mom- 
basa, which is connected with Europe by tele- 
graph. It possesses one of the best harbors on 
the east coast, and is the terminus of a railway 
which already communicates with Lake Victoria 
Nyanza, and is being extended to the Uganda 

North of the river Juba lies Somaliland, part 
of which is British, part Italian. This vast tract 
of land, an undulating plateau, is barren and 
parched, but in the rainy season it is in parts very 
swampy. Here are to be found nearly all the 
wild animals for which this continent is noted. 

Uganda, which supports a population of about 
five million inhabitants, was described by Stanley 
as the "Pearl of Africa." The climate is temper- 
ate, on account of the great elevation of the coun- 
try, which for the most part consists of an undu- 
lating plain, broken here and there by mountains, 
the loftiest of which is Mount Ruwenzori, more 
than sixteen thousand feet high. 

Coffee, sugar-cane, maize, wheat, and rice are 
here cultivated with great success; and domestic 
animals, such as cows, sheep, and goats, have also 
been introduced, the splendid grazing grounds of 
this country being especially suitable for them. 
Banana groves abound everywhere, producing an 
abundance of fruit with or without cultivation, 
and supplying the natives with the wine that is 
their favorite drink. 

The people are good-looking and strong, and, 
though generally lazy, are so intelligent and 
clever in workmanship that they have been lik- 
ened to the Japanese for skill. Pottery, metal, 

wood and basket work, bark cloths, boat-build- 
ing, and printing engage their attention, as well 
as dyeing and tanning; they have, too, great 
musical talent, and love to sing and dance to the 
sound of drums. 


Lying off the coast are the two islands of Zanzi- 
bar and Pemba, which were brought under Brit- 
ish control by an agreement with Germany in 
1890. The trading city of Zanzibar possesses a 
magnificent harbor, in which the fine merchant 
vessels of many countries exchange their goods 
for those brought from the East Indies. Many 
of the ships return laden with beautiful ivory 
tusks, which the natives of the interior are only 
too glad to barter for the glass beads and gaudy 
calicoes sent from Europe and India. 

German East Africa, the scene of many fear- 
less adventures by noted explorers, was taken 
possession of by Germany in 1884, though it was 
at that time part of the dominion of the Sultan 
of Zanzibar. This was Germany's last colonial 
possession, and was captured by British forces 
in 1917. Its chief physical features are a fertile 
coast followed by a succession of interior up- 
lands, culminating in the highest mountain peaks 
of the continent, the twin-peaked snow-topped 
Kilimanjaro, 19,720 feet high, almost on the 
equator. These peaks, crowned with snow, which 
the natives believe to be silver, are really two 
craters of a fearful depth. 

Much of the interior is a sandy waste, where 
scorching days are followed by chilly nights. The 
coast, too, has an unhealthy climate. Over thirty 
different tribes, some of them cannibals, people 
this great territory, where Arab influences still 
have most of their old sway. 

Bagamoyo, opposite Zanzibar, has been for 
ages one of the starting points of caravans for 
•the interior. It has a picturesque bazaar, many 
imposing religious buildings, and a busy trade. 
One of the commercial centers of the interior is 
Tabora, which commands routes from Ujiji and 
other places; and there is Ujiji itself, the great 
Arab center for traffic in slaves and ivory, lying 
in a low, swampy, and unhealthy district. 

Portuguese East Africa extends from Tonga- 
land to Cape Delgado, and the surface of the 
land somewhat resembles that of Natal. In the 
hands of the British it would be turned to valua- 
ble account, but the Portuguese are not good colo- 
nists; the few officials are content to collect the 
taxes, while the government, especially that of 










the interior, is practically in the hands of local 
chiefs, mostly half-breeds, who call themselves 

The surface of the land somewhat resembles 
that of Natal; there is the level coast-plain, grad- 
ually widening as it extends northward, full of 
fever-breeding swamps ; behind and above are 
the ever-rising slopes, covered with scrub and 
rough pasture, and in the more fertile parts with 
crops of rice, cotton, coffee, rubber, tobacco, and 
indigo, varied by forests of good timber. Here 
the climate is more wholesome, and quite suitable 
for Europeans. 

Beira and Lourenqo Marques, the two chief 
ports of Portuguese East Africa, owe their im- 
portance more to the demands of British than of 
Portuguese settlers. Beira is the outlet for the 
gold of Mashonaland and the terminus of the 
African Trans-Continental Telegraph. Lourenqo 
Marques, an unhealthy port, built on an excellent 
harbor, is the nearest seaport to Johannesburg 
and Pretoria, and is therefore a powerful rival 
to Durban and the other seaports lying south. 


The British possessions in West Africa include 
Gambia, Sierra Leone, the Gold Coast, Ashanti, 
Lagos, and Nigeria. The first of these, which is 
the most northerly, derived its name from the 
river Gambia, where the Portuguese formed an 
early settlement, lured to the spot by stories that 
the hinterland teemed with gold, and that far-off 
Timbuctoo was a wondrous city of untold wealth. 

Gambia, covering with its protectorate an area 
of about three thousand five hundred square 
miles, is the smallest West African possession of 
the Empire. The people, numbering altogether 
but one fourth as many as the city of Baltimore, 
are mostly pagans, and in their habits and pur- 
suits by no means progressive. 

The capital, Bathurst, on St. Mary's Island, is 
like most West African towns of any importance 
— a few European houses, a multitude of tumble- 
down native huts, and a well-shaded market place, 
where a motley collection of men and women 
may be seen, dressed in strange costumes of 
many colors. 

Sierra Leone has a fine harbor, which is not 
only picturesque, but one of the best in the world. 
The colony is well suited for growing rice and 
coffee, and in recent years has made great strides. 
At first, it was a settlement for freed slaves, and 
the capital, Freetown, has a good town hall, 
erected in memory of Wilberforce, the friend of 
the slaves. 

The Gold Coast, which is bounded on the west 
by the French Ivory Coast territory, is a very 
promising colony. Akkra, the seat of govern- 
ment, is brought into keen commercial competi- 
tion with several other ports of importance, such 
as Cape Coast Castle (the former capital), and 
Elmina (the old Portuguese stronghold). Rub- 
ber and palm-oil are the chief exports. 

Ashanti forms the hinterland of the Gold 
Coast, and has rich deposits of gold. The people 
are exceedingly brave and more highly civilized 
than other West African native tribes; and no 
wonder, therefore, that in the early part of the 
nineteenth century they became the most power- 
ful savage nation in this part of Africa. It has 
been necessary to send expeditions against the 
Ashantis more than once. 

Lagos, one of the most successful of this group 
of colonies, was so named on account of its ex- 
traordinary network of lagoons, which form a 
series of canals near and along the surf-beaten 
shore. This natural formation, combined with 
the bush and jungle, offered exceptional facili- 
ties to the slave-shippers in the days when the 
exportation of slaves was carefully watched. 
Maize, palm-oil and ivory are now the chief arti- 
cles of trade, and the capital, also named Lagos, 
is a flourishing town. 

Nigeria is divided into two protectorates, 
known as Southern and Northern Nigeria re- 
spectively. The former extends along the sea- 
board, which is one great network of creeks, 
swamps and rivers, inhabited by tribes of a very 
low type, who display little or no capacity for 
improvement. The protectorate of Northern Ni- 
geria is inland, and includes some important 
states, such as Bornu, near Lake Chad, and the 
empire of the Sultan of Sokoto. 

Bornu has a long history, extending over a 
thousand years, and was, at one time, a most 
powerful kingdom. Great prosperity, however, 
brought about its sudden decline. For centuries, 
trade has existed between Bornu and Tripoli, 
along the usual caravan route, the former supply- 
ing chiefly ostrich feathers, ivory, and slaves in 
exchange for European manufactures. 

The Sultan of Sokoto holds sway over a vast 
country extending from Lagos to beyond Lake 
Chad. This is a fickle lake, into which many 
rivers pour their waters during the rainy season; 
it then becomes an immense lagoon, the opposite 
sides of which are not visible at the same time. 
It is, however, constantly changing its borders, 
and in the dry season practically disappears. The 
water is perfectly fresh, and when the lake is in 
flood, herds of hippopotami and numbers of croc- 
odiles frequent its shores. 

hrom photographs, copyright by Underwood & L'luicrwood. 

upper: looking into the orange free state. 






Liberia is the only independent state of any con- 
siderable size on the west coast of Africa. It 
was founded for the liberated slaves of North 
America, and its government is republican, being 
a copy of our own United States. Monrovia, the 
capital, has a black population of fifteen thou- 
sand ; and the whole country contains upward of 
a million souls. 

A glance at the map shows that the rest of 
West Africa consists of the colonies and the 
spheres of influence of the great European pow- 
ers. Those belonging to France cover an im- 
mense area, and comprise the Western Sudan, 
the regions of the Upper Niger and Senegal riv- 
ers, and the whole of the Sahara territory south 
of Algeria. The colony of Senegal, on the west, 
affords a means of communication with the inte- 
rior. St. Louis, the capital, stands near the mouth 
of the Senegal. The Ivory Coast colony also be- 
longs to France. 

Dahomey, once a powerful negro state, to the 
north of the Slave Coast, is now within the 
sphere of French influence. Undulating plains 
and uplands, partially covered with forests, and 
vast agricultural stretches of land, on which cof- 
fee, cotton, maize, fruits, and the sugar-cane 
grow, are the chief physical features of the coun- 
try; a quantity of gold dust is exported. 

French Kongo territory takes in nearly the 
whole seaboard from the Cameroons to the Lower 
Kongo — a coast line of about nine hundred miles, 
with its hinterland. In it are included the basins 
of important rivers, like the Gaboon and the 
Lower Kongo. 

The Cameroons came under the influence of 
Germany in 1885. The Cameroon Mountains are 
a magnificent spectacle, sloping up from the 
shore, and covered with dense forests nearly half- 
way up, with plantation clearings, on which grow 
the oil-palm, the cocoanut and the banana. The 
Cameroon River, the largest stream in the coun- 
try, swarms with prawns. 

German Southwest Africa, consisting of Da- 
maraland and Great Namaqualand, is bounded 
on the north by Portuguese territory, and on the 
south by the Orange River. Germany held 
a protectorate over tb.c whole of this region 
from 1884-1916, with the exception of the strip of 
land known as Walfisch Bay, which belongs to 
Great Britain. Most of this vast territory con- 
sists of tableland, and is one of the worst 
watered countries in the world. The population 
is thin, and there are no interior towns, although 
it is a region said to be rich in minerals. 

Portuguese West Africa has its hinterland 

bounded chiefly by the Kongo Free State. It is 
ofiicially known as Angola, and is in a very back- 
ward state, considering its resources. Loanda, 
the capital, has a good harbor with a flourishing 
trade. Noki, on the left bank of the Kongo, is a 
port accessible to ocean-going steamers. 

The Kongo Free State has a unique history. 
After Stanley had discovered the course of the 
great river which gives this territory its name, 
he was commissioned by the King of the Belgians 
to establish trading and mission stations. Ac- 
cordingly, in 1879, he set to work, and after 
nearly six years' labor the enterprising explorer 
returned with between four and five hundred 
treaties made with the various chiefs. 

Armed with these treaties, the King of the 
Belgians appealed to the civilized world for help, 
with the result that the Berlin Congress in 1885 
recognized "the Kongo Free State" as a sover- 
eign power, with Leopold II. as its first king. It 
was intended that the State should cover the 
whole ground of the Kongo basin ; that, however, 
was rendered impossible, as several European 
powers had already settled upon it. The Free 
State extends from the Atlantic eastward to Lake 
Tanganyika, and covers an area ten times greater 
than that of Great Britain. Boma, the capital 
and a fine trading depot, has a good harbor. 


Since the annexation in 1900 of the two coun- 
tries now known as the Orange River Colony 
and the Transvaal, British territory extends with- 
out a break from the Cape of Good Hope to 
Lake Tanganyika. All this land, however,' is not 
under the same government ; it includes no less 
than eight colonies and protectorates. 

The British Central African Protectorate, for- 
merly called Nyassaland, was the scene of the 
earlier explorations of the heroic Dr. Living- 
stone. Blantyre (named after his birthplace) is 
the chief commercial center, but Zomba is the 
headquarters of the administration. Another 
British protectorate is Bechuanaland, which lies 
between the Transvaal and German territory. 

In 1889 the British South Africa Company was 
formed to acquire mining and other rights in un- 
developed lands inhabited by the Mashonas, Mata- 
beles, and other native tribes, and to which has 
since been given the name Rhodesia. Communi- 
cation has been established with Rhodesia by rail 
from Cape Town to Buluwayo. the latter being 
of greater importance than Salisbury, the Rhode- 
sian capital. This line passes through Kimberley 
and Mafeking, and is to form part of the great 
project, popularly known as the "Cape to Cairo" 

From a photograph, copyright l»y Underwood & Underwood. 





Railway, which is to bind the British possessions 
more closely together. 

Rhodesia practically comprises the basin of the 
Zambesi, which is twelve hundred miles long, and 
is the fourth in size of the African rivers. In its 
course occur the great Victoria Falls, one of the 
grandest sights in the world. The white spray, 
which rises from these falls in huge columns like 
clouds of steam, may be seen twenty miles away. 

The Orange River divides Cape Colony from 
German Namaqualand and Orange River Col- 
ony; and its chief tributary, the Vaal, is also an 
important boundary line ; its entrance is blocked 
by a sandbar, and nowhere is it navigable. The 
Limpopo, sometimes called the Crocodile River 
because of the number of these creatures found 
in its waters, makes a circular sweep round the 
Transvaal and forms its northern boundary. 

South Africa has only two seasons, the dry 
and the rainy, the latter occurring during the 
winter; and, since this tract of country is in the 
southern hemisphere, summer and winter happen 
at opposite times of the year to ours. The vege- 
tation varies from the luxuriant growths of tim- 
ber of the region bordering on the tropics, to the 
stunted scrub and scattered tufts of grass of the 
karroo and veldt. Forests are rare in the south, 
but the spruits or river valleys are usually cov- 
ered with "bush," that is, with trees of short 
growth and scanty foliage. Flowers are of end- 
less variety, and after refreshing rains even the 
parched karroo is covered with brilliant blooms. 

In addition to the gold and diamond mines, 
which have so greatly increased the prosperity of 
the colonies in recent years, there are workable 
deposits of coal in the Transvaal and northwest 
Natal. Some silver is obtainable from mines in 
the neighborhood of Pretoria; and copper, iron, 
and lead exist in paying quantities in many dis- 

The early white settlers in Cape Colony found 
three races of native people, differing from each 
other in many respects, but possessing the com- 
mon quality of savage life in greater or less de- 
gree. Of these, the Bushmen are almost extinct, 
as they show no inclination to adopt civilized 
methods of living; the Hottentots are content to 
act as domestic servants or farm laborers, but are 
gradually dying out as a race ; while the Kaffirs 
(or Bantus) multiply and thrive in a remarkable 
manner under the better laws and habits of their 

The lion, the terror of the early colonists, is 
now only to be found roaming in the Kalahari 
Desert, though a solitary animal sometimes ap- 
pears on the outlying farms of Rhodesia. But 
he is less dreaded than the leopard, locally known 

as the "tiger," which frequents the mountainous 
districts. This animal preys upon baboons, and 
the smaller kinds of antelopes. Of antelopes 
there are many varieties, the most noteworthy 
being the spring-bok, which can bound to a height 
of twelve feet, and clear fifteen feet of ground at 
each spring. 

There are many kinds of snakes; scorpions- 
abound ; and there are also venomous spiders. 
Among the larger birds are the eagle and hawk; 
the secretary bird, which preys on snakes and 
other noxious creatures; and the bustard, not so 
big as the ostrich, yet resembling it in its motion; 
while among the smaller kinds are to be enu- 
merated the snipe and the quail, the teal, widgeon, 
wild duck, and other familiar waterfowl, which 
furnish not only sport to the pleasure-seeking 
hunter, but food to the many birds of prey, ever 
on the alert to pounce upon their careless victims. 


The Cape, the oldest South African colony be- 
longing to Great Britain, formerly belonged to 
Holland, and a large part of the population is 
still of Dutch extraction. In spite of its great 
extent of coast-line, it possesses very few good 
harbors. Table Bay affords excellent anchorage 
from September to May, when the southeast mon- 
soon blows, but during the other months of the 
year, better shelter from the northwest wind is 
obtained in St. Simon's Bay, a few miles to the 
southeast. Here the ships of the Cape squadron 
may often be seen lying at anchor. 

Cape Town, the capital of the colony, stands on 
Table Bay. The aspect of the town and its sur- 
roundings, as viewed from the deck of a ship an- 
chored in St. Simon's Bay, is extremely striking. 
On the right rises a curiously shaped hill, with 
the appropriate name of the "Lion's Head"; in 
front is the flat-topped Table Mountain, and on 
the left stands the picturesque height known as 
"Devil's Peak." 

The town itself is not particularly attractive, 
the majority of the streets being narrow and built 
of mean-looking houses, which are chiefly occu- 
pied by the colored residents. Prominent among 
these, however, are some stately public buildings, 
including Parliament House, and a handsome 
museum. The suburbs furnish a much more 
agreeable prospect, with their clusters of resi- 
dences, varied here and there with some quaint 
specimens of the old Dutch style. They are 
reached by excellent roads, lined with imposing 
trees and garden shrubberies, from which peep 
out pretty, thatched homesteads and comfortable- 
looking villas. 






















Port Elizabeth is second only to Cape Town in 
importance, and ranks almost equally with it as 
a seaport. But the open character of Algoa Bay, 
upon which it stands, does not give it the same 
security for shipping as its rival. It is connected 
by rail with Grahamstown, the center of a healthy 
district devoted to the rearing of sheep and os- 

Farming and sheep-rearing are the chief indus- 
tries of the Dutch element throughout the colony, 
and wool is a most valuable article of trade. Os- 
trich feathers, hides, copper ore, and goat's hair — 
of the Angora breed, from which mohair is made 
— are among the chief exports. Vine growing 
and wine production are also receiving attention, 
but nothing now compares in value with the out- 
put of diamonds from the mines of Kimberley. 

This "City of Diamonds" is situated in Griqua- 
land West, and furnishes a striking appearance 
on account of its irregular form. The white dig- 
gers now have a portion of the town reserved for 
their occupation, and their pretty whitewashed 
cottages, with their neat plots of grass or gaily- 
colored beds of flowers, greatly brighten the 
aspect. In recent years, some very handsome 
buildings have been erected, and much of the dull 
character of the town has vanished. 

In its general aspect, Xatal, to some extent, re- 
sembles Cape Colony. The coast belt, extending 
inland for about twelve or fifteen miles, bears a 
more or less evergreen and semi-tropical appear- 
ance. Then the land rises gently in terraces of 
verdant, productive soil, each succeeding eleva- 
tion possessing its own features of climate and 
products. Towering above the topmost of these 
tablelands, and tempering the hot winds from the 
north, are the Drakensberg Mountains, which 
form the western boundary. To the north are the 
strips of country known as Zululand. and British 
Amatongaland, both of which now form part of 
the colony of Natal. 

Durban, the seaport of Natal, is the largest 
town and the chief seat of trade. Its streets are 
broad and clean, well paved, and lined with hand- 
some trees ; its water supply and drainage system 
are admirable. A striking feature of the streets 
is the Japanese rickshaw, or two-wheeled cart, 
drawn by muscular young Zulus, who imitate the 
actions of a restive horse, and find a keen delight 
in the alarm of their passengers at their adventu- 
rous feats. But their unfailing good-humor and 
trustworthiness more than make up for their child- 
ish tricks. 

Maritzburg, the capital, distant about seventy 
miles from Durban, is situated in the uplands 
some two thousand feet above the level of the 
sea. The railway, stretching away to the north, 

takes us over the Tugela River to the important 
frontier town of Ladysmith, the scene of a memo- 
rable siege by the Boers in 1900. Beyond Lady- 
smith on the main line is Newcastle, where coal 
of an excellent quality is produced in great abun- 

The Orange River Colony and the Transvaal 
form part of the great plateau of South Africa, 
and mainly consist of one vast rolling stretch of 
pasture land, broken here and there by rough bar- 
ren hills, known as "kopjes," and rich fertile val- 
leys with flourishing cornfields and prosperous 
looking farms. Generally speaking, the land is 
rarely tilled, the Boers preferring to rear large 
herds of cattle on the grassy slopes of the up- 

One may travel through the whole extent of 
the Orange River Colony, and see nothing to 
break the monotony of the prairie country except 
a few farmsteads ; then, reaching the Transvaal, 
the traveler's gaze is met with the signs of busy- 
mining life. First, he passes through the coalfields 
of Kroonstad and Heilbron,and soon views the tall 
chimneys of the Johannesburg gold mines, which 
stretch away to the west for quite fifty miles, 
through the district of the Witwatersrand. 

Bloemfontein, the capital of the Orange River 
Colony, is a pretty little town lying well up on a 
healthy tableland. The capital of the Transvaal 
is Pretoria, but Johannesburg is the most impor- 
tant town. The "Golden City," as the latter is 
sometimes called, is situated at a height of about 
seven thousand feet, where the air is so bracing 
as to make the inhabitants always excited and full 
of energy. The talk of the restless throngs of 
men is ever of gold, and the handsome buildings, 
flanking the broad avenues, seem in their mag- 
nificence to echo the word. 

Basutoland, a mountain tract of country, is a 
separate colony. The natives manage their own 
affairs under the supervision of a British resident, 
and they are rapidly abandoning their old savage 


With the exception of Madagascar, the even 
coast-line of Africa is relieved by only a few 
small islands that are mere specks in the ocean. 
Off the northwest coast lie three clusters of is- 
lands, of which one, the Canary group, is a Span- 
ish possession ; while the other two, Madeira and 
Cape Verde Islands, belong to Portugal. 

The Canary Islands are thirteen in number, 
Teneriffe, Grand Canary and Palma being the 
principal members of the group. The former is 
surmounted by a volcanic peak bearing the same 



name; and, rising to a height of twelve thousand 
feet, its appearance to approaching ships fur- 
nishes an interesting contrast to the smiling and 
verdant plains at its base. 

The principal product of the islands is wine. 
The cochineal, a small insect, is also extensively 
cultivated; in fact, about one-half of the whole 
supply of this coloring matter now comes from 
these islands, and certain trees are grown in im- 
mense numbers to encourage the production of 
the insect, in just the same way that the French 
take care of the silkworm by keeping up the sup- 
ply of mulberry-trees. 

Madeira is almost close enough to Portugal to 
be considered European territory. Its climate is 
of a most even character, and consequently at- 
tracts many invalids suffering from consumption. 
The eye of the visitor is cheered with visions of 
orange trees laden with flowers and fruit, fea- 
thery-topped bananas, and snowy-belled tulips 
growing in wild profusion. The Cape Verde Is- 
lands lack the fertility and wholesome character 
of the climate of Madeira. Coffee is, however, 
produced in some quantity, and salt and leather 
are important articles of commerce. 

The passengers of a liner bound for "the Cape" 
soon lose sight of land after passing Cape Verde, 
and the first break in the horizon is a bare rock 
that rises solem.nly out of the ocean as the steamer 
plows its onward way. Here, perchance, it may 
call for coal at Georgetown, which is the port of 
the island of Ascension. Possibly, too, it may 
take on board some of the many fine turtles that 
are caught in its waters. 

Another two or three days' swift steaming 
brings us to the island of St. Helena, which, like 
Ascension, belongs to Britain. The early impres- 
sion of a tall mountain gives place to a view of 
high cliffs and rocky gorges, at the foot of one of 
which lies Jamestown, the capital of the island. 
Here, in 1815, Napoleon landed, to spend six 
weary years in exile ; and here, nearly a hundred 
years later, General Cronje and his four thousand 
men were placed in safe keeping until the close 
of the Boer war. 

Tristan d'Acunha lies in the track of vessels 
working their way between the two famous capes 

of Africa and South America. Some British ship- 
wrecked sailors and their families, to the number 
of about a hundred, constitute the whole popula- 
tion. They welcome the rare calls from passing 
ships, and think a cat the most valuable gift that 
can be made to them, for their little island is in- 
fested with rats. 

On the other side of Africa is another British 
possession, the island of Mauritius. It was ac- 
quired from France after the battle of Waterloo, 
but the French population has been left undis- 
turbed. Many Hindu and Chinese coolies assist 
the native negroes on the valuable sugar and 
coffee plantations of the island. 

Madagascar is one of the largest islands in the 
world, being nearly twice the size of the British 
Isles. Its surface, like that of Africa, is low and 
flat round the coast, from which mountains rise 
to form great interior tablelands. The numerous 
rivers are of little use, owing to sand-banks and 
rapids, but, near the sea, some of them open out 
into beautiful lakes. 

The river valleys are exceedingly fertile, though 
unhealthy for Europeans, and produce rice and 
manioc (the tapioca plant) abundantly, while 
cocoanut-trees, sugar, cotton, tobacco, and India- 
rubber plants flourish with very little attention. 
Crocodiles abound in the rivers and lakes, and, 
with the scorpions and serpents, are a great dan- 
ger to human life; locusts also, the plague of 
South Africa, pay periodical visits and ravage 
the crops. 

The Hovas are the most intelligent and ener- 
getic of the many native tribes, and were the rul- 
ing race until the French captured the capital, 
Antananarivo, in 1894, deposed the queen, and 
afterward made the island a French possession. 
Every effort is now being made to introduce 
French customs. Roads and bridges are also be- 
ing rapidly constructed, and the telegraph and 
telephone are helping on the work of civilization. 

Reunion (or Bourbon) is also a French posses- 
sion, the British being satisfied in 1815 to retain 
Mauritius alone. It resembles the latter island in 
its volcanic origin, in the mixed character of its 
population, and in its liberal production of sugar. 
Its capital is St. Denis. 


^3^ C^ 



The highest land in Europe, and the lowest, are 
linked together by the river Rhine. Far away 
amid the mountains of Switzerland it starts on its 
long journey, leaping like a merry child, till it 
passes into the quiet waters of Lake Constance. 
Then, with growing strength, it dashes and roars, 
as it tumbles over the rocks at Schaffhausen, and 
then flows, in staid middle life, rapidly and stead- 
ily north, useful and strong and beautiful, for 
many, many miles through Germany. After pass- 
ing the grand gate of the Seven Mountains near 
Cologne, it goes slower, as if age had come upon 
it, and at last, stretching out weary arms, it seems 
to be blindly searching for the sea, in which to 
end its course in peace. 

The triangle of low land on the shores of the 
North Sea between France and Germany— lying 
in the grasp of these arms of the Rhine and about 
the lower courses of the Meuse and the Schelde 
where the great north plain of Europe is narrow- 
est — has been known through history as the Low 
Countries, or the Netherlands, nether meaning 
lower. Small as the district is — not so large as 
Scotland— it has fallen into two distinct coun- 
tries, occasionally united under one rule through 
the centuries. Holland, the hollow or marshy 
land, the northern and larger half, with its ragged 
coast, lies chiefly in the Rhine delta. Belgium, to 
the south, has but fifty miles of coast, and con- 
sists of the lowlands drained by the Meuse and 
Schelde, and the highlands of the Ardennes. 

By taking a long ocean voyage we can enter 
Belgium by the estuary of the Schelde to Ant- 
werp, a very great port, connected by rail and 
canal with not only the rest of Belgium, but with 
the industrial towns of the Lower Rhine, about a 
hundred miles away, and easy of access to the 
places across the ocean which send Europe the 
raw material that it cannot grow itself. Bruges 
and Ghent, famous old cities, are connected with 
Antwerp by canals ; and Brussels, the capital, is 
in the center of the kingdom, so gay, and full of 
fine shops and handsome buildings, that it is 
sometimes called a miniature Paris. It is an easy 
journey to pass from Brussels to Holland. 


Between Flushing and the Hook of Holland are 
the numerous muddy islands formed by the sedi- 
ments brought down by the great rivers, so here 
we have some of the earth of Switzerland, Ger- 
many, and France. North of Rotterdam are The 
Hague, the beautiful capital of Holland, Utrecht, 
Leyden, and Haarlem, so famous in history, and 
Amsterdam, Holland's largest city of commerce, 
on an arm of the Zuyder Zee. The Zuyder Zee is 
the youngest sea in the world, for it was formed 
only about 600 years ago. when the water burst in 
over the land, sweeping away villages and the 
poor folk who lived in them. The greater part of 
Holland is below the level of the North Sea. 

There is an old Dutch proverb: "God made the 
sea, but we make the shore." For more than a 
thousand years the making of that shore has been 
the first duty and thought for those who, living in 
the land, wished to protect it, and enlarge its bor- 
ders, against the storms and tides that dash 
against it. 

As we travel through Holland to-day, we are 
astonished at the engineering skill that has grown 
through the centuries from perpetual battle with 
the water. 


Let us stand on one of the great dikes, or sea 
walls. It is perhaps sixty feet high, and broad 
enough at the top for a carriage road, bordered 
with trees and buildings. The sea laps quietly, 
though it may rage and roar to-morrow, not far 
below the level of this road, and boats come 
alongside to little piers and quays; but the other 
side slopes deep down to the green meadows, so 
that we on the dike can see down the chimneys 
of the houses nestling on them below, and the 
fishes on the one side are higher than the birds 
in the trees on the other. Very strong, built of 
stones and cement and willow boughs, are these 







walls which push back the ocean, and constant 
care is needed to see that there is no leak, and 
that the various gates and sluices are in perfect 

There arc stronjj walls, too, round the lakes 
and on the banks of the rivers that become flooded 
when the snow melts in the distant Alps; and 
everywhere are canals and ditches cut to regulate 
the flow, and to help the land to keep its head 
above water. Li many places, continuous pump- 
ing has to be carried on, and this is largely done 
by the windmills that are such a feature of the 
country. From the top of the dike we can per- 
haps count twenty or more, for the Dutch people 
make the most of the labor of that riotous giant, 
the wind, who often does so much mischief in the 

Besides pumping and draining, the windmills 
saw up wood and grind corn. Many lakes are 
formed by the draining of the marshes, which 
has been done with enormous toil and skill ; and 
as we pass from The Hague to Haarlem in the 
train, we see one of the largest polders, as the 
drained marshes are called, beautifully green and 




If our visit is in the early summer, the reclaimed 
land will be brilliant with the lovely bulb flowers 
for which Holland is so famous. In most of the 
towns, canals run through the streets. Amster- 
dam, for instance, is built on almost as many 
islands as Venice, and the canals are crossed by 
300 bridges. The soil is so moist that, generally, 
houses have to be built on a foundation previously 
made firm by driving in a number of piles. Eras- 
mus, the great Greek scholar, who lived at Rot- 
terdam, had this in his mind when he said that he 
knew a city in which people lived like crows on 
the tops of trees. 

Holland is so flat that, if we mount the towers 
of any of the fine old cathedral churches, we can 
see all round for miles, right away to the distant 
horizon. And a bright and wonderful view it is 
on a sunny day, for the water shines everywhere, 
and so do the brass weathercocks and the steel 
railway lines; and even the sails of the boats on 
the canals gleam against the green of the fields. 
It is so strange to see sails mixed up with trees, 
especially when the rivers or canals are higher 
than the fields. And over all is the tenderest, 
most delicate light, which Dutch artists know so 
well how to paint in their pictures. 

If our visit to Holland is in the winter, a very 

different scene meets our eye. Instead of the 
vivid green, a mantle of white rests over all, and 
the gleaming waters of the canals and ditches are 
frozen hard and are covered with skaters— doc- 
tors going to their patients, children to school, 
laborers to their work. The Dutch are among 
the best skaters in the world. In the cities of the 
Netherlands there are many beautiful pictures by 
great Dutch artists, such as Rembrandt. Rubens, 
Frans Hals, and these, with the relics in the 
museums, tell us of the life and history of the 
country, the great scenes which took place 
through the centuries ; we may study the portraits 
of the leading men who made or marred its hap- 
piness, as well as the pictures of home life in 
palaces and cottages in days long since passed 

Let us now, for a while, leave the busy and 
populous Belgium of to-day, and the Holland so 
carefully wrested and guarded from the ocean, 
and glance at the story, extending over two thou- 
sand years, of the struggles by which the Nether- 
lands have not only in the end kept their small 
corner of Europe independent, but which have so 
strengthened and educated the people that, for 
centuries, they have been the world's teachers in 
most of the matters that are worth knowing. 

The Low Countries formed but a dull, damp dis- 
trict, shut in by the gloomy depths of boundless 
forests, when we first caught sight of them in the 
searchlight thrown by Roman civilization. For 
countless ages the rivers, which, we see, are very 
numerous all over the land, had been steadily 
bringing down slime and mud, and the wind and 
tide had been occasionally dispersing and de- 
stroying the banks thus formed. The early Celtic 
people who chose these shifting swamps for their 
home lived like beavers among the tangled brush- 
wood on the islands at the mouth of the Rhine. 
The bravest of them were the Belgse, who have 
left their name in Belgium ; and, when the Ro- 
mans came, several German tribes, of much the 
same stock as our own forefathers, had pushed 
out the Celts. Among them the Batavians and 
the Frisians were celebrated for bravery and love 
of freedom and their determination to protect the 
land on which they dwelt. The Batavians proved 
of great use in the Roman armies. 

In the fourth century, the Frankish tribes came 
swarming over the Rhine, and by degrees they 
absorbed the Frisians and the Batavians and the 
rest of the tribes living in the morasses and low 
plains, till at length all the country fell under the 
rule of the great Charlemagne. He left the peo- 
ple their native customs, and put chiefs over them 
as his delegates, whom they had to obey. Part of 
Charlemagne's plan was to give wealth and power 





to the bishops of the newly Christianized tribes, 
and for nearly a thousand years these prince- 
bishops were very important. After Charle- 
magne's death tlic great empire broke up, and 
under the weak rulers that followed, the indepen- 
dent nobles became ever stronger. There were 
the Bishops of Utrecht, where was the first Chris- 
tian church, and the Counts of Holland— Holland 
being originally a province which later gave its 
name to the country. 

The Dukes of Brabant and the Earls of Flan- 
ders—William of Normandy took his bride from 
Flanders- were very important nobles as well as 
the lords of Hainault. Other small states were 
Guelderland and Friesland. The old laws of the 
Frisians declare that the race shall be free, as 
long as the wind blows out of the clouds and the 
world stands, and this principle has always been 
kept in view even in times of overwhelming 


These were the bad old feudal days, when the 
nobles were forever quarreling among themselves, 
and, according to their opportunities, doing their 
best to take away the liberties of the people. The 
prince-bishops gained more and more power over 
men's minds, till no one dared to think for himself. 
We know how the rise of important towns has 
always helped on the cause of freedom, and 
though the towns in the Netherlands are not quite 
so old as some in France, Italy, and Germany, 
most of them date from early times. When trade 
was set moving by the impulse of the Crusades, 
the towns of the great north and south route be- 
gan to rise from small beginnings to wealth and 
power. From the thirteenth to the fifteenth cen- 
tury, the towns of the Netherlands did much busi- 
ness with the towns of the famous Hanseatic 
League. In the fourteenth century there were 
over three thousand woolen manufactures around 
]\Ialines, now the center of the Belgian railway 
lines; Ghent had 40,000 weavers, and the gold- 
smiths of Bruges were numerous enough to form 
a regiment by themselves in time of war. The 
towns of Delft, Haarlem, Rotterdam, and Am- 
sterdam were all growing, though often devas- 
tated by the endless quarrels of landowners and 


It was at this time that England grew so much 
wool for Flemish looms. Linen, too, of various 

kinds was added to the manufactures. Holland, 
that stout material we use so much for pinafores 
and curtains, still bears the name of the country 
where it has always been largely made. 

But all the time when the trade and industry 
were growing, amid constant scenes of violence 
and fighting in the streets of the tiourishing 
towns, the struggle against the elements for pos- 
session of the country was ever going on. Did 
the fierce winds heap up the sand-hills on the 
shore, the Netherlanders planted coarse grass to 
bind it together to make a rampart against fur- 
ther encroachment. Did the river overflow its 
banks, they were strengthened and heightened ; 
and so by degrees, by patient trial and endeavor, 
that wonderful skill was attained in building dikes 
to withstand even the onward rush of the stormy 
tide, and in making canals and draining lakes. 
Sometimes, as we have seen, the giant ocean had 
his way. It was in the thirteenth century that he 
rushed inland and formed the Zuyder Zee. For 
years past plans have been maturing to drain this 
great body of water and restore the land to culti- 




All this effort for generations produced a wise 
and determined race, few in numbers, and living 
in a small country, yet able to resist in the fif- 
teenth and sixteenth centuries the fierce tyranny 
of the most powerful of the sovereigns of Europe. 

For a dark cloud began to grow over the Neth- 
erlands when by seizure, purchase, succession, or 
marriage of heiresses, the most considerable of 
its states passed under the sway of the Dukes of 
Burgundy. We know how these dukes wished to 
annex Switzerland as well as the Netherlands and 
make one long, independent kingdom between 
France and Germany. The crafty Louis XI. had 
much to say about this, and was at constant war- 
fare with Duke Charles the Bold. From the 
daughter and sole heiress of this bad as well as 
bold man were wrested charters of privileges, 
commonly called the Great Charter— afterward 
forming the foundation of greater liberty by the 
first regular assembly of the States General, the 
members of which were sent from the provinces 
and great cities of the Netherlands. 

This young duchess, Mary, married Maximilian 
of the Hapsburg family, Duke of Austria, and 
later Holy Roman Emperor. Their son, Philip, 
succeeded to his mother's dominions, and he mar- 
ried Joanna, the daughter of Ferdinand and Isa- 

By permission of Franz Hanfstaengel. 



H.T.& G.D. II. 21; 




bclla of Spain, elder sister of Catherine of Ara- 

Their son was the famous Charles V., who gath- 
ered into his hand the rule of the Netherlands 
with that of Spain and Austria. All these coun- 
tries hated each other, and the liberties of the 
Netherlands were in terrible danger from a prince 
who firmly believed that he had the sole right of 
disposing of the persons and lives of his subjects, 
as well as deciding their faith and religion. 


Charles, in spite of his wide empire, was always 
in want of money, and he required the rich cities 
of the Netherlands, especially Ghent, to furnish 
it whenever he chose to ask for it : and when de- 
nied, he took away all the charters and rights of 
those who opposed him, and fined or executed the 
citizens. Hard as this was, especially when trade 
from different causes did not bring in so much 
wealth as formerly, it was not to be compared 
with the suffering brought upon the country 
through Charles's tyranny in matters of religion. 
We know how the teaching of Luther raised a 
storm in Germany and in England. That of Cal- 
vin, another reformer, powerfully affected France 
and the Netherlands; and in these countries the 
rulers hated and feared the Protestants, not only 
because their beliefs went against the supreme 
power of the Church, but because they denied the 
absolute power of the rulers themselves; and so, 
as the Netherlanders became more and more con- 
vinced that the Reformation was right, and bent 
all the strength of their determined natures to 
uphold it, the more bitter became the persecution 
of those in power, in order to stamp it out. 
Charles established the terrible Inquisition in the 
Netherlands, and under his orders thousands of 
reformers were burned at the stake. 


His son, Philip II., carried out his father's plan 
only too well, and when the unhappy people pre- 
pared to rise in revolt against his cruelties and 
extortions, he sent the Duke of Alva, a most 
clever soldier, and a man absolutely without pity, 
to suppress them. Almost the entire population 
of the Netherlands was sentenced to death with- 
out even the form of a trial ; people were sud- 
denly seized and put to death without warning, 
till there was not a family that was not bereft. 

A national hero rose up at this time, William 
the Silent, Prince of Orange. His ancestors had 
done good service to the House of Burgundy, and 
William was brought up under the eyes of Charles 
\'. When the worn-out Emperor laid down all his 
crowns to go into a monastery, it was on Wil- 
liam's arm that he entered the great hall at Brus- 
sels, capital of the Duchy of Brabant, where the 
brilliant ceremony of renunciation took place. 

William very soon ceased to be friends with 
Philip of Spain, though for years he was called 
his lieutenant ; and after he openly became a 
Protestant he was the leader of the opposition to 
the bloodthirsty Duke of Alva. The patriots 
called themselves, at first in grim joke, the Beg- 
gars. Sometimes they won, especially at sea, 
sometimes the Spaniards had the best of it ; the 
struggle went on for many years under different 
governors and generals. 


Stories of the heroism shown in this war of in- 
dependence are told of nearly every town of the 
Low Countries. The sieges of Haarlem and of 
Leyden are among the most memorable. Except 
for a brief respite, Leyden held out a whole year, 
and the heroic defenders were reduced to starva- 
tion, but would not give in. There were fights on 
the slippery ice in bitter winter. As a last re- 
source, the dikes were cut, and the water flowed 
over the hardly-won fields, sending the Spaniards 
away in haste lest they should be drowned ; and 
now the ships that had been waiting almost within 
sight could come right up to the walls of the town, 
bearing precious food to the starving inhabitants. 
After a while the provinces of Holland and 
Zeeland united ; and when they felt strong enough 
they took the important step of renouncing in 
words the authority of Philip. Queen Elizabeth 
of England helped them cautiously. One of the 
bravest of the English volunteers who pressed 
across the North Sea to help the Netherlanders 
was Sir Philip Sidney. It was he who, when 
dying, handed the precious cup of water, untasted, 
to another wounded man, saying: "Thy necessity 
is greater than mine." 


But scenes of war, of sacking fine cities, of 
senseless cruelty in persecution, could not last 
forever, and after several unsuccessful attempts 



at union among the provinces, and at making 
peace with Spain, in i5<Si, Dutch independence 
was declared. William the Silent, "Father W'il- 
ham," as he was affectionately called, was the 
head of the new repuhlic. It was nearly seventy 
years before Spain gave up all claims and titles, 
and acknowledged the complete independence of 
the Dutch. 

Three years after the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, the wisest man in Holland was murdered 
by a ruffian hired by Spain. As long as William 
the Silent lived he was the guiding star of a brave 
nation, and when he died the little children cried 
in the streets. 

War still went on under his son, Maurice, and 
the southern states, with their great towms of 
Antwerp and Ghent, and many others, were re- 
duced to obedience to Spain for many years after 
the northern states became free. Protestantism 
had been stamped out, the brave and clever Flem- 
ish workers had been driven away to Holland or 
to England, to their great and lasting benefit, and 
the subdued country lay in poverty and exhaus- 
tion. Ten years after the rout and ruin of the 
Armada, started by the fire-ships and the storm 
off the coast of Flanders, Philip II. died, after a 
reign of 42 years. 


He has been called the destroyer of mankind, for 
he sacrificed millions of lives to his ambition and 
superstition. We can think of him sitting at his 
desk in his palace in the Escorial, planning the 
affairs of the w'orld— the oceans were to him but 
Spanish lakes— coolly arranging assassinations 
and executions ; squaring his money matters— his 
bribes and his losses. And then his long day was 

It was in 1600 that Queen Elizabeth formed an 
East India Company to trade abroad, as all com- 
merce had been so hindered by the ambitious 
plans of Spain. Holland followed suit two years 
later. Much money was spent on fleets and ports 
and factories ; and from these days the sailors of 
Holland — trained in the w'ild fishing-grounds of 
the North Sea— were to be found all over the 
world taking possession of the Spanish and Por- 
tuguese colonies, and often hotly contesting with 
the English. New Amsterdam, afterward New 
York, was founded far across the Atlantic, and 
to this day our city and people proudly bear wit- 
ness to the Dutch settlement. The city of Ba- 
tavia, founded in Java, was called after the old 
island province, the kernel of the mother coun- 
try ; and the new Batavia is the headquarters of 

the Dutch colonial empire to this day. Amster- 
dam and Rotterdam and all the old cities now re- 
vived, as trade flowed in with the arrival of ships 
laden with "sugar and spice, and all that 's nice," 
at the busy docks. 


As soon as peace gave leisure, pumping works 
were established to drain lakes and marshes, and 
the rich meadow land thus gained fed the finest 
cattle in Europe. Dutch butter and cheese have 
long been famous all over the world. Other uses 
to which the land gained from the sea was put 
were to grow roots for food and various kinds of 
hay, besides bulbs of beautiful flowers like tulips. 
The Dutch taught all Europe how to garden and 
to farm. At this time, too, Holland became the 
printing-house of Europe, sending out thousands 
of books of history and travel, law and medicine. 
Trades, too, such as diamond-cutting— still largely 
carried on at Amsterdam— gave employment to 
very large numbers of skilled workmen. It was 
in the seventeenth century that the rivalry be- 
tween the Dutch and English on the high seas 
came to a crisis. There were many famous ad- 
mirals, many brave seamen, on both sides. Van 
Tromp and De Ruyter are names well known to 
us. For years they tried to sweep the English 
off the narrow seas. London was in a panic when 
De Ruyter sailed up the Thames in the inglorious 
days of Charles II., and sometimes the obstinate 
sea battles lasted for three or four days, for both 
sides belonged to a stock that never knew^ when it 
w-as beaten. 

In the age of Louis XIV., France made several 
conquests in the Spanish Netherlands, which had 
passed to Austria ; and Holland, too, had its share 
of French aggression. To save the country, the 
dikes were opened. Later, the waters froze, and 
when the French troops were marching over the 
ice to attack The Hague, a sudden thaw alone 
saved the country from destruction. The head of 
the republic at this time was the great-grandson 
of William the Silent. His name also was W'il- 
liam, and he married Mary, the daughter of 
James II. When England could no longer bear the 
tyranny of the Stuarts, William, with his wife, 
was invited over to be king in James's place. He 
helped to restore old laws and liberties, and to 
strengthen the position of the reformed religion. 
In the eighteenth century the importance of the 
united provinces of the Dutch Repuhlic became 
less than it had been in the seventeenth, and there 
were many disturbances in the country, which led 
to the interference of the King of Prussia. But 


SOME ONE IS watching! 







the French Revolution was at hand, and before 
long the map of Europe was completely altered, 
and bewildering changes came to the Low Coun- 
tries, both north and south. The seven united 
provinces were turned into the Batavian Repub- 
lic, and a few years later Napoleon turned it into 
a kingdom for his brother Louis. But that did 
not last long. He soon took his brother away, 
and joined Holland and all the other provinces to 
France. "They are but the sediments of French 
rivers," said he, "and therefore clearly belong to 
me." The decisive battle, which confirmed the 
downfall of Napoleon, was fought at Waterloo, 
not far from Brussels. 


When the Congress at Vienna remade the map 
of Europe, the whole of the Netherlands was 
joined into a single kingdom under another Wil- 
liam, Prince of Orange. But the northern and 
southern provinces did not agree about religion 
—the south being chiefly Roman Catholic— and 
they differed on many other matters, too; so, in 
1830, they revolted, and the old Spanish Nether- 
lands, that were afterward Austrian, became the 
Kingdom of Belgium, under a German prince, 
Leopold of Coburg. 

The northern provinces went on as the King- 
dom of the Netherlands, or Holland, under the 
Prince of Orange. The descendants of Leopold 
and William are still on the thrones of the two 

Belgium has made immense strides in the 
course of years, and is now one of the most 
densely populated countries in the world. The 
great coalfield of the north of France passes into 
Belgium where the railway lines are so thick ; and 
there are mines of iron and zinc and factories of 
all kinds, where thousands of people are em- 
ployed. Liege, on the Meuse, is a great engineer- 
ing center, and in many towns linen is made from 
flax grown in the neighborhood, and bleached 
with the waters of the rivers. 

Belgium won the homage of the world when, 
in 1914, she refused to permit the Germans to 
make her territory a pathway for the invasion 
of France. By losing her land, her soldiers, and 
her wealth she saved the independence of free 
peoples. Her beautiful cities and towns were de- 
stroyed, her citizens were abused and enslaved 
and suffering and famine were everywhere. But 
the Allies rallied to her defense. 


Among the most interesting buildings of Ant- 
werp is the famous old printing-house, the Musee 
Plantin, with the types and tools all left in their 
places, just as they were used in the sixteenth 
century when the firm of Plantin printed prayer- 
books for Philip II. 

In the cities of both Belgium and Holland the 
story of the past is perpetually before our eyes. 
Fine cathedrals and churches, grand town halls 
and buildings of all kinds, together with the pic- 
tures and relics they contain, are like speaking 
witnesses which link the past with the present. 

Between Amsterdam and the sea is the famous 
North Sea Canal, which saves ships going round 
the peninsula of North Holland. It is about fif- 
teen miles long. Both at Amsterdam and Rotter- 
dam the trade is enormous, and deeply interesting 
are the pictures and collections, especially at the 
Ryks Museum at Amsterdam. Here are not only 
models of the ships that swept the seas in the 
time of Cromwell and Charles II.. but some Brit- 
ish colors, and a piece of the "Royal Charles," 
captured by the Dutch at Chatham. The portrait 
of De Ruyter is close by. 


Let us now mount the Cathedral Tower at 
Utrecht, and as we look over the wide view, at 
the dikes, the canals, the windmills, the cultivated 
fields, the busy towns, we think again of the cen- 
turies that have passed since the Batavians set- 
tled in the island held in the arms of the Rhine. 

Holland is one of the oddest and most interest- 
ing countries in the world. Though water is 
everywhere, there is often not a drop fit to drink, 
and people have to buy it by the pailful, as they 
often buy some fuel to boil their kettles. From 
the high dikes frogs can look down on the birds, 
and in the damp fields the cows wear coats. 
Water omnibuses go up and down the canals, and 
coal and peat may be brought by a brown-sailed 
boat, which is hitched to the door, like a horse. 
The peasants wear beautiful gold ornaments, and 
costly lace on their heads, and often perch a 
shabby French bonnet on the top of them. Dogs 
draw little carts with brass jars full of milk. The 
brass and copper shine like gold, and everything 
that can be scrubbed is scrubbed at least once a 
week — even the big railway stations. 




^<:r^^^=c^^^^^J^s®«^^^ C^ ^^^S.®i^^Q'^3^Q^®i^ 


Every one should love his own country ; and 
every one who loves his country wants it to be 
free. But we do not always mean just the same 
thing by freedom or liberty. Sometimes, when 
we say that people have been champions of lib- 
erty, we mean that they have fought against op- 
pression of every kind— oppression by tyrant 
kings or tyrant soldiers, oppression of the weak 
by the strong. But sometimes we mean that 
champions of liberty have been ready to suffer 
and to die in fighting the one kind of oppression 
which is most hateful to all— oppression by for- 
eign rulers or conquerors. There were some who 
succeeded and some who failed, some who died 
fighting and some who were foully done to death ; 
but the names of all alike are held in honor as 
national heroes. 

The Bible tells us about the history of the Jewish 
people down to the time when they were carried 
away captive to Babylon, and were afterward 
allowed to return to Jerusalem by the Persian 
king. But it does not tell us their history between 
that time and the time when Jesus was born. 

Now, during that period there arose a mighty 
kingdom of Syria, the rulers of which were de- 
scended from a Greek general who had been in 
the army of Alexander the Great ; and these 
kings ruled over Palestine too. But at last one 
of them, named Antiochus, resolved to make the 
Jews give up worshiping God according to the 
Hebrew law, and to offer sacrifice to false gods. 
Then there arose one, Mattathias, who, with his 
sons, refused to obey the orders of King Anti- 
ochus ; and when they saw Jews ready to sacrifice 
to false gods, they slew those Jews and called 
upon all the people to fight for freedom, so that 
they might worship the God of their fathers. 
Among the sons of Mattathias, the most skilful 
warrior was the second, whose name was Judas, 
surnamed Maccab.TUs, which means the Hammer. 
Therefore men call his family the Maccabees, be- 
cause they made Maccabaeus their general. 

Judas gathered together a troop of Jews who 
were ready to die for faith and freedom; and 
though they were few in number, yet they routed 
utterly great hosts which the King of Syria sent 
to subdue them, and won back Jerusalem from 
his soldiers. 

When men saw this small band making havoc 
of vast armies, they gathered to Maccabasus, nor 
could the Syrian generals in any way subdue 
them. And though Judas himself was at last 
slain in a battle, where his followers were so few 
that they were overwhelmed by the numbers of 
the enemy, yet it was indeed he who at that time 
won freedom for the Jewish people. 

We will leave these very ancient times and 
turn to modern history. 

We know that no foreign conqueror has set 
foot on English soil since Duke William of Nor- 
mandy, so that we must go back to his days to 
find an English patriot of the particular kind we 
are talking about. Duke William overthrew King 
Harold at the battle of Hastings, and made him- 
self King of England; but when he thought that 
he had made himself lord of all the land, there 
appeared a valiant champion called Hereward 
the Wake. 

Now, whether Hereward was a cousin of some 
great English earls we do not know for certain ; 
but he himself was a landless man, and could not 
gather a great army. Yet he and his band made 
themselves a camp on the Isle of Ely in the Een 
Country, and they fell upon the Normans so 
fiercely that the Conqueror himself, the greatest 
general of the time, had to come with a great 
army against them before they could be driven 
from the "Camp of Refuge." But after that 
Hereward and his men could make no headway 
against the Normans, until at last they saw that 
it would be vain to struggle more ; and Hereward 
made his peace with William. After all, how- 
ever, good came of that in the end, because Nor- 
mans and English grew into being one people, 
greater than ever the English would have be- 
come by themselves. 





In the days when the Commonwealth in England 
had come to an end, and a king once more reigned 
i;i that country, the fortunes of some of the brav- 
est and wisest of the followers of Oliver Crom- 
well were at a low ebb. Milton, the poet, who 
had worked so hard for the Protector, as Crom- 
well was called, was arrested and thrown into 
prison ; and many others were harshly treated by 
the Royalists 

There was one faithful follower of Cromwell, 
however, who had a great influence under the 
new government. He was Andrew Marvell, a 
poet and satirist, the member of Parliament for 
Hull. He was returned to Charles II. 's first Par- 
liament, and though he seldom spoke, he was 
most influential there. He bravely stood up and 
defended Milton, and acted so vigorously on his 
behalf that he obtained Milton many friends. 

It was Andrew Marvell's writings, however, 
that had most effect. They were called satires— 
that is, writings which bitterly ridicule the words, 
actions, or writings of another or others. For 
instance, he was very indignant because Charles 
II. was always getting money from Parliament 
and wasting it. Andrew Marvell wrote a sham 
speech of the King on the state of his finances. 
Later on his writings became very bitter. He 
assailed the courtiers, and attacked Clarendon, 
the great minister, and finally he satirized Sam- 
uel Parker, the intolerant Bishop of Oxford. 

Now, the King and his ministers felt that this 
clever writer must be silenced, and the following 
story is told of him : 

The "Merry Monarch"— Charles II.— was often 
pleased to meet and entertain Andrew Marvell, 
delighting in his ready wit and quick repartee. 
One morning his Majesty sent the Lord Treas- 
urer Danby to seek Marvell, who was a very 
poor man, and earned but little more than the 
small salary which the town of Hull paid him as 
its member. The crafty King knew this, and he 
had told Lord Danby to use every means to win 
over Marvell to his side. 

The Lord Treasurer had some difficulty in find- 
ing Marvell's lodging, but at last he discovered 
the house and entered abruptly. 

"To what do I owe the honor of this visit?" 
asked Marvell, looking up from his writing. 

"I come with a message from his Majesty, who 
wishes to know what he can do to serve you," re- 
plied Danby. 

"It is not in his Majesty's power to serve me," 
said Marvell. 

"But his Majesty wishes you to accept a post 
of honor at the court." 

Andrew Marvell promptly refused to accept the 
honor, or rather dishonor, as he counted it, saying: 

"I cannot accept any post with honor, for I 
must be either ungrateful to the King in voting 
against him, or false to my country in giving in 
to the measures of the court. The only favor I 
beg of his Majesty is that he will esteem me as 
dutiful a subject as any he has, and that it is 
more in his interest for me to refuse than accept 
h's honors." 

Lord Danby tried to persuade him, but all in 
vain ; Marvell remained firm. 

Danby then produced a bag containing a thou- 
sand pounds and placed it on the table, saying: 

"The King has ordered me to give you a thou- 
sand pounds, which he hopes you will accept until 
you can think of some further boon to ask of his 

Andrew Marvell began to laugh. 

"Surely, my lord, you do not intend to mock 
me by these offers. I do not need the King's 
gold. I have shelter, and as for my food, you 
shall hear of that from my landlady. 

"Pray," said he, turning to the latter, "what 
had I for dinner yesterday?" 

"A shoulder of mutton." 

"And what shall I have to-day?" 

"The remainder hashed." 

"And to-morrow, my Lord Danby, I shall have 
the sweet blade-bone broiled." 

Danby, so the story runs, was quite overcome 
by the stern simplicity of the famous writer, and 
picked up his bag of gold and returned to the King. 


In the far northwest of France is Brittany, 
where the people are kinsmen of the Cornish and 
the Welsh. The English kings longed for the 
possession of this country in the Middle Ages. 

Now, it happened that a Duke of Brittany died, 
leaving no child to succeed him, and a dispute 
arose between Charles, Count of Blois, who had 
married the daughter of the duke's next brother, 
and John, Count of Montfort, who was the young- 
est brother. 

Edward III. of England took the side of John 
of Montfort, and the French that of the Count of 
Blois. The French captured Nantes, where John 
of Montfort was, and the King of France kept 
him a crose prisoner in the Louvre. 

But John of Montfort had a brave wife, Joan, 
who never dreamed of giving way to her misfor- 
tunes. She summoned the inhabitants of Rennes 
before the castle where she lived, and, presenting 
to them her little son, appealed to them to rise 
and defend the last male heir of their ancient line 



of dukes. The English, she said, would surely 
conic before long to the help of a brave people. 

Her appeal to the Bretons was not in vain, and 
the men rallied round the countess, who then vis- 
ited other towns and arranged for their defense, 
proving herself a skilful leader and most able 
general. Sending her little son over to England 
for safety, she then returned to Hennebont, near 
the coast, there to await succor from England. 

The Count of Blois thought he could soon con- 
quer a duchy defended by a woman, and so he 
gathered an army, captured Rennes, and besieged 

The countess put on a suit of armor, mounted 
a war-horse, and was ever on the walls where the 
attack was sharpest, encouraging her men at 
every point, and directing their defense. Notic- 
ing the camp of the besiegers unguarded one day, 
she led five hundred men to it through a postern- 
gate in the walls, and setting fire to the baggage, 
diverted the attention of the enemy. Then she 
found herself and her little band cut off from the 
town, but she galloped away into safety and 
reached Auray. Five days later she fought her 
way back into Hennebont. There she found the 
Bishop of Leon about to surrender the town to 
her enemy the Count of Blois. 

Day after day dawned, night after night passed, 
but no succor from England came to the despair- 
ing town. At last, one day, when the bishop was 
actually discussing the terms of surrender with 
the Count of Blois, the countess mounted yet once 
more a high tower and looked toward the sea. 
Shading her eyes with her hands, she gazed long- 
ingly across the water. Were the English ships 
never coming? Ah, what was that small speck in 
the distance, and another, and yet another ? 
Eagerly she watched, until now there was no 
longer any doubt. It was really the English fleet, 
coming at last to her aid. 

Soon after, Sir Walter Manny brought the ves- 
sels into the harbor, attacked the camp of the be- 
siegers, and burned it to ashes. A treaty was . 
made by which the Count of Montfort was set 
free, but he died soon after in one of the frequent 
encounters. Through it all the English King, 
Edward, proved a firm friend to the countess, and 
supported the cause of her little son. Though 
after a long struggle Brittany became part of 
France, yet the brave countess upheld her son's 
rights, so that, when older, he ruled as Duke of 
Brittany, and was known as John of Montfort. 


We do not know very much about Prince Wil- 
liam, the only son of Henry I., King of England, 

except that his father was very fond of him and 
that he very much disliked the people of Nor- 
mandy, which his father had conquered. But 
there is one deed of his which we do well to re- 
call, because it shows that he could think of an- 
other's safety before his own, although, sad to 
say, by it he lost his life at the age of eighteen. 

Prince William's father was constantly at war 
with the French king, who resented the presence 
of the English in Normandy, and especially of 
King Henry, who had unjustly taken it from his 
brother Robert and his son. 

In 1 1 20 Henry made peace with the King of 
France, and set sail from Harfleur, in Normandy, 
on his return to England. The wind was favora- 
ble, and the vessel was soon out of sight of land. 
Prince William and his courtiers were not ready 
to start with the King, and it was not until night- 
fall that they left the port, for the stupid cour- 
tiers gave wine to the sailors, and then the rowers 
were not in a fit condition to take the boat safely 
across the Channel. It was called the "Blanche 
Nef," or "White Ship," and was commanded by 
the same man who had rowed Prince William's 
grandfather across to the conquest of England 
fifty-four years before. 

Some of the sensible people refused to trust 
themselves to the incapable sailors, and those who 
remained in the boat soon repented doing so. 
There was no moon, and the man who was steer- 
ing drove the vessel on to one of the dangerous 
rocks near Alderney. There were nearly three 
hundred persons on board, and they managed to 
lower a boat, and put Prince William with a few 
others into it. Then the prince remembered his 
half-sister, and ordered the little boat to return 
to rescue her. But directly the small boat got 
alongside the ship, the frantic people jumped into 
it, and of course the boat, being quickly over- 
loaded, was sunk. 

It is said that only two men got away from the 
wTeck. One was the captain, who afterward 
drowned himself when he knew the prince was 
lost ; the other was a butcher of Rouen, who clung 
on to the mast, and was picked up by a fishing- 
boat next day. It was he who told the news of 
the wreck and the way Prince William lost his 
life, and how one hundred and forty young men 
belonging to noble families had perished in the 
same disaster. 

Not one of the courtiers dared to tell the King 
the fate of his only son, in whom all his hopes 
centered, but at last the nobles sent a w^eeping 
page to him with the tidings that the "White 
Ship" was lost, and all had perished. It is said 
that King Henry fainted, and was never seen to 
smile again. 




When tlic troops of the Emperor Charles V. 
were passing through Thuringia, after the battle 
of Aliihlbcrg, in 1547, the Countess Catharina of 
Schwartzburg obtained from the emperor a guar- 
antee that her people should not be molested in 
any way, promising in return for this safeguard 
to supply the emperor's Spanish army with pro- 
visions at a fair price. Then, in order that their 
passage through her town might not act as a 
temptation to the soldiers to raid the houses of 
her people, she h'^d the bridge over the river 
pulled dowi. and rebuilt at some long distance 
from any town or village. Further, she allowed 
all her subjects to send their more valuable goods 
to her castle for safe-keeping. In all these ways 
did the kind-hearted countess seek her people's 
welfare in a trying situation. 

The Emperor's general, Prince Henry of 
Brunswick, invited himself and his officers to the 
castle to breakfast, and the countess did her best 
to entertain her unwelcome and self-invited 
guests. But scarcely had they taken their seats 
when a terrified messenger arrived at the castle 
post-haste to say that the Spanish troops were 
robbing and ill-treating the people in the villages 
round about, and were driving off their cattle 
without payment of any kind. 

The countess was very indignant. Arming all 
her retainers in the castle, she gave secret or- 
ders for every gate and door to be barred and 
bolted. Then, placing her trusted servants where 
they could be summoned in a moment, she entered 
the banqueting-hall and protested against what 
the troops were doing, insisting that they should 
be commanded to cease. The guests said that the 
countess must not distress herself, for the troops 
were only following the ordinary custom of war. 

''Very well," said the countess ; "but my poor 
subjects must have their own again, or prince's 
blood shall be given for oxen's blood." At a 
given signal the doors opened, and the guests, 
who had laid aside their weapons, were in a mo- 
ment surrounded by armed and determined men. 
"Now," said the countess to the commander and 
his fellow-officers, "you do not leave the castle 
until everything, to the smallest article, is re- 
stored, and your army has passed on." 

What could the officers do ? They were great 
and powerful, they had an army at their com- 
mand, and yet they could not stir ; one woman 
had outwitted them all. Urgent orders were sent 
to the troops to stop their raiding, to restore 
everything that had been seized unlawfully, and 
to pass on, and only when the order had been 
strictly carried out were the officers allowed to 

leave the castle free men. For her courageous 
action the countess received the title of "Catha- 
rina the Heroic." 


In the year 1798, during a terrific storm, a French 
ship, "La Tribune," was wrecked one evening off 
Halifax, Nova Scotia, and a number of men be- 
longing to the crew managed to climb into the 
rigging, where they remained all night, the peo- 
ple on shore being powerless to assist them in the 
raging tempest. 

When daylight dawned, the poor men were still 
in the rigging, almost exhausted by their terrible 
experiences of the night. The sea, however, was 
still rising in angry waves, and beating like a tor- 
rent upon the wreckage and the shore, so that 
none of the strong men on the beach dare ven- 
ture out to rescue the shipwrecked mariners. 

It was then that a deed of amazing courage 
and splendid heroism was performed by a boy, 
only thirteen years of age, whose name, unfortu- 
nately, has not been preserved to us. This lad 
had been watching the wreck for hours, and lis- 
tening to the talk of the spectators, expecting 
that some of the latter would at any rate make 
an effort to save the wrecked sailors. When at 
last he found that no one dared to make the at- 
tempt, he determined to see what he himself 
could do to reach the stranded vessel. 

Jumping into a small boat, the boy rowed with 
all his might for the wreck, and although the 
wind and the waves were almost too strong for 
him, he managed at last to reach the ship, and 
get his little boat near enough to take off two of 
the men. They were too exhausted to assist in 
rowing to the shore, but the plucky boy, by great 
exertions, landed them safely. 

Then he started for the wreck once more, but 
his strength was exhausted, and he was unable to 
battle with the wind and waves, and had to re- 
turn to the shore, to his intense grief and dis- 

The brave example set by so young a lad, how- 
ever, bore good fruit, for the men were shamed 
into making an effort themselves, and several 
boats went out to the wreck, and were successful 
in finally saving the whole of the men who had 
taken refuge in the rigging. But the credit for 
the rescue belongs to the unknown boy, who may 
truly be said to have saved the crew from death. 


Soon after the brave Horatius held the bridge 
against the Etruscans, Porsena, their King, de- 



feated in his attempt to capture Rome, encamped 
with his army on the banks of the Tiber to watch 
his opportunity. 

Now, there was a noble Roman youth named 
Caius Mucins, who was greatly distressed at the 
state of hunger to which his fellow-citizens were 
reduced, and so he plotted, with other young men, 
to free his country from the foreign invaders. 
Taking a dagger with him, he went to seek out 
King Porsena, with the intention of killing him. 

But when he arrived at the place where the 
Etruscan king was wont to sit in judgment, he 
found the soldiers receiving their pay from a man 
whom he imagined to be the King, but who was 
really the King's secretary. Without hesitation, 
Caius Mucins unsheathed his dagger and stabbed 
him to the heart. Immediately the youth was 
surrounded by the guards and dragged into the 
presence of King Porsena, who angrily ordered 
him to be burned if he did not instantly confess 
the whole thing. But Caius Mucius stood daunt- 
lessly erect, and refused to betray his plot. 

"See," said he, "how little your tortures can 
avail to make a brave man tell the secrets com- 
mitted to him." And, thrusting his right hand 
into a fire burning near, he held it there without 

King Porsena, astonished at such fortitude, and 
admiring his patriotism, told the guards to spare 
the youth and see him safely out of the Etruscan 

"You are a brave man," he said, "but you have 
hurt yourself more than me." 

Caius Mucius, moved to gratitude at such clem- 
ency, then told the King that his generosity had 
conquered where his threats had failed, and that 
three hundred youths had taken an oath to kill 
him, and he, Caius Mucius, had been chosen to 
make the first attempt. 

So the Roman youth was released, but ever 
after he bore the name of Scsevola, which means 
"left-handed," because his right hand was use- 


Du GuESCLiN is a name honored by the French, 
for he was the hero of their country in the war- 
like Middle Ages, and French boys and girls de- 
light in stories of what he did and said. 

Bertrand du Guesclin was born between 13 14 
and 1320 in a castle in Brittany, and as a boy he 
cannot have been a very agreeable playmate— for 
he was obstinate, sullen, quarrelsome, and ever 
ready to fight. An old chronicler says he was 
the ugliest boy between Rennes and Dinant, 
roamed about with peasant boys, and could not 

be taught to read. It cannot be denied that he 
was headstrong and restless. At sixteen he ran 
away from home. 

But for all his troublesome ways, the boy had 
in him the making of a great and clever general. 
He became a strong man, a brave soldier, a de- 
voted patriot, and a defender of his country, a 
foe worthy of the English Black Prince, so that 
his countrymen used to boast that they possessed 
the bravest general in Europe. Du Guesclin 
fought first in the War of Succession in Brit- 
tany, and then attracted the attention of his King, 
Charles V., who saw in him the very leader 
needed to drive the English out of France. After 
the Treaty of Bretigny, the free-lances,* who were 
soldiers paid to fight for others, were disbanded 
and wandered about, plundering and slaying the 
inhabitants. The country was in a dreadful state, 
so King Charles bade Du Guesclin rid the land 
of these robber-soldiers. Then the Breton gath- 
ered these dreadful robber-bands together and led 
them in an expedition against Pedro, the cruel 
King of Castile. This monarch was ruling so 
badly that one of his half-brothers had come to 
beg King Charles's aid in turning him off the 

Du Guesclin was successful ; but when the 
Black Prince was sent by Edward III. of Eng- 
land to help the defeated Pedro, some robber- 
soldiers went back to the side of their favorite 
leader, the Black Prince, so that T)u Guesclin 
was defeated and captured at the battle of Nava- 
retta, near the Ebro, in 1367. He was taken a 
prisoner to Bordeaux, where he soon grew tired 
of the irksome captivity. 

There is a story about the Black Prince meet- 
ing Du Guesclin in the town, and going up to him 
and saying: 

"How do you do, Bertrand?" 

"Well," replied Du Guesclin, "for they say I 
am the greatest knight in all the world, since you 
dare not allow me to be ransomed." 

Nettled at this, the English prince begged the 
prisoner to fix his ransom. 

"A hundred thousand livres," replied Du Gues- 

This was an immense sum for those times; so 
the Black Prince asked in astonishment where he 
could get all that money. The reply was : "There 
is not a spinner in France who would not spin a 
distaff full to pay for my ransom." 

The French people did soon ransom him, and 
Charles made Du Guesclin the Constable of 
France. The Black Prince died, and gradually 
Du Guesclin freed his native land. When Du 
Guesclin was besieging a castle in Languedoc, the 
English governor promised to surrender it on a 



certain day if he were not relieved before. But 
Du Guesclin fell ill, and died before the day ap- 
pointed for surrender, so that he could not take 
the castle. The English governor, however, re- 
fused to dishonor his word, but marched with his 
garrison to the enemy's camp, and laid the keys 
of the castle on the bier of the dead hero. 

Du Guesclin's last words were : "Never forget 
that, wherever you wage war, the clergy, the 
women, the children, and the poor are not your 
enemies." And this was the humane principle that 
the brave and chivalrous warrior followed out in 
all his campaigns and battles. 


Sir John Cochr.\ne had been condemned to die, 
and was shut up in the Tolbooth prison in Edin- 
burgh. He wished his sons and his daughter to 
refrain from visiting him, for he had joined in 
Argyle's insurrection against the new King, 
James II., and thought if his children came to see 
him they might lay themselves open to suspicion. 
But one day he had a visit from his daughter 

Father and daughter felt very sad indeed, for 
only one glimmer of light could they see. Sir 
John's father had written an appeal for pardon 
to the King's confessor, who had great influence 
over the bigoted monarch. But time was press- 
ing. The journey south to London took days to 
perform, and if the pardon did not come soon. 
Sir John must die. Even then the warrant must 
be on its way to Edinburgh. 

While talking over the desperate situation, an 
idea came into Grizel's mind, and she determined 
to carry it out without delay. 

Early on the next day she rode south. First, 
she called at the cottage of her old nurse, bor- 
rowed her foster-brother's clothes, and then rode 
on to meet the messenger. She discovered the 
inn where he was staying, and entered the room 
where the man lay asleep, exhausted by his jour- 
ney. But he was lying on the mail-bag, and she 
dared not attempt to draw it away from under 
him. She quietly withdrew the charges in his pis- 
tol, and, mounting her horse, rode off. Before 
she had gone far from the inn, she halted and 
waited for the messenger. 

When the man rode up, she was ready for him. 
She greeted him pleasantly, and rode alongside 
and chatted with him. Then, sure of her ground, 
she quietly told him that she must have his bag. 
The man at first thought the youth, as she ap- 
peared to be, was joking, but he grew angry at 
her persistence, and when she aimed her pistol 

at him, fired his at her. But, to his surprise, it 
Will— !> 

failed to go off, for the charge had been with- 

His second pistol proved equally useless. He 
dismounted and rushed at his assailant, but the 
girl, quick as lightning, seized his horse and gal- 
loped away with it ; for was not the precious mail- 
bag attached to the saddle ? Fast and furiously 
she rode, until she reached a wood where it was 
safe to open the bag. Having taken out the war- 
rant, she galloped off to her old nurse's cottage, 
changed her clothing, and rode back to Edin- 

The non-delivery of the death-warrant caused 
a delay which allowed time for the King to con- 
sider the offer of a bribe from Sir John's father. 
This he accepted, and so Sir John was saved. 


We may search all history without finding a more 
charming story of heroism and devotion than that 
of Grizel Hume. Most of us might hope to be 
heroes or heroines for the time being in some 
desperate situation, but Grizel was a heroine all 
her life. She was born at Redbraes Castle, in 
Berwickshire, Scotland, on Christmas Day, 1665, 
and was the daughter of Sir Patrick Hume, or 
Home ; we are not certain now about the spell- 
ing. There were eighteen children in the family 
— and all of them, save two, were younger than 
herself. She, however, was the special favorite 
of her father. She showed such extraordinary 
intelligence that he intrusted her, when she was 
quite a tiny girl, with secrets which involved his 
very life, as well as the fortunes of his family. 

For we must remember that at this time Scot- 
land, and a great part of England, were greatly 
excited over what is known as the Covenant. 
After the Reformation, religious men in Scotland 
bound themselves by this covenant to do all in 
their power to foster and extend the Protestant 
faith. When Scotland joined England against 
Charles I., the Covenant was agreed to by both 
nations; and when Charles II., after his banish- 
ment, was allowed to come back to England to 
take the throne, he signed the Covenant on land- 
ing, and signed it again on being crowned. As 
soon as he had gained the throne, however, this 
dishonest king declared the Covenant illegal, and 
forbade people, on pain of death, to be bound by 
it. The result was practically civil war. Soldiers 
were sent to put down the Covenanters. They 
hunted and killed them with great cruelty, and 
Scotland became a land of blood and tears. 

Grizel's father held to the Covenant, and was 
several times imprisoned as the result. When 
Grizel was only ten years old she knew all that 



was happening. She was filled with sympathy for 
llie persecuted Covenanters, and burned with 
wrath against the cruel soldiers. At twelve years 
of age she was called upon to play her first heroic 
part in life. 

A splendid character named Robert Baillie, a 
bold Covenanter, had been cast into Edinburgh 
Prison. He had made the mildest attempt to ob- 
tain justice for a Covenanting minister who had 
been wrongfully arrested through the false 
charges of a scoundrel. The authorities did not 
bother about the minister ; all they wanted was 
to get hold of Baillie. They threw him into 
prison, and detained him for a long time. Eventu- 
ally, after many pretended trials, they took him, 
one day, to court in his night-clothes, when he 
was at death's door, tried him, and sentenced him 
to be hanged and quartered. And the shameful 
sentence was carried out upon the dying man. 
That, however, happened after the date at which 
our story opens. 

At the time that we first meet little Grizel, 
Baillie was in prison, and it was necessary for 
Sir Patrick Hume to communicate with him. Sir 
Patrick dared not go himself, for the soldiers 
would have seized him as well. So brave little 
Grizel, this child of twelve, went in her father's 
place. Seeing a jailer going into the prison, she 
popped in behind him and hid herself in the 
shadow of the cell until he had gone, then came 
forth into the middle of the cell and delivered the 
message which her father had given her. 

In the cell with the poor prisoner there was a 
little boy— George Baillie, the prisoner's son. 
How he admired the bravery and skill of the lit- 
tle girl in eluding the jailer and getting into the 
prison ! She, on her part, admired the little boy, 
who was there sharing the misery of the cell with 
his father. 

Grizel managed somehow to get safely out of 
the prison and to make her way back from Edin- 
burgh to her father's home, taking the message 
which the prisoner had given her. 

Having executed Baillie, the authorities now 
thirsted for the life of the valiant Sir Patrick; 
and about a year after the death of Baillie, the 
Humes heard that the soldiers were on their way 
to Redbraes Castle. To be captured would mean 
death, but how was he to escape capture? It was 
certain that he could not hide in or near the cas- 
tle, for the soldiers would search every nook and 
cranny. Sir Patrick, his wife, and Grizel, and a 
carpenter named Winter, put their heads together, 
formed a plan and decided on a hiding-place. 
They dared not let the other children or servants 
know it, for fear the soldiers should get the se- 
cret out of them. 

Winter and Grizel went at dead of night to Pol- 
warth Church, which was a mile and a half from 
the castle. There they carried a bed and bed- 
clothes, and made a hiding-place for Sir Patrick 
in the family grave of the Humes in the church. 
In that resting-place of the dead, the living man 
was to take up his abode. He went as soon as 
the retreat was prepared, and when the soldiers 
arrived at the castle not a trace of him could 
they find. They could only believe that he had 
fled from the neighborhood. Meanwhile Grizel's 
father was safe in the church vaults, but he had 
to be fed. He could not return to the castle, for 
the soldiers lingered in the neighborhood ; but 
where he was he might as well be dead, so help- 
less was he. Brave Grizel was equal to this diffi- 
culty also. 

Night after night she carried food to her fugi- 
tive father. The task of getting this food was in 
itself very hazardous. It would not have done to 
take it from the larder, for the servants would 
have missed it, and have had their suspicions 
aroused. The only way was for poor Grizel to 
smuggle the food off her plate, and into her lap, 
as she sat at meals. That was her method, and 
once she was nearly discovered. Her mother gave 
her a very bountiful plateful, and presently one 
of her brothers, looking at her plate, noticed that 
practically the whole supply had disappeared, and 
called the attention of the others to what he 
thought was Grizel's greediness in eating sc much 
with such speed. 

But the smuggling of the food to her father 
was not Grizel's chief difficulty. Every night, at 
twelve o'clock, she used to set off to walk the 
lonely mile and a half to the church. Of course, 
she had to go alone. That in itself was a terrible 
trial for the nerves of a young girl. The thought 
of passing through a graveyard at that hour of 
night would have sufficed to scare most people. 
But, in addition, Grizel ran the danger of dis- 
covery by the soldiers who were in the neighbor- 
hood, and of meeting country people out poach- 
ing, who would have followed and spied upon 
her. Then there were dogs at large to bark at 
her and increase her terrors. But she smothered 
all her fears, and, night by night, went bravely 
on her way to feed her father, to stay and talk 
for some time with him, to cheer him with such 
news as she could tell him, and to inspire him 
with courage to bear his dreadful captivity. 

At last Grizel thought it would be safe for her 
father to return to a hiding-place in the castle. 
So she and Winter dug a great hole in the base- 
ment of the castle. They were afraid to use a 
spade lest the noise should be heard ; so they used 
their finger-nails for the work. Early every 



morning they would take up, in a cloth, the soil 
which they had dug out during the night, and 
empty it away in the garden, and then cover over 
the hole so that nohody should find it. At last 
the hole was made of sufficient size to admit a 
sort of big box. In this they placed bed and bed- 
ding, and then, one night, Sir Patrick crept home 
and hid himself in the new sanctuary. For a 
week this refuge held good, but water drained 
into the hole and made it impossible for Sir Pat- 
rick to remain, so he now determined to flee 
abroad for safety. 

Grizel altered his clothes to make them like 
the clothes of a peasant, and, when news came to 
the house that the soldiers were again on the 
hunt for him, he set out. After many dangers he 
made his way to London, and, giving his name as 
Dr. Wallace, got a passage on board a ship which 
took him to the Continent. His estates were now 
declared forfeit to the Crown, and the family 
were left without means. Grizel and her mother 
went boldly to London and pleaded for support, 
and eventually they were granted £150 a year out 
of the estate. 

Sir Patrick was not idle in the meantime. He 
joined with others in an invasion of Scotland, but 
this was defeated, and he retired to Ireland, ac- 
companied by his wife and all the children but 
one, a daughter who was left in Scotland. But 
the others could not rest without her, so ofif to 
Scotland went Grizel, alone into all the dangers 
of that unhappy country. She rescued her sis- 
ter, collected some money owing to her father, 
and then set out to Holland, where the others had 
gone in advance. After a journey of many perils 
she joined them, and for nearly four years the 
family lived in Holland. Grizel was the little 
mother of the family. She relieved her mother 
of the cares of the household, and, when she had 
any time to spare, she studied music and lan- 
guages and wrote quite charming poetry. The 
family were very poor, of course, but with such a 
girl to inspire them, how could they help being 
happy? Grizel used to say that those years of 
poverty were the happiest of her life. 

She had by this time grown into a beautiful 
and accomplished young woman, and more than 
one handsome young man sought her hand. But 
little George Baillie had, by this time, developed 
into a handsome, brave young fellow, and, an 
exile from home, was serving in Holland in the 
Guards of the Prince of Orange. The friendship 
begun in childhood between himself and Grizel 
had ripened, and, poor as they were, the two 
loved and hoped. 

At last their reward came. The Prince of 
Orange entered England with an army, and the 

wretched King James II., who had succeeded to 
the throne at the death of his brother, Charles II., 
was driven from the land. Then those good and 
brave men who had suffered in the evil days were 
restored to their estates. The Princess of Orange 
so admired Grizel that she wished to make her a 
maid of honor, and always have her at court. 

But Grizel preferred to return to Scotland with 
her father, who was now created Earl of Alarch- 
mont, and made Lord Chancellor of Scotland. 
Grizel, as an earl's daughter, now became Lady 
Grizel Hume. But she was not long to be known 
by that name. George Baillie had returned to 
Scotland, and the sweethearts were at last able to 
be married, fifteen years after they had first met, 
as boy and girl, in a prison cell. 


School is a very bright and pleasant place in 
these days, and boys and girls are happy when 
they are at school ; but this was not always the 
case. Many years ago most schools were dull 
and gloomy, and there was no attempt to make 
teaching and lessons so bright that children would 
look forward to them. 

But here and there was a man who believed 
that lessons could be given in such a pleasant way 
that boys and girls would really love to be at 
school. One of these men was a Swiss named 
Johann (John) Pestalozzi, and we all owe a great 
deal to him and to the way in which he gave his 
time and money and whole life for the great pur- 
pose he had at heart. 

Pestalozzi loved children, and when he saw the 
misery in which most of the poor boys and girls 
of his native land lived, he determined to do 
something to help them to grow up good and use- 
ful men and women. He bought a farm, built a 
large dwelling-house, and, collecting fifty of the 
very poorest boys he could find in the roads and 
lanes, took them to live with him in his house, and 
taught them farming. 

But Pestalozzi was not a very clever business 
man, and at the end of five years he had spent all 
his own and his wife's money in- helping others, 
and had to give up the farm. But he had done a 
great deal for boys and girls, for he had shown 
that very poor children could be educated and 
trained to work, and though his own school failed, 
industrial schools similar to his arc now found in 
every country. But it was not only his money 
that Pestalozzi gave freely to help boys and girls 
— he gave his whole life up to them. In 1798 the 
French army acted very cruelly in the canton of 
Unterwalden, and many poor children lost their 
parents. Pestalozzi at once left his family, and, 



gathering eighty of the poorest children into an 
old convent, taught them, played with them, and 
did everything he could to make their lives happy. 

From morning to evening he was alone with 
them; everything they needed was provided by 
his hand; every help in time of need and all their 
teaching came from him. "My hand lay on their 
hand," he tells us, "my eye rested on their eye, 
my tears flowed with theirs, and my laughter ac- 
companied theirs. They were with me and I was 
with them. Their soup was mine, their drink 
was mine. I had nothing— no housekeeper, no 
friend, no servants around me; I had them alone. 
Were they well, I stood in the midst of them; 
were they ill, I was at their side. I slept in the 
middle of them. I was the last who went to bed 
at night, the first to rise in the morning. Even in 
bed I prayed and taught with them until they 
were asleep — they wished it to be so." 

How Pestalozzi gave himself up to the chil- 
dren, and how they loved him ! But his life was 
full of disappointments, and after a year the con- 
vent was wanted by the French troops for a hos- 
pital, and the school was again broken up. Yet 
Pestalozzi's life of love and self-denial was not 
lost. His work lives to-day in the many industrial 
schools, where boys and girls are taught useful 
trades that will fit them for the battle of life, and 
his labors are still bearing fruit in the better and 
more natural methods of teaching which are now 
found in every civilized country in the world. 


A BRITISH war-ship, the "Seringapatam," was 
anchored one August afternoon ofif Antigua, one 
of the Leeward Islands of the West Indies. As 
the weather was so fine, and the sea so calm, 
some of the officers thought a little cruise in the 
pinnace to a bay two miles distant would be a nice 
afternoon's excursion. This plan was carried 
out, but on the return the pinnace was becalmed. 

In the tropical West-Indian seas, a hurricane 
may burst without much warning, and suddenly 
a squall of wind upset the pinnace, but all in the 
boat were able to scramble on the gunwale. 

Their position was one of much danger, for the 
boat was drifting seaward, and any moment the 
storm might be on them in all its severity; but 
worse than all were the dreaded sharks in the 
waters around. 

Among the officers was a brave young midship- 
man, named Smith, who astonished his compan- 
ions by declaring that he would swim ashore to 
get help. 

"What !" they exclaimed. "Swim two miles in 
this sea, with sharks all around?" 

"Yes," he persisted. "There is no other chance. 
Will one of you go with me? I believe I can do 

But the men kept silence. 

Then another midshipman. Palmer, not to be 
outdone in bravery, and unwilling to let his friend 
risk his life alone, though he was a very indif- 
ferent swimmer, and far from strong, said that 
he would swim with him as far as he could. 

So the two boys cast off their shoes, caps, and 
jackets, and, taking leave of their companions, 
plunged into the sea and struck out for the shore. 

At first they made good progress, but it was 
soon apparent to the men watching them that 
Smith was making greater headway than Palmer. 
All the time Smith was on the lookout for sharks, 
and at last, down in the deep clear water below 
him, he saw two particularly large ones swim- 
ming along. 

When the boys had covered about half the dis- 
tance, Palmer, whose strokes had been getting 
weaker, called out : 

"I 'm done. Go on, Smith." 

But Smith was not the boy to desert a plucky 
friend; instead, he urged him to rest an arm on 
his shoulder awhile. 

This Palmer did, and so got relief, though both 
boys continued to use their feet, lest the sharks 
should be after them. These creatures were 
plainly visible now, but, possibly because the boys 
wore dark suits and continued moving all the 
time, they were not attacked. The stronger boy 
did all he could to keep up the spirits and strength 
of his friend, who was by now almost exhausted. 

The last few yards were very difficult, but just 
in time, and after swimming for two hours. Smith 
felt ground under his feet, and dragged his help- 
less companion up on to the beach. 

They were safe, but there were the men in the 
boat still to be rescued. Smith ran to the nearest 
village and gave the alarm. Two boats were 
manned and sent out, but by this time it was 
nearly dark and rain fell in torrents, so that hours 
were spent in searching for the overturned pin- 
nace. Boats were also launched from the Serin- 
gapatam to find the pinnace, and at last it was 
discovered six miles away. 

The two brave boys were presented with silver 
medals by the Royal Humane Society, and some 
time after Smith gained another medal for res- 
cuing two men who fell overboard. 


About the middle of the nineteenth century, a 
fifteen-year-old girl, standing at a window of the 
lighthouse on Lime Rock, in Newport harbor. 



saw a boat capsize. She was alone in the hght- 
house, her father and mother having gone to 
shore. The child ran down to the life-boat, cast 
it off and rowed to the spot where four young 
men were struggling, nearly spent, in the high 
waves. She got them aboard, somehow, and 
rowed them back to Lime Rock. 

The fifteen-year-old girl was Ida Lewis, the 
only woman whom Congress ever appointed to be 
a lighthouse keeper. Between that day in 1854, 
when she rescued the occupants of the capsized 
rowboat, and the day of her death, she saved 
eighteen lives, received the thanks of Congress 
and a gold medal as well, earned a cross from the 
American Cross of Honor Society, and was the 
recipient of many gold and silver medals that 
may be seen to-day at Lime Rock lighthouse. 

Ida Lewis was born at Newport. Her father 
was Hosea Lewis, the first keeper of the Lime 
Rock light. Rheumatism crippled him and kept 
him from performing all of the duties necessary 
to the place, so Ida, as a child, was called upon 
to help her father. She knew how to regulate the 
light and how to handle a life-boat. When she 
was eighteen years old her father died and she 
was allowed to continue in the care of the light 
until a successor to her father could be ap- 
pointed. In 1878, by special act of Congress, she 
was made keeper of the light. 

The Lime Rocks on which the light-tower is 
set peep up out of the water just where all the 
yachts going out toward Fort Adams must pass. 
A white two-story house is perched upon the 
main ledge. There is a piazza and a small boat- 
house connected with the dwelling. Among the 
rocks, under the kitchen window^ is a patch 
of garden where Ida Lewis raised hardy flow- 
ers that could withstand the strong salt airs. 
High aloft from sunset to sunrise a red light 
flashes over the harbor. Every night for more 
than fifty years Ida Lewis tended that light. Lives 
hung on her watchfulness, but the government 
inspectors got in the habit of reporting perfect 
attendance at the Lime Rock light. 

In February, 1867, a soldier belonging to the 
garrison of Fort Adams was capsized while try- 
ing to cross Newport harbor in a small boat. Ida 
picked him up and towed him to the lighthouse, 
keeping his head out of water— she was not 
strong enough to lift him into the boat. In March, 
1869, she saved two soldiers from Fort Adams. 
Their boat was swamped and they were clinging 
to the keel when she rowed from the lighthouse 
and rescued them. 

In the fall of 1877 a boat containing three men 
was upset in Newport harbor in a gale. Ida 
Lewis, alone in her little boat, dragged the men 

from the water. She thought so little of her 
deed that she did n't even take their names, and 
it was only after much trouble later that the 
lighthouse authorities found out who were saved. 
A short time after that rescue she saw a man 
clinging to a spindle or day-mark a mile and a 
half from the lighthouse. She went to him and 
got him safely ashore. In February, 1881, she, 
with her brother, rescued two soldiers who had 
tried to cross on the ice from Newport to Fort 
Adams. The ice was very unsafe and Ida and 
her brother nearly lost their own lives saving the 

In 1904, when Ida Lewis was more than sixty 
years old, she performed her last feat of life- 
saving. A woman friend had started for Lime 
Rock light to visit her. Ida was watching her ap- 
proach in a small boat. Just as the boat neared 
the stone pier the woman lost her balance and fell 
overboard. In an instant Ida was in her own 
boat and alongside her struggling friend. She 
assisted her into the boat, picked up the rowboat 
that was drifting away, and then went back to 
the lighthouse. 

Ida Lewis, as we have intimated, received many 
evidences of public recognition of her heroism. 
In 1869 the Life Saving Benevolent Association 
of New York awarded her a purse of $100 and its 
silver medal. In 1869 the General Assembly of 
Rhode Island recognized officially her services. 
In July, 1869, the citizens of Newport presented 
her with a beautiful rowboat. Captain James Fisk 
of the Fall River Line built a convenient little 
boat-house on Lime Rock in which to house the 

For years afterward she received silver and 
gold medals, pieces of plate, insignia of various 
societies, and purses of money in recognition of 
her ability and courage. In 1907 she celebrated 
her golden anniversary as keeper of the light. In 
the same year she received from Andrew Car- 
negie a pension of $30 a month. In her later 
years she was in failing health and was assisted 
in the duties of lighthouse keeper by her brother. 
In 1870 she was married to William H. Wilson. 
They did not get along happily, and so separated ; 
then Ida resumed her maiden name. 

One morning, in 191 1, while preparing to light 
her kitchen fire, Ida Lewis was stricken with apo- 
plexy. In that condition she was found by her 
brother, who for many years had made his home 
with her at the light. She never regained con- 
sciousness, and on the evening of October 24 she 
died. In the city of Newport, with which her 
fame is associated, her funeral was conducted 
with many marks of public respect, and honors 
to her memory were paifl by leading citj^j^i?.?^ 



Yov girls and boys have probably all seen pic- 
tures of the great white-granite tomb built in 
honor of General Grant. Perhaps you have seen 
the tomb itself. It stands on Claremont Heights, 
in New York City. 

From the terrace that surrounds it you may 
view the Hudson River stretching northward 
among the hills. Close by grows the gingko-tree 
planted on behalf of Li Hung Chang, to keep the 
memory of the Chinese statesman's friendship 
with the warrior of the West. 

Within the monument, through the vast cupola, 
the subdued sunlight falls across the porphyry of 
the sarcophagus. To and fro, all day long, pass 
the hushed footsteps 
of old and young. 

You would like to 
go there and to show 
your respect for the 
famous general who 
grew weary of con- 
flict, and who, after 
the War of the 
States, when men 
were keeping alive 
their quarrels in- 
stead of forgetting 
them, cried out, "Let 
us have peace." 

The greatest of 
English poets tells 
us that " 't is a kind 
of good deed to say 
well," and then he 
speaks of crowning 

words with deeds. It was said of a great helper 
of men that "his words were half-battles." But 
when General Grant said, "Let us have peace," he 
spoke words that were more than half-battles, 
more than the fiercest battles that ever the great 
soldier fought ; for they were an influence so 
strong that it helped his countrymen to try to 
make our land the home of a united p.eople. But 
it is of something else that we wish to tell you. 

Not far from the tomb of General Grant is an- 
other. It is not large, and is very simple — in the 
quiet good taste that marks so much of the archi- 
tecture we call "Colonial." 

The upper part is in the form of an urn, the 
top of which has been carried away— probably by 
some curio-seeker. Close-set iron palings now 
protect the stone from those foolish and selfish 
people who mark and mar beautiful and treas- 
ured things. 

This tomb, small though it be, attracts much 
attention. Carved upon it are these words: 



the Memory of 

an Amiable Child 

St. Claire Pollock, 

died 15 July 1797 in the 5th 

Year of his Age. 

People who see it forget the name of the little 
boy, but they remember the quaint words that 
describe him; and so this is known as "The 

Tomb of the Amia- 
ble Child." 

"Amiable" is a 
word that comes to 
us from the Latin 
through the French. 
We look in our 
dictionary to study 
its meaning (a very 
good practice for 
you, girls and boys, 
when you come 
upon words you do 
not know or are 
doubtful about). The 
dictionary says that 
"a ni i a b 1 e" means 
"pleasing in disposi- 
t i o n," "kind-heart- 
ed," "g r a c i o u s." 
"Gentle" and "win- 
ning," it says, mean much the same thing; and 
then it adds : "Amiable combines the senses of 
lovable or lovely and loving." 

What a deal of meaning is carried wrapped up 
in that short word, to be sure ! And how, when 
we know that meaning, do we have brought be- 
fore us the charm of St. Claire's little life. 

It is fine to be a great man like General Grant, 
with a career full of mighty deeds— of patience— 
of perseverance. These and many other traits 
grow and develop as one matures and gains ex- 
perience. It is also fine to be an amiable little 
boy or girl — "lovable and loving." How many 
grown-ups of us never learn that lesson ! 

And may we not say that the carving of those 
words upon the tomb of the amiable child was 
itself a golden deed, because it fixed there a 
beautiful thought to help us keep in our hearts 
the spirit that is "lovable and loving"? 


=^3^ Ct] 





Have you ever noticed a hawk soaring and float- 
ing high up against the sky ? Have you seen him 
busy apparently in embroidering a wonderful 
pattern of loops and curves, putting in a wing- 
beat here and a long float there, and then, sud- 
denly, without a moment's warning, seem fairly 
to drop to the ground, pause a moment, and then 
rise slowly and fly to some near-by tree? . 

The splendid flight was made with a purpose. 
He was looking out for his prey, and when he 
saw with his keen eyes some field-mouse scam- 
pering across a field, or a tiny bird cowering in a 
bush, or picking up a meal among the grass, he 
fell from the sky, seized the little creature, and 
took it ofif in his talons to eat it at leisure in some 
convenient tree. 

This method of pursuing his prey was taken 
advantage of in the Middle Ages and later times 
to provide for man one of his most popular forms 
of hunting. The birds were chosen with greatest 
care, each kind was trained to hunt for his own 
particular sort of prey, and great parties of lords 
and ladies, followed by many attendants, rode out 
into the fields and marshes to "fly" their birds, as 
they called it, and watch them "strike their quar- 

I have said that hawking was practised in the 
Middle Ages and later. Perhaps I should have 
written that at that time it was most widely prac- 
tised, for, indeed, as far back as the fourth cen- 
tury hawks had been trained by mankind to 
hunt. These birds were so highly esteemed that 
they were known as emblems of royalty, and that 

H.T.&G.D. II. 22. 

man of rank was considered disgraced who gave 
up his birds, save for the most dire necessity. In 
fact certain varieties of hawks and falcons were 
allowed only to the nobility, and none others 
were allowed to own or fly them. 

Hawking was a sport which was not confined 
to men only, but ladies and children enjoyed it 
as well. See our pretty little boy, in the picture, 
with his pet bird, which is poised on his wrist and 
ready for flight. 

Nowadays we have men who train horses 
for running, jumping and hunting, as indeed they 
had, too, in hawking days ; but the man who 
trained the hawks for a great noble or a king, 
filled a most important part in the household. 
Just think,— the Grand Fanconnicr of France had 
fifty gentlemen to attend him when he rode out, 
and fifty assistant falconers ! He was allowed 
to keep three hundred hawks ; he issued a license 
to every man who sold hawks in France ; and re- 
ceived a fee for every bird sold in the kingdom. 
Even the king himself lent him consequence, for 
he never rode out on any grand occasion without 
this officer attending him. 

In England the sport was just as highly con- 
sidered. Our little picture boy was an English 
child. I look at him often and wonder who he 
was, for I do not know. All that I have been 
able to find out about him is, that he was the son 
of a great nobleman, and that this portrait still 
hangs in the castle gallery where once he lived. 

Although the sport was commonly called 
"hawking," different kinds of birds which hunt 




their prey in a similar manner were used. Fal- 
cons were flown after herons or other water 
birds, and, indeed, most of the old descrip- 

From the statue by George Simonds in Central Park, New York. 

tions of hawking speak of the hunters cours- 
ing along the river's edge or the brookside. 
Species of hawks went by many different names: 
there w^as the "hobby" for a young man; the 
"marlyon" for a lady; the "faulcon peregrine" 

for an earl, and the "faulcon of the rock" for a 
duke; and the "most noble eagle, merloun, and 
vulture," for an emperor. 

Do not think that one could go out and fly a 
hawk in any way he liked, as you or I would go 
fishing ; for this could not be done. If you or I had 
lived in the castle with our picture boy, and had 
been going out hawking with him, this is the way 
I believe we should have done : 

The night before, if the wind had been in the 
right direction and it promised to be a fine day, 
we should have sent word to the falconer to have 
the hawks ready in the courtyard on their 
perches at dawn. It was, you see, a very "early 
bird" kind of business ! You could n't turn over 
and take another nap, and say that you 'd come 
on the next trolley, or that you 'd come with 
mother in the auto — you 'd have to be on time. 

Then, after directing about the hawks, you 
would send word to have the coursing jennets 
(or small hunting horses) ready at the same time 
for a day at hawking. You would bid the pages 
look to it that your gloves were ready, for stout 
gloves with gauntlets were worn to protect the 
hands and wrists from the sharp talons of the 
birds. Then you went to bed early yourself, so as 
to be early astir. 

\Vhen the falconer got your order he went to 
look at the birds. He w^ashed their feet in water, 
he saw that the "hoods" w'ith which they were 
kept blinded or "hood-winked," when not flying, 
were w-ell set on their heads, and he did not feed 
them, lest, on the morrow, they should not be 
keen enough to fly well for their game. He took 
particular care of his young master's bird, a fine 
and beautifully feathered hawk from Barbary, 
we will say, which he had trained himself. Then 
lie looked at the "jesses," for all hawks when 
carried on the "fist" wore little straps of leather 
called jesses fastened to their legs. These straps 
had knots and loops in them which came be- 
tween the fingers so as to hold the bird steady. 
Sometimes the jesses were made of silk, but 
leather was the ordinary material, and it might 
be scarlet or any other color that the owner 
wished. The hoods, too, were of leather, and 
very gorgeous, with a crest or coat of arms 
wrought on each, or perhaps a bright feather or 
two woven in it, which gave the bird a wild 
look indeed. Of course being kept in confine- 
ment and hooded most of the time, made the birds 
wild and fierce, which was a necessary condition 
for their doing their work well. 

You w^ill see bells on our bird's legs. These 
were the most important part of the trappings, 
for if the bird went out of sight the tinkle of the 
bell led the hunter to where the falcon was. The 



From the Wallace Collection, 

Photograph by W. A. Mansell Co, 




bells were fastened to the legs by thongs of deer- 
hide called "bewits." Great care was taken to 
have the hide soft so as not to chafe the legs, and 
the bells must be chosen with care, not too heavy 
so as to impede the flight, of a clear and musical 
sound. For ordinary birds any cheap bell would 
do, but for our falcon there must be Milan bells 
of gold, or at least silver, ringing. 

At dawn, after a hurried breakfast of coarse 
bread, some white herring, sprats or salt fish, 
washed down with beer or ale for the grown-up 
people and milk for the children — all trooped 
down to the courtyard, eager to start. 

The pages held the horses, the falconers hur- 
ried about with the birds, the hounds struggled 
at the leashes, and the huntsman held his horn in 
readiness to sound a blast for the warder to let 
down the drawbridge so that the party could ride 
gaily forth over the moat, down into the green 
fields and so on to the open. When the meadows 
were reached, runners and dogs were sent ahead to 
start up the birds along the water-courses. Each 
hunter saw to it that the strings of the hawk's 
hood were loosened so as to be easily pulled off, 
the jesses were cast aside, and all was made 
ready so that the hawk could be quickly thrown 
from the wrist as soon as the prey was sighted. 

The hawks had to be trained to return with 
their prey to the hunters and not to let it escape 
or tear it. which would destroy it for food. For 
while, of course, the chief purpose of hawking 
was sport, yet the birds brought down were some- 
times a very welcome addition to the table, where 

salt meat or fish were the main dishes, unless the 
deer- or boar-hunters had been successful on their 

You will never guess what caused the decline 
of hawking. Why, the invention of the musket ! 
This provided the same amount of exercise, it 
brought down all kinds of creatures, birds as 
well as beasts, so that hawks became altogether 
unnecessary, and most noblemen were glad to be 
relieved of the immense expense which had to 
be incurred to keep up the "mews," or buildings 
in which the falcons were kept, provide attend- 
ants, and train the birds for their work. 

In that noble story of Sir Walter Scott's, 
"Quentin Durward," when Quentin first appears, 
he says he has been called "the Varlet of the 
Velvet Pouch." This was on account of the bag 
or pouch which he wore over his shoulder to 
carry food for his hawk, which had been killed 
when he attempted to fly it in a royal preserve. 
This was a serious loss to poor Quentin, since 
a well-trained bird was worth a hundred marks, 
a large sum of money for those days. 

In the time of James I, many years later than 
the period of Quentin Durward, a "cast of 
hawks" signifying two or three birds, well 
trained of course, would bring several hundred 
pounds. As the sport was largely indulged in by 
the nobility, so all the details connected with it 
were costly, from the silver whistles which were 
used to reclaim or call back the bird, to the trap- 
pings of the birds themselves, the expense of their 
keepers, and the buildings that housed them all. 












y _^y /j 









gjjl j^ jKL 


. i. 



The little negro girls and boys who live in the 
towns or on the plantations of the South enjoy 
their games and sports quite as heartily as do any 
healthy and hearty girls and boys ; but the condi- 
tions of their life are not such as to make them 
acquainted with the sports usually enjoyed by 
other children. If you were to ask one of these 
curly-haired, black-faced school-children of the 

South what games he 
played, he would be very 
likely to roll the whites 
of his eyes at you, and 
his teeth would glisten, 
while he answered, 
"Don't play any, sah!" 
If you should push your 
inquiries, you might get 
him to say "Yaas, sah !" 
to the questions whether 
he played baseball, tag, 
and other games. But 
it is the colored child's 
misfortune that he can- 
not reply more fully to 
such questions. His list 
of games is really very 
short. Where children 
come together, however, 
as at school, or. once in 
a very great while, at parties and picnics, there 
is an opportunity for sports which require a num- 
ber of players. 

A rough game, but one of the most popular, is 
"rap-jacket," which is much played at school. The 
girls and boys cut long switches, and form two 
opposite rows, having an equal number of players 
on each side. The two forces then attack, each 
trying to make the other give way before the 
vigorous onslaught of whips. It is "against the 
rule" to hit in the face, but the blows rain down 
terrifically on the shoulders of the players ; and it 
is not an unusual sight to see one of them who 
has been slightly hurt tearfully seeking consola- 
tion from the teacher. In spite of the game's 
roughness, even the girls are very fond of it. 

Most of the games which colored children play 
are "ring" games. These seem to furnish an out- 
let for the melody in the negro soul, for nearly 
all are accompanied by singing and dancing. The 
songs are extremely simple, and of course vary 
with every game. Very curious rhymes are some- 

" 'don't play any, sah !' 

times thrown together. The tunes in all the 
games differ very little. To one who for the 
first time witnesses these musical games, their 
most striking features are the ease and grace 
with which most of the players dance and beat 
time with feet and hands. It is comical to see a 
circle of these happy little creatures moving 
hands, feet, and mouths in perfect harmony, and 
giving rapt attention to the game. 

"Hop like de rabbit, ho !" is a favorite ring 
game. One player enters the circle made by the 
others, and chooses a partner. In a queei em 
brace the two clasp each other's shoulders and 
jump round and round. Meanwhile those in the 
ring, clapping their hands and beating with their 
feet, sing these words : 

Hop like de rabbit, ho) 
Hop like de rabbit, ho boy ! 

De rabbit skip, 

De rabbit hop, 
De rabbit eat my turnip-top ! 
Hop like de rabbit, ho ! 
Hop like de rabbit, ho boy ! 

De rabbit is a cunnin' thing. 

He ramble in de dark ; 
He nebber know what trouble is 
Till he hear old Rover bark ! 
De rabbit skip, 
De rabbit hop, 
De rabbit eat my turnip-top ! 
Hop like de rabbit, ho ! 
Hop like de rabbit, ho boy ! 

There is another game wdiich is played in the 
same way, but which requires different words. It 
is called "De Willow-tree." I give the words as 
they were written down for me by a bright little 
school-girl; but they are a curious jumble. It 
ought to be said that the songs or chants given in 
this article are not supposed to be sung in all 
parts of the South, or, if sung, they do not appear 
in the same form. Their words may differ even 
in neighboring localities. The language of a peo- 
ple who depend upon the car rather than on the 
eye for their vocabulary is always changing. The 
words of "De Willow-tree" are as follows : 

De willow-tree I nebber saw. 

Green grow de willow! 
Do that again. I '11 stick you with a pin. 

Green grow de willow ! 
De willow-tree I nebber saw, 

Green grow de willow ! 



Six young ladies, six young gen'lemen, 

Don't you think it 's hard, 
They hab all got true lover, 

And I hab none ? 

Rice-cake, rice-cake, rice-cake, 
Sweet me so ! 

places. Probably the fun in this game is in its 
soldier-like movements. The song which accom- 
panies the marching runs thus: 

Don't you tell dose girls I love it to my heart ! 

Don't you tell dose boys I eat it, eat it ! 

Don't you tell dose boys I eat it, eat it ! 
To my toe ! 

Marching and singing are the chief features of 
the game "Drinking Water." Two of the players, 
joining hands above their heads, stand at the 
apex of an angle formed by the remaining play- 
ers, who stand facing away from the first two. 
The two at the opposite ends of the columns 
forming the angle take a few steps toward each 
other, being followed in turn by the other players, 
and, wheeling halfway around, march down the 
center between the columns and beneath the out- 
spread arms of the first two, who remain in their 


Ho, Nannie ! Ho, Nannie ! 

Hand me the gourd to drink water ! 

Drink water, drink water, 

Hand me the gourd to drink water! 

Miss Mary, Miss Mary ! 

Hand me the gourd to drink water ! 

Drink water, drinlv water, 

Hand me the gourd to drink water ! 

"Shouting Josephine" is the odd name given to 
a peculiar game. Two of the players stand inside 
a ring formed by the others, and the following 
dialogue ensues between them: 

"Josephine !" 


"Have you had your breakfast?" 

"Yes, ma'am." 

"How much?" 


"Josephine, do you want to shout?" 



"Yes, ma'am." she has voice, and then breaks out of the ring, 
"How long?" and a companion takes her place. 
"An hour and a half." The colored children's parties do not differ 
"Then shout, Josephine !" much in general from those to which white girls 
And so Josephine shouts, as loudly as she can, and boys are accustomed. The invited guests 
and, with her hands resting on her hips and her come in the afternoon, — or evening, as Southern- 
elbows bent, dances gracefully and in perfect ers would say,— play games, have supper, and go 
time with her lively shouting. Meanwhile the home. In one of the games often played on such 

others beat time with their hands. Now and 
then they cry out, "Finger-ring !" "Ear-ring !" 
"Breast-pin !" and so on ; and as they mention 
the words, the shouting Josephine, without stop- 
ping her motion, takes her hands from her hips 
and touches the portion of the body where the 
ear-ring, breast-pin, and so on, are respectively 
worn. Josephine shouts and dances as long as 

occasions a girl sits under a June-apple tree, — 
or, if there happens to be none around, under any 
small tree or shrub,— and calls a boy from among 
the players, who have formed a ring around her. 
The boy enters the circle and tries to kiss the 
girl, who to escape him endeavors to break out of 
the ring. But the other players clasp hands and 
dance round and round, all the time singing: 



Here's Miss Phcebe sits under a June-apple 

tree, heigh-ho ! 
Seeking for her true-love to see, heigh-ho ! 
Here 's a young lady sits under my arm ; 
Another sweet kiss will do her no harm ! 

An' another little one, heigh-ho ! 

An' a sweet little one, heigh-ho ! 


The last two lines are repeated faster and 
faster, as "Miss Phoebe" makes greater efforts to 
break the ring, and her companions circle round 
with increasing rapidity. When she has at last es- 
caped from her pursuer, the boy who is left chooses 
another girl from the ring; and then he, in turn, 
tries to break out before his partner can kiss him. 

Then there are birthday parties, to which every 

— - — invited guest is supposed to bring a present — a 

cake, a doll, or something of the sort — for the 
child whose birthday is celebrated. An interest- 
ing feature of these parties is the cake-walk. 
This affords great amusement. The prize cake is 
put upon a table in the center of the room, while 
the guests, in couples, walk around the house, in 
through the door, around the table, and out again. 
Not far from the cake stands one of the "old 
folks," who presents a little flag to whichever 
couples she may choose, as the procession moves 
past her. The marching in and out of the house 
continues until a gun is discharged outside ; then 
the two with the flag who happen to be nearest 
the table are considered the winners of the cake. 
Besides this prize, however, the successful girl 
and boy are each allowed to choose one of the 
presents brought to the host. 

Christmas is the greatest holiday among the 
negroes. It lasts a whole week with them, and 
during this time some of them seem to think it 
wrong to do any work. The children believe 
firmly in the existence of Santa Claus. They 
hang their stockings beside the fireplace, and on 
Christmas morning imagine that they see his 
footprints on the hearth. One would think that 
old St. Nick would leave a great many gifts in 
such a home, it is so easy for him to climb up and 
down the chimney ; but he does n't leave very 
many ; so it is fortunate that the black children 
are satisfied with an orange, an apple, a doll, or 
a stick of candy. 



It would be a strange sight to us if, in passing Yet there were once people who thought that men 

through Central Park, we should come to a statue 

To Henry Brown, 


or farther on to another with the words: 
To Arthur Murray, 


who made themselves famous in the national 
games deserved much honor, and who actually 
did raise a statue to a football-player. His name 
was Aristonico Caristo, and he lived several thou- 
sand years ago, in the most beautiful city in the 
world, Athens. 

Athens, as you know, was a city adorned with 
wonderful sculpture, full of men and women 



learned in art and great in literature; and stu- 
dents of Greek history believe that the wisest of 
the Athenians knew 

a great deal more about 


many things than we shall ever know, though of 
course they were not so well informed upon some 
topics as are men of the present day. But in 
addition to being learned and wise they were also 
a very strong and brave people, and, to fit them- 
selves for warfare whenever they should be called 
upon, they kept their bodies in a perfect condition 
of health and their muscles continually trained by 
constant exercise in games and athletic contests. 
Every year they held the famous Olympian 
games, when all the young men of Greece con- 
tested for prizes, and when the winner of the 
race, or the victor in the wrestling-match, was 



rewarded with a crown of laurel or olive, and 
was accounted a great personage. 

Because the Greeks kept their bodies so strong 
and well developed, they were a beautiful race, 
and, having the skill to reproduce this beauty. 

they have left in their sculpture models which we 
still study for their perfection of form and line. 
Even now we can pay no higher compliment than 
to say one resembles a Greek of the old days, a 
Greek who lived in what we call their golden age. 
Nowadays one hears a great deal of talk about 
the waste of time spent in athletics, and many 
sensible people disapprove of intercollegiate con- 
tests and ball-games. Of course there is reason 
in their objections, for every good thing may be 
abused, and no doubt boys and young men often 

make athletics an excuse 
for neglecting their stud- 
ies, or for spending a 



great deal of money and time in a perfectly use- 
less way. But then, that is only one side of the 
question, and on the other hand we all know how 
little good work we can do with our brains if 
our bodies are feeble and our eyes and minds 
tired with constant reading and studying and 
bending our backs over desks. Whatever our 
occupation in life may be, we all need amuse- 
ment and exercise, and not to take enough time 
for it is quite as bad as taking too much. 

All the old nations knew the importance of 
physical development. The Persians, the Mace- 
donians, and the Spartans were always trained 
and ready to use their strength for their country's 
need. Of these latter people, when they were 
under the stern discipline of Lycurgus, an old 
writer says that their youths were so accustomed 
to severe bodily exercise that when there were no 
other walls of defense, the breasts of her citizens 
formed her protection. 



Among the sports of these nations who passed 
away so many centuries ago were always various 
kinds of ball-games ; and the Athenian whom his 
fellow-citizens considered worthy of a statue was 
honored for his excellence in the game called phe- 



R R 


D D 

s s 





DS , 






M 5° 














• •••< 

• ••• 





















□ s • 







Q Q Q 


s s 

D D 


A. Center Runners. 

B. Runiiers near the wall. 

C. Runners near the ditch, 

D. Center Fronts. 

E. Front near the wall. 

F. Front near the ditch. 

G. Center Fronts. 
H, Center Fronts. 

I, Halt-back near the wall. 

K. Center Half-backs. 

L. Center Half-backs. 

M. Half-back near the ditch. 

N. Center back. 

O. Back near the wall. 

P. Back near the ditch. 

Q. Tent, .\lfieri, Trumpeters, etc. 

K, Tent, Allieri, Trumpeters, etc, 

S, Halberdiers. 

ninda. This was the original form of football ; 
and from those early days until now it has been 
played by one set of people after another, until 
it has reached the present form-. The Lacedaemo- 
nians used to have it, and a book was even writ- 
ten about it by a man called Timocrates. Homer 
sings of it as the game the heroes played, and 
several other Greek poets and authors mention 
it. In remoter times they played with a ball made 
of leather and blown up with air, and the players 
were divided into two parties, who each endeav- 
ored to send the ball over their opponents' goal 
at the opposite end of the field. Though first 
called pheninda, later it was episcyrus, and still 
later, when it had been for some time known 

among the Romans, Jiarpasfum. There is extant 
an account taken from a book by a Greek named 
Julius Pollux, in the year 177 a.d., and dedicated 
to the Emperor Commodus, of the game as played 
at that time ; and apparently it has changed 
very little since. 

As the Romans planted one colony after 
another, they brought with them their amuse- 
ments, as well as their arts and sciences ; and 
so, in their settlement of Florentia— our 
modern Florence— they established the game 
of harpastum. Perhaps other cities knew it, 
too, but for some unexplained reason this 
one town came to consider the game as espe- 
cially belonging to itself, and there is no ac- 
count of its being played elsewhere. The 
Florentines called it cdlcio, a word meaning 
a kick, and it formed one of the principal 
entertainments of the people. 

Until the early part of the eighteenth 
century it was played constantly during the 
winter, especially in carnival time ; and no 
festival in honor of a coronation, grand wed- 
ding, or entrance into the city of any distin- 
guished stranger was complete without its 
game of calcio. Nearly all the Florentine 
historians and chroniclers mention it ; and to 
give an idea of what importance they at- 
tached to the game, one should read what a 

advantages : 

writer savs of its manv 

All exercises and all arts of the gj-mnasium are 
combined in the game of calcio, which exercises 
every muscle and all parts of the body. It makes 
the body healthy, dexterous, and robust, and the 
mind alert and strong and eager for virtuous vic- 

The )'ear 1898 was a memorable one in 
Florence, for it was the four hundredth an- 
niversary of important historical events, as 
well as commemorative of men such as Tos- 
canelli, Amerigo Vespucci, and Savonarola, who 
lived in the latter part of the fifteenth century. 
It was planned to have a grand festival in April, 
and to revive a number of the medieval specta- 
cles. But it rained nearly all the festival days, 
and so a great part of the program could not be 
thoroughly carried out. Then there was a time 
of revolution and riot all over Italy, when Flor- 
ence was under military rule, and no public gath- 
ering was permitted. Consequently the celebra- 
tion on which so much thought had been spent, 
and of which so much was expected, did not alto- 
gether come up to its ideal. But one feature of 
it was entirely a success, and that was the game 
of calcio. 



In former times, the square or piazza in front 
of the Church of Santa Croce was generally the 
scene of the calcio, as well as of other public 
games or spectacles. It is very much in the same 
condition now as it was five hundred years ago, 
and the beautiful church, which was begun in 
1297, still stands, unharmed by the passing cen- 
turies. At one side of the piazza, a marble tablet 
in an old palace wall marks half its length, and 

tate, and where to-day soldiers drill. These young 
men of various nationalities shouted as they 
rushed about with as much freedom as though on 
a college campus. The faded frescos of saints 
and martyrs looked down on them, and occasion- 
ally the ball would strike a saint in the eye, or 
fly against another's halo. The soldiers were 
always passing in and out, and a few younger 
brothers looked on admiringly. 


where this tablet is was the spot against which 
the ball was thrown at the beginning of the calcio. 

It is more than one hundred and seventy years 
since the last calcio took place in Florence; now 
it could not be played on its old ground ; for there 
is a huge statue of Dante in the center of the 
piazza, and it is too big to move. Instead, then, 
of having the ancient palaces and church walls as 
a background, the game was played in an inclo- 
sure of the park by the river. The fifteenth-cen- 
tury costumes and the bright dresses of the spec- 
tators were seen to the best advantage against 
the fresh spring green of the trees, and the play- 
ers had soft earth under their feet, instead of the 
hard stones of the city square. 

They held the rehearsals for the calcio in the 
great cloisters of another old church, Santa Maria 
Novella, where the monks used to walk and medi- 
XVlil— lU 

But the rehearsals were nothing to the game 
itself, when everything possible was done to make 
it like the original calcio. There were trumpeters 
with the old Tuscan trumpets, halberdiers carry- 
ing halberds and wearing real armor belonging 
to the fifteenth century, the standard-bearers 
with their silk banners, the players in their 
costumes of white satin with blue, and white 
satin with red, and their long hair falling 
down on their shoulders. The sun shone fit- 
fully that afternoon, and an occasional shower 
came down ; but no one was tempted to leave 
until all was finished, and the victory gained by 
the wearers of the red. Even the King and 
Queen, who were present, were undisturbed by 
the rain, and made no objections when, by a mis- 
directed kick, the ball shot suddenly into the im- 
provised royal box. 



The prettiest sight of all was the procession 
which, according to ancient custom, preceded the 
game. The trumpets blew, and there marched 
into the inclosure the quaintly dressed company, 
who made a circuit of the field. Following the 
prescribed order, came first the trumpeters, then 
the drummers, halberdiers in between the various 
groups, then certain of the players, two by two. 
These last were supposed to imitate the effect of 
squares on a chess-board, and to that end the first 
couple was composed of a man from either side, 
each in his respective color, while the second 
couple reversed the colors, the third again was 
like the first, and so on. After these came the 
standard-bearers, one for each side, more drums, 
other players, one of whom carried the ball, and 
finally musicians. There were one hundred and 
three persons in the procession, and the effect 
was very striking. The trumpets sounded when 
the game began, and whenever there was a vic- 
tory to be recorded for one side or the other. It 
was all very interesting and picturesque, and it 
did not require much imagination to put one's 
self back in the old days when Lorenzo the Mag- 
nificent controlled the city, and the Florentines 
were great and rich and prosperous. 

On the night of the day following the calcio 
there was a magnificent 
costume ball given in the 
Palazzo Vecchio— the Old 
Palace. Here once more 
the calcio-players assem- 
bled, and, as on the field, 
made a circuit of the great 
hall. Among the brilliant 
throng of knights and sol- 
diers, heroes and heroines 
of old stories and poems, 
none attracted more atten- 
tion than the calcio-play- 
ers, nor more faithfully 
copied the men of 1498, the 
year which Florence was 

In former times the Flor- 
entines would have thought 
the dresses which were 
worn at this celebration 
much too poor and plain, 
for the rules insisted on 
suits of velvet, satin, or 

cloth of gold, and what was equal to several hun- 
dreds of dollars was spent on a single game. The 
costumes consisted of a jacket, tight-fitting trou- 
sers, and stockings made in one piece, thin shoes, 
and caps, and were frequently trimmed wherever 
possible with gold and silver lace, buckles, em- 

broidery, feathers, and all sorts of rich and costly- 
ornaments. As the rules say : 

The dresses of the players must be as light and con- 
venient as possible, because the less impediment they 
offer, the more easily can the men move, and the more 
agile will be their limbs. But especially should each 
one endeavor to have his clothes beautiful and gay, and 
to see that they are well-fitting and becoming to him, 
remembering that there will be present to see him the 
most charming la4ies and the most noble gentlemen of 
the city, and whoever, therefore, appears badly dressed 
makes of himself an ugly sight. 

There were two kinds of calcio. One was the 
ordinary game, which was played at any time 
from January to the end of carnival, when there 
was not the same necessity for rich dress, and 
the players were expected only to wear different 
colors, distinguishing one side from the other. 
This was a somewhat impromptu game, and might 
be played whenever there were gathered enough 
nobles and gentlemen in an appropriate place. 
Then two captains were selected, and those who 
wished to play having arranged themselves in a 
circle in the center of the field, each captain chose 
the men he wanted, and the game went on to its 

But when the calcio was played in costume, the 


would-be players assembled first at the house of 
one of the principal nobles of the city, and the 
best men were carefully selected. The day would 
be fixed, and a notice published of it. Then they 
named two of the best-known and important 
young men as alficri, or standard-bearers, and on 



the appointed day each of these would invite all 
the men on his side to a feast. After this they 
started for the field, the standard-bearers and 
trumpeters first, and when all the players were 
assembled, they cast lots for places, and entered 
the field in order. 

As to the game itself, it was really rather com- 
plicated, and to go into all its details might prove 
tiresome, but these were its main points : 

'"None but gentlemen, honored soldiers, or no- 
bles might take part in the calcio; no artisans, 
servants, infamous or common persons, were per- 
mitted" ; and the ages of those who played were 
supposed to range between eighteen and forty- 
five years. The general number of persons on a 
side was twenty-seven, making fifty-four in all, 
though this number might be more or less. The 
calcio was to be played in a large square, or pi- 
azza, where there should be room for ladies to 
see comfortably, and place for the general pub- 
lic. Around the square was erected a barrier or 
railing about one hundred and ten yards in length, 
fifty-four yards in w-idth, and in height one yard. 
When, at the sound of the trumpets, the game 
was ordered to begin, all servants and persons 
who had no right there were sent off the field, 
and could not come nearer than behind this rail- 

At each end of the field was a goal over which 
the ball was to be kicked, and there was also 
erected a tent or pavilion for each side. These 
were decorated with the respective colors of the 
two sides, and here were stationed the musicians, 
halberdiers, captains, and so on. The judges, of 
whom there were six, three for each side,— men 
who had been famous players,— sat in a high 
place, where they could overlook all the field. 
Their decision was absolute, and a difference of 
views was settled by a majority of votes. The 
judges also took charge of the banners, and con- 
signed them to the soldiers of the Grand Duke, 
when they were stationed each in front of its 
proper pavilion. 

The twenty-seven players were to be divided 
as follows : 

Fifteen Innanzl, or runners, who are placed in 
the front, and divided into three equal groups. 

Five Sconciatori, who try to impede the oppo- 
site innanzi as they run with the ball. They may 
be called the fronts. 

Four Datori innanzi, or half-backs. 

Three Datori addictro. or backs. 

This arrangement of the three rows of the cal- 
cio was supposed to resemble the order of battle 
in the Roman army, the last row being most 
widely extended of all. The innanzi took the 
place of spearmen, and the sconciatori repre- 

sented the elephants in ancient warfare, or, later, 
the artillery. 

When the players had taken their places, as 
shown in the accompanying plan, the pallaio (so 
called because he carried the palla, or ball), 
dressed in a costume made in the colors of the 
two sides, threw the ball against the marble tablet 
in the wall. In very ancient times the ball was 
placed in the center of the field, as now in foot- 

As the ball bounced back among the players, 
the innanzi ran to kick it and push it toward the 

The game was won by the side who made the 
greatest number of goals, called cdccia. It was 
considered equal to a caccia for one side when 
the other made two faults, or falli. A fallo was 
made when the ball, being thrown or hit with the 
open hand, bounced higher than the ordinary 
height of a man. It also constituted a fallo when 
the ball fell outside the goal, beyond the ditch on 
one side. 

Whenever a goal or a fault was made, the 
players changed sides, and the victorious ones 
carried their banners high and marched around 
to the pavilion at the opposite end. The con- 
quered party, on the other hand, was obliged to 
lower its banner. Sometimes this regulation 
caused trouble, as the young Florentines did not 
like to own themselves beaten, and would occa- 
sionally refuse to lower their flag. Then their 
opponents would rush to compel them to it, and 
frequently in such a scrimmage the banners would 
be torn and the players injured. This, however, 
was considered extremely undignified and en- 
tirely contrary to all rules. 

The regulations as to politeness and dignity 
were strict, and the old book of rules drawn up 
in the sixteenth century has a long chapter on the 
general conduct of players, and speaks with praise 
of young men w'ho will not allow "anger, envy, or 
any other passion" to make them rough or in- 
clined to retaliate fiercely if they are injured by 
mistake; and the subject is thus concluded: 

This principally is demanded in the calcio : for with- 
out such harmony it would not be an amiable rivalry of 
gentlemen, but an angry fight of mad beasts ; and who- 
ever makes it otherwise than this should remain dis- 
honored by all noble persons of the city. 

The game ended when the clocks sounded 
twenty-four, which in old Italian reckoning was 
about sunset, and the signal to stop was given by 
the explosion of two masti, or mortars. The ban- 
ners were then given to the alfiere of the victori- 
ous side, unless there happened to be a tie, when 
each alfiere received again his banner. 



There are a great many entertaining accounts 
given of the calcio as it used to be played. In the 
time of Lorenzo de' Medici there were several 
songs written about it, and nearly all the writers 
of that period and later mention it. Of all the 
notable games, perhaps none was more brilliant 
than one played in 1584, as portion of the "Pomp 
and of the Fetes made on the coming to the City 
of Florence of His Serene Highness Don Vin- 
cenzo Gonzaga, Prince of Mantua and of Mon- 
ferrato, for his consort, Her Serene Highness, 
Donna Leonora, daughter of the Prince of Tus- 

On this occasion there were many noblemen 
among the players. One party were dressed in 
yellow, the jackets being of satin, and the close- 
fitting trousers, or tights, of cloth of gold, the 
whole suit striped with silver. Their caps were 
of yellow velvet, ornamented with ostrich-plumes, 
gold medals, and pearls. Those of the red were 
dressed in similar fashion, except for the differ- 
ence in color and the ornamentation of their cos- 
tumes, which was of gold instead of silver. The 
pallaio of this party (for there was at this time a 
pallaio for each side) wore red satin, and the 
ball which he carried was of red and yellow. 
After him followed four trumpeters in red cloth, 
and two drummers similarly dressed ; then two 
Germans, playing flutes. After these came the 
pallaio of the other side, in a costume of yellow, 
followed by the same order of trumpets, drums, 
and flutes. The standard-bearers (alfieri) came 
on the field dressed like the others, excepting 
their hose, which were more richly trimmed, and 
entirely covered, the red with gold, and the yel- 
low with silver embroidery. There were also 
pages in the respective colors of the two parties. 
On the morning before the game each alfiere had 
given a sumptuous lunch to his party, when they 
had had the most delicate food and a plenteous 
supply of the finest sweetmeats. 

The banners were of thin silk, and to each ban- 
ner there were six Germans, dressed in the Ger- 
man fashion, and in red or yellow, according to 
the side to which they belonged. The other gen- 
tlemen who were to take part in the game wore 
costumes as above mentioned. The master of the 
calcio, elected by the Grand Duke, bore all the 
expenses, and prepared the confections and wines. 
But the alfieri paid for their own costumes, and 

for the feast they gave to the players. The mas- 
ters were dressed somewhat differently from the 
others, their doublets or jackets being made of 
lace, red or yellow, with gold or silver under- 
neath showing through. 

All the gentlemen having arrived, they made a 
circuit of the piazza, and after the ball was 
thrown the game began. At first the yellow 
gained; but at the end the red had the advantage, 
and conquered. Each caccia was followed by 
shots of cannon, and after the second caccia the 
players all stood together while a song in praise 
of the game was sung. 

Then, to refresh those who had need of it, 
there were brought fifty-two great silver bowls, 
all full of the finest confections, and an immense 
number of flasks of the choicest wines. These 
were carried into the piazza by sixty-two young 
girls, three of whom, dressed in costumes like the 
players, acted as stewards, one of them waiting 
on the judges, the other two on the players. The 
covering of the flasks was all of red and gold. 

When they had eaten and drunk all that they 
wanted, they began to throw the confections 
among the people surrounding them until all were 
scattered. Then, beginning the game again, they 
continued until dark night. The piazza where 
they played was surrounded by platforms like 
theater galleries, and yet there was not place for 
half the people. The houses were all full, and 
even the roofs were crowded ; and it is believed 
that altogether more than forty thousand persons 
were present. 

Six thousand scudi, about six thousand dollars, 
were spent on this calcio. 

Among other games which are mentioned par- 
ticularly was one played during the siege of Flor- 
ence, on February 17, 1529, by the same class of 
men, the soldiers and others who had been en- 
gaged in the defense of the city. To show their 
defiance of the enemy, they stationed musicians 
on the roof of Santa Croce Church. The besieg- 
ers fired volleys from the hills just outside the 
town, but fortunately no one was injured. The 
young men probably finished their game, and then 
went out to return the shooting with fresh vigor. 
This calcio was given as a sort of challenge to 
the enemy, and to let them know that the Floren- 
tines had so little fear of them that they had even 
time for amusements. 



' "^ ^W'^^ " "^ 

Over a fir-crested ridge of the Sierras, the sink- 
ing sun cast long shadows across the level sward 
of a little mountain "park." In the edge of the 
timber three or four white tents were pitched, 
while half a dozen mules and horses were grazing 
near by, and a canvas-covered wagon stood at one 
side, within the shelter of the trees. On the green 
grass certain squares were marked in broad, white 

what it all could mean, — the net and the queer, 
flannel-clad figures that flitted about, knocking 
white balls back and forth over the net, and call- 
ing to one another "fifteen !" "thirty !" "vantage !" 
and so on, till darkness compelled them to stop 
and enter the pleasantly lighted tents, all un- 
aware of the bright, wild eyes that had been curi- 
ously watching their game. » 


lines, and across the squares a net was stretched 
between two stakes. 

It all looked very mysterious to Spotted Crow, 
an Indian brave, and to his two brown-skinned 
sons, who, attracted by voices, had stealthily 
climbed the ridge from the other side and were 
looking down upon the little "park," wondering 

The sun wended his way, as is his custom, 
across the shining Pacific and was presently look- 
ing down upon a very different scene in far-off 
Japan. Two native girls in their quaint costumes 
were taking a promenade near a Japanese town. 
In the distance loomed up the snow-clad cone of 
Fusiyama, the sacred mountain. The girls drew 




near a low house with wide verandas, which had 
a lawn in front; and on the lawn were similar 
white squares, and just such a net as Spotted 
Crow and his sons had marveled at a few hours 
before, as they peered through the tree-tops of 
the American mountains, six thousand miles 
away. The two Japanese girls stopped and looked 
over the hedge. Some young English folk were 

did not see tennis nets and hear those familiar 
cries. He knew that the racket and the net were 
always in use somewhere ; that the empire of 
lawn tennis circled the earth quite as completely 
as does the boasted roll of British drums. 

Ages ago the sun had seen the beginnings of 
this game. It is not quite certain whether it was 
on the banks of the Nile or the Ganges, or at 


knocking balls to and fro over the net, and crying 
out, "fifteen!" "forty!" "deuce all!" "game!" and 
the rest, just as their American cousins had done 
on the other side of the wide Pacific. 

But the sun was well used to this sort of thing. 
There was never a continent that he looked down 
upon as the round earth daily turned its different 
hemispheres upward for his inspection, where he 

Nineveh ; 
group of 

but somewhere this same sun saw a 
half-naked, bronze-limbed youngsters 

throwing balls or dried gourds back and forth, 
using their hands for bats, and doubtless having 
quite as much fun, after a barbarous fashion, as 
we have nowadays with cork-handled rackets, 
regulation balls, and a set of printed rules. 

Generations rolled by, however, before the pio- 



neers of tennis had themselves carved on stone 
slabs, and still other ages before Gordian III. and 
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus had coins struck, in 
honor of the Pythian Apollo, bearing devices 
which represented athletes serving and returning 
balls, and using their hands as rackets. 

Even at that early day it was found desirable 

■ ^ 1 ' ji 


to protect the hand by means of gauntlets, but it 
was not until the fourteenth century, so far as 
can be ascertained, that bats or rackets were in- 
vented, and the game grew into something not al- 
together unlike that which is played to-day. 

The regular tennis court of the middle ages 
was a very elaborate affair, with divisions and 
galleries and railings and "pent-house roofs," and 
a carefully laid stone pavement, all of which made 
it a very costly game to play, and only kings and 
the richest of the nobility could have tennis 
courts of their own. These courts need not be 
described here, but they were not unlike the lawn 
courts of to-day in size and shape. At first there 
was a line stretched across the middle ; then a 
fringe was added to this line, and by the begin- 
ning of the eighteenth century the net was 
adopted much as at present used. 

The method of counting, too, was not unlike 
that followed in our modern lawn tennis, but it 
was loaded down with rules that must have made 
a medieval game quite a good exercise in mental 
arithmetic— for the marker, at least — as the 
princes and lordlings, who alone played tennis in 
those days, did not keep their own scores, but had 
attendants to look after this part of the game for 

It was, indeed, a royal game ; so very royal that 
Edward III. (1365) decided that no one but kings 
and their associates should be allowed to play it at 
all, and his example was followed by Henry IV., 
Henry VIII., and other reigning sovereigns of 

H.T.&G.D. II. 23. 

England and France. It kept gaining in popu- 
larity, however, and some sort of outdoor tennis 
was played with inflated balls very early in the 
history of the game. 

Every little while the royal commands would be 
forgotten, or some convenient war would break 
out, and, after it was over, tennis would "bob up 
serenely," as a very popular amusement. Henry 
VIII. had the tennis fever in a violent form, and 
the most famous royal set ever played was that 
in which Henry VIII. of England and the Em- 
peror Charles V. were matched against the Prince 
of Orange and the Marquis of Brandenburg, 
while the Earl of Devonshire "stopped" (that is, 
picked up balls and kept count) for one side and 
Lord Edmund Howard did a like service for the 
other side. The chronicle relates that they played 
"XI" full games, and were "even hands" at the 
close, a statement which has puzzled the critics, 
who can only infer that the historian made a 
mistake of one in his figures. 



At last, the kings gave up the vain attempt to 
keep so capital a game to themselves, and gra- 
ciously vouchsafed it to their loyal subjects, sim- 
l)ly because they could no longer prevent their 
playing. Of course, there still remained the diffi- 
culties arising from the great costliness of regu- 



lar courts, but these could not interfere with out- 
of-door tennis. This was, however, a very un- 
scientific sport, and was, of course, despised by 
the gentry who could afford to play the court 
game. In the illustration taken from an old 
wood-cut, some out-of-door tennis players are 
seen in the distance. 

In fact, it was not until a very few years ago 
that the play-loving English public awoke to the 
fact that some one had reduced out-of-door ten- 
nis to a science; that something very like court 
tennis could be played on the lawn, under the 
blue sky; and that "pent-house roofs" and gal- 
leries, railings, tambours, chases, and the rest 
were relics of the dark ages. 

Just about that time, too, England had passed 
through just such a roller-skating fever as we 
had in America. And there were the empty rinks 
all ready to be marked off for tennis, so that dur- 
ing the occasional spells of bad weather with 
which our English cousins are afflicted, the game 
could be played under cover. But the true Court 

of Prince Tennis is the smooth lawn, with its 
springy turf, or, where turf can not be had in full 
perfection, the beach, or such smooth surface as 
the average orchard or home-lot can afford. 

The advantages of the game are that it can be 
played by two, three, or four persons, and keep 
them all on the alert from the word "Play !" As 
an exercise it may be as gentle or as energetic as 
the player chooses. It is so easily learned that 
even a beginner very soon cherishes hopes of suc- 
cess, and yet so worthy of effort that it fascinates 
the finest athletes. Moreover, it is not ruinously 
costly in outfit, and one of its best qualities is that 
it is very entertaining for spectators, who quickly 
learn enough of the game to watch its progress 
with interest, and are not in the least danger from 
iron-hard missiles, as in the case of cricket and 
baseball. The boy or girl who is an interested 
spectator will presently long to send those fasci- 
nating white balls flying over the net, and very 
soon Prince Tennis has another courtier in his 





ii; ■ ;i'r 



One glorious midday of August, Henry Claiborne, 
a recent graduate of an American university, 
found himself sitting down to rest and to eat his 
luncheon in the shade of a tree overhanging a 
shepherd's hut on the Seisseralp in Tyrol. 

Since landing at Antwerp in July, he had 
moved leisurely southward by rail, boat, or bicy- 
cle as far as Atzwang in the Austrian Tyrol. He 
was here tempted by the idea of a pedestrian tour 
through the Dolomites — those mighty limestone 
hills that rear themselves like semi-precious gems 
of many colors between the southeastern Tyrol 
and northern Italy. 

Claiborne had, in addition, a dreamy idea of 
seeing Venice, and possibly Florence; but, as he 
often declared to himself, the chief point of an 
expedition like this was to have no plans for fur- 
ther than twenty-four hours ahead. 

The second day of his solitary expedition with 
"scrip and staff" brought him, as has been said, 
to the enjoyment of a rural meal of rich yellow 
cream served in a wooden bowl, brown bread, and 
mountain cheese, furnished by the shepherd's 
wife, the proprietor of one of many tiny brown 
chalets scattered over the vast emerald pasture 
of the Alps. 



All about him waved grass and flowers ; only 
the tinkle of cow-bells, the song of many birds, 
and the hum of insects broke the enchantment of 
the hour. The views on every side were of grand 
mountain-tops and near-by rocky crags. The one 
thing wanting to his perfect satisfaction was— 
somebody whom he could tell how much he was 
enjoying himself alone! 

He laughed aloud when he discovered in him- 
self this trait of human nature honestly inherited 
from his great ancestor, Adam. The brown- 
skinned woman of the chalet, running out to look 
after him, laughed also, in sympathetic merri- 
ment. And at that moment Henry espied, coming 
across the rich verdure of the plain from the di- 
rection in which he meant presently to go, a cav- 
alcade consisting of a couple of travelers on 
mules, conducted by a young peasant, who was 
occupied in picking a bouquet for one of them. 

"That is my Mr. Claiborne, papa, who picked 
me up when the ship spilled me out of my deck- 
chair," cried a child's joyous voice. 

Claiborne sprang to his feet, and waved his 
hat, calling out, "How do you do?" He had at 
once recognized two fellow-passengers on the 
steamer from New York, with whom the acci- 
dents of a voyage had put him into pleasant inter- 

He had been interested from the first day out 
in the tall, pale, and melancholy-looking man to 
whose hand clung a quaint little girl of the Alice- 
in-Wonderland type. They were both in mourn- 
ing, and, keeping apart from the other passen- 
gers, were said to have been recently bereaved of 
the child's mother, and to be going abroad for the 
health of the father, who had scarcely recovered 
from serious illness. 

Everybody on deck had soon made friends with 
Rosabel. She was never seen without two arm- 
fuls of dollies, of which the favorite was a very 
homely German lady of the cheap, jointed pat- 
tern, painted in staring blacks and whites and 
reds. The complaints, tastes, and tempers of 
this family of dolls were in time known to the 
whole ship's company. 

And here, in a remote sylvan haunt of the wild 
Alps, had Claiborne come again upon the father 
and daughter. He saluted them cordially, struck 
—and saying so— with the look of vigor Mr. Mor- 
land had taken on, as well as the new light in his 
eyes, the more frequent smile upon his lips. 

"You see, too, how much better Gretchen-Au- 
gusta looks," said Rosabel, extending for the 
young man's notice the well-remembered old 
wooden doll. "Frau Berger says it is because she 
has returned to the place of her birth— that no 
one born in the Grodner Valley is ever as well out 

of it. You know, Mr. Claiborne, we came here 
for Gretchen-Augusta's health. As soon as she 
found out, in Botzen, she was so near the town 
she was born in, she would never let me rest until 
we arrived at St. Ulrich." 

"For 'Gretchen-Augusta' read 'Rosabel,' " sup- 
plemented Rosabel's father, teasingly. "It is an 
actual fact, Claiborne, that I let myself be de- 
coyed into the Grodner Valley because somebody 
in Botzen told Rosie her most beloved doll had 
probably been made at St. Ulrich. We have been 
stopping there for two weeks now, and I am be- 
ginning to feel like Gulliver among the Lilliputs." 

"I suppose I am very stupid/' said Claiborne, 
helping his friends to dismount, and offering them 
a share of his repast, which was at once rein- 
forced by fresh supplies from the good woman 
of the chalet ; "but I don't understand your allu- 
sion to the Lilliputians ; and I 'm afraid I never 
even heard of St. Ulrich. What and where is it?" 

"May I tell him what St. Ulrich is, papa?" 
cried Rosabel, with wide eyes. "Why, Mr. Clai- 
borne, it 's the place the toys come from." 

"You must forgive me, Rosabel ; but it is so 
long since I played with toys, I had forgotten 
this important fact, if, indeed, I ever knew any- 
thing about it." 

"You will never be likely to forget it again," 
said Mr. Morland; "that is, if you return with 
us and spend a night or two at the inn in St. 
Ulrich, as I hope you will. The air is so fine, 
and they are making me so comfortable at their 
little hostelry, that I have no desire to move on. 
And Rosie, for once, has enough of toys. The 
effect upon her of seeing thousands of dolls in 
various stages of growth by attachments, cart- 
loads of arms and legs and torsos, has been to 
confirm her affections upon this poor old battered 
wreck of a Gretchen-Augusta, from whom now 
she never parts. I venture to tell you this while 
she and Gretchen-Augusta are inside the chalet 
visiting the herdsman's wife. Her affection for 
her treasure is too genuine to admit of joking. 
But you will be amused by an incursion into 
veritable Toyland." 

"I have keen recollections of diving hopelessly 
into great shops, near Christmas-time, to buy 
gifts for my small nephews and nieces," replied 
Claiborne, "and of being trodden on, pushed, 
jammed, driven hither and thither, before I could 
escape with a woolly baa-lamb or a set of laundry- 
tubs hugged to my despairing breast. But other- 
wise, I confess, I had forgotten the existence of 
such an industry as toy-making." 

"You will be forcibly reminded of it in the 
Grodnerthal. Except for a fair collection of 
Etruscan relics taken from tombs hereabout, and 



the decorations of the carved figures for use in 
churches,— of which, especially of patron saints, 
vast numbers are made there,— there is nothing 
of greater importance in the valley than the con- 
struction of jumping-jacks and Noah's arks, vil- 
lages, rocking-horses, animals on rollers, and 
wooden dolls of every style and size. The art of 
making these toys is hereditary— grandchildren 
working in the wake of their grandsires— moth- 
ers, fathers, sons, and daughters all taking a hand 
at it. What robs their work of individuality, 
however, is that one family will devote itself ex- 
clusively to fabricating arms, another to legs, 
another to heads or bodies. When the dolls are 
finally put together they are passed on to artists 
who apply the outer coat of brilliant red, black, 
white, blue, or grass-green paint required to com- 
plete the fascination of the charmer. With the 
final touch of a pair of white stockings with red 
garters and green or yellow slippers, the doll is 
sent out upon the cold mercies of the buying 
world. And I forgot to tell you that many of 
the lay-figures used in artists' studios are made 
in these workrooms of St. Ulrich." 

Claiborne did not require much pressing to 
turn aside from his walking-trip and visit this 
curious spot. When they had left behind the 
lovely hanging garden of the Seisseralp, and had 
plunged downward, their way lay through a 
darkly shaded gorge, over a path in parts so steep 
and so moist with recent rain that the mules gave 
up attempting to pick a footing, and allowed 
themselves to slide. 

Still lower down, the mountain-slopes were 
sprinkled with tiny hamlets, in which it was not 
difficult to recognize the originals of those Ger- 
man villages-in-boxes dear to children of all na- 
tionalities. Here were the red roofs, the bright- 
green shutters, the clipped trees conical in shape 
and guarding the front doors, the garden-patches 
mossy in texture, bedight with gayest flowers and 
beehives ranged in rows. Sitting at little tables 
out of doors were seen the peasants taking their 
evening ease over a jug of beer, the goodwives 
Anitting in the doorways, and all bestowing a 
friendly greeting upon the passers-by. 

No less attractive of aspect was the thriving 
town itself, the chief center of Toyland, for 
which these scattered dwellings had prepared the 
eye. Like Oberammergau in the Bavarian high- 
lands, and Interlaken and Brienz in Switzerland, 
St. Ulrich has been for many long years the head- 
quarters in southeastern Tyrol of skilled carvers 
in wood. Here agricultural interests, except on 
the smallest and most necessary scale, are super- 
seded by the universal industry of making play- 
things. How different from any manufacturing 
town Claiborne had seen in England or America 
was this assemblage of bright, smart-looking, and 
highly decorated houses and churches, each hav- 
ing its green yard and shade-trees, and all invit- 
ingly placed against a background of wooded 
hills, above the bed of a rushing mountain- 
stream ! 

As they passed through the chief street, Clai- 
borne fancied himself one of those mortals whom 
the wave of a fairy's wand has transformed into 
dimensions suitable to the full enjoyment of 
things meant only for little folk. Every cottage 
bore some token of the devotion of its inmates to 
miniature constructions. A girl passed them, 
leading a donkey whose panniers contained noth- 
ing but toy dogs, cut out of wood and destitute of 
paint. A boy bent forward under a shoulder- 
pack full of white-whiskered monkeys destined to 
be affixed to springs and to be shut up in paper- 
covered boxes, there to be kept in durance by an 
insufficient hook. Another basket revealed a mul- 
titude of toy Noahs— enough, indeed, of those 
familiar patriarchs in yellow gowns, with blue 
knobs in lieu of heads, to have saved from deluge 
the survivors of all the planets, as well as the 
elect of this our own little world. 

"Think of the monotony of constructing only 
Noahs— of not even changing to Shems or Hams 
or Japhets !" observed Claiborne to his friends. 

"I will take you, to-morrow, to see an old crone 
who every working-day of her life, for five-and- 
twenty years, has painted twelve dozen red horses 
with white spots," answered Mr. Morland, laugh- 

Soon Claiborne was ensconced in clean quar- 



ters in a sweet-smelling room which was merely 
the inside of a highly finished pine box. The 
evening meal, served to their party by solid-look- 
ing maidens with cheeks of apple-red, was sub- 
stantial and well cooked. After enjoying this 
and a mug of excellent native beer,— while in the 
very middle of a concert of guitars and zithers 
tendered to the strangers by experts from the 
village, — the young man felt himself nodding. 
The pure air of the Alpine heights, his long walk, 
and the good food and drink, had combined to 
overcome his politeness. His head dropped upon 
his breast. When he next knew anything, Mr. 
Morland was shaking him up and sending him 
off to the downy recesses of a giant feather-bed. 

Early next day little Rosabel assumed charge 
of the newcomer. 

"Gretchen-Augusta has had rather a restless 
night," she said, joining Claiborne after break- 
fast, where he was smoking his pipe before the 
inn door ; "and as papa has letters to write, I 
asked him to sit by her and let me go around 
with you. We left most of my dolls in a trunk 
in Munich, and papa thinks Gretchen-Augusta 
is moping for company. Since we have been 
here, he has asked me every day to pick out a 
new companion for her, and I could not make 
up my mind. To-day I thought you would help 
me a little in my choice. Papa is n't very clever 
about dolls, Mr. Claiborne, though he tries ever 
so hard to like them." 

"I will do my best to merit the implied compli- 
ment," said Claiborne, with gravity. 

"You may wonder why I don't take my child 
out with me ; but I have good reasons. It is very 
rude the way people stare at her in St. Ulrich. 
One painting person asked me to let her be 'done 
over' ! Another said I ought to throw her away 
and buy a beauty she had to sell. Imagine papa 
throwing me away and getting a brand-new 
daughter because I had a little of the end rubbed 
off my nose and my cheeks were rather streaky !" 

"Impossible to imagine it, Miss Morland. I 
vote for the preservation of Gretchen-Augusta 

'as is,' for the head of your little family; and if 
we see anybody worthy to be her comrade, we 
shall purchase her forthwith." 

"I am a little afraid one of those shiny ones 
might make Gretchen-Augusta jealous," said 
Rosie, with anxious brows. 

Hand in hand, the young man and the child 
made the rounds of the principal shops and ware- 

Rosabel, although evidently weighted with the 
care of her momentous selection, did not neglect 
to exhibit to her friend the various points indi- 
cated by Mr. Morland as most likely to engage 
his interest. 

In an upper room of one of the great ware- 
houses they saw lying in heaps upon the floor, 
like corn dropped from the sheller, thousands of 
the small, cheap, jointed dolls most favored by 
the "little mothers of the poor." 

"I don't know what they remind me of, unless 
it be whitebait," said Claiborne ; and the polite 
proprietor who was showing the visitors around 
could not understand the reason for Rosie's sud- 
den merriment. 

"These will be packed and sent to Englands 
America— everywhere," explained the master of 
the place. "In this bin, as you see, are wooden 
dogs ; in the others horses, cows, goats, camels, 
elephants— all kinds of cheap beasts, in fact. 
Down below we have a better grade of animals, 
painted, harnessed, with bells and rollers. Here 
are our low-grade rocking-horses— black, covered 
with red spots like wafers. In the show-rooms 
below there are handsome ones— beauties fit for 
a little prince to ride ; and dolls, yes, dolls that 
would make the young lady's eyes shine." 

But Rosie was not to be tempted. She went 
the rounds of the best dealers, saw more than 
one elaborate creation of doll art of which it was 
averred that the duplicate had gone to some ju- 
venile high-and-mightiness, and from everywhere 
came away irresolute. 

"I am afraid you are hard to please, Rosie," 
said her tall companion. "Why, even my heart 



beat high at the sight of that last beauty they un- 
packed for us." 

"Ah!— but you see, Mr. Claiborne, how would 
my poor Gretchen-Augusta feel when they made 
comparisons between the two?" 

"That is a dififiiculty. On the whole, Rosie, 
what do you say to giving up the new doll alto- 
gether, and sticking to Gretchen-Augusta ?" 


"Do you really think I might?" cried the child, 
evidently relieved of a weight of care. 

"Of course I do« Sterling worth before beauty, 
any day ! My own impression is that if I were 
traveling about in a strange land, as you are, I 
should consider Gretchen-Augusta's company a 

Rosie's face continued to brighten. She looked 
so happy and trustful that Claiborne's heart smote 
him for making sport of her. For the remainder 
of the morning she devoted herself to the busi- 
ness of showing him in and out of the establish- 
ments whose proprietors had evidently a soft 

spot in their hearts for the little American com- 
ing to take up her abode among them in her deep- 
mourning garb. 

Before they had half finished their tour of in- 
spection, Mr. Claiborne had seen toy soldiers 
enough to girdle the German empire; flotillas of 
Noah's arks; boxes upon boxes of villages, rail- 
way-cars, drays, wagons; of forts, omnibuses, 
hand-organs, fire-engines; of boats; 
shelves on shelves of dolls' heads smil- 
ing the immemorial smile of their spe- 
cies ; animals of all known and many 
composite varieties— a glut of play- 
things, a weariness of toys ! 

Our friends next visited the church, 
aglow inside with tributes from the 
best painters and gilders of the Tyrol, 
and were there joined by Mr. Mor- 
land, who soon afterward cordi- 
ally invited them to return to the 
inn for their midday meal. 

"You will be quite ready for 

roast veal and compote of plums, 

I fancy; and after lunch we will 

visit some of the cottages," he 


"I like the cottages," ex- 
claimed Rosie, skipping beside 
them; "but I wish the children 
did not have to work so hard. 
Let us take Mr. Claiborne to 
see our wee little girl, papa, 
who varnishes cats all day. 
And she does not mess herself 
one bit, either." 
"By the way, Rosie," asked her father, "where 
is your purchase? I expected to see you with 
Gretchen-Augusta's rival in your arms." 

"She is n't to have any rival," cried the child, 
exultingly. "Mr. Claiborne and I have settled it. 
And, truly, from what he says, papa, I think that 
Mr. Claiborne sometimes cares almost as much 
for my darling Gretchen-Augusta as I do !" 

"You have won my little girl's heart," said 
Morland, when, after dinner, they started forth 
again upon their rounds. "But now for the artifi- 
cers and their homes, a few of which will give 
you a good idea of all ; for, with rare exceptions, 
the whole population of St. Ulrich is given over 
to toy-making, which they find pays better than 
more artistic wood-carving. I came upon one 
young fellow, recently, cutting birds and foliage 
in high relief that would have been a credit to 
Grinling Gibbons ; but he put it quietly aside to 
shape out horses' heads of the crudest pattern for 
the diversion of urchins in Berlin or London or 
New York. It is a pity that such a fine sense of 



"^^ *ysg^syCT7«' 


form as these peasants have, such extraordi- 
nary faciHty with carving-tools, should be sub- 
ordinated to making playthings for a million 
children to destroy w^ithin half an hour after 
getting hold of them." 

" 'Let who will elevate the masses, so long 
as I amuse them,' is the motto of our age," re- 
plied Claiborne. "It is pleasant, at any rate, 
to see that these worthy burghers have work 
enough to keep them busy all the year round." 

"Yes ; the demand for their wares is practi- 
cally inexhaustible. It has gone on for gen- 
erations, and will continue. Next winter, if 
you chance to visit the German quarter on the 
East Side of New York, you will doubtless 
see some of the very objects you have viewed 
in the hands of their creators in the Tyrol. 
The shop windows will be full of them, and 
the tenement districts will rejoice." 

On a bench in the chimney-corner of the 
first house they called at sat three boys of 
Rosie's age or thereabout. Each held in his 
right hand a rude gouge, and each punched 
away at a block of wood with little, quick, ap- 
parently reckless strokes that in a short time 
transformed the object attacked into a fairly 
good semblance of a mountain-goat. An old 
grandmother, in her arm-chair, made a spe- 
cialty of chipping out the horns, as she had 
done for the past twenty years. The father 
and mother were also at work upon goats, but 
of a more finished sort^ and looked up, smil- 
ing and cheerful, to answer the compliments 
upon their skill. On the shelves of this cottage 
stood row upon row of the same animals. 

Sg^^^a^S8ffig-&^>li^»^'^^<^^s^fc^b 5^^ 



Upon the threshold of the next dwelHng the 
goodwife sat fashioning a no less stately appari- 
tion than "my lord the Elephant." Her husband, 
employed indoors upon a camelopard, exhibited 
with satisfaction the Tyrolean version in wood 
of this product of Asiatic or African climes. 
Other houses revealed beasts of high or low de- 
gree in numbers enough to stock one of Rudyard 
Kipling's Jungle Books. In one trim little chalet, 
the prevailing industry was the red monkey with- 
out a tail that (until broken) perpetually ascends 
and falls over a rod. 

"Do you remember those touching lines of the 
poet, Rosie ?" asked Claiborne, who was putting 
one of these agile animals through his paces. 
These he recited theatrically: 

"Willie had a painted monkey, 
Climbing up a painted stick. 
Willie sucked his painted monkey, 
And it made him very sick." 

"There ! You have broken him already !" cried 
out Rosie, reproachfully; and Claiborne offered 
a handful of small coins in payment. But he 
was not allowed to make good his damage. The 
people of the house smilingly refused his offer- 
ing; and Claiborne, on going out, was fain to 
drop a bit of silver into the cradle of a big, stolid, 
flaxen-haired baby. 

On all sides they saw cleanliness of house and 
person, and the contentment which belongs to a 
placid domestic life — an ideal community, it 
seemed to the American lookers-on in Toyland, 
where everybody appeared to be always busy ; 
and Rosie almost persuaded herself that even lit- 
tle children were never to be found outdoors at 
play, though, of course, it was only during cer- 
tain hours that the young people were really at 
work or indoors. 

What with such visits to the warehouses and 
work-people, with making acquaintance with the 
villagers, and excursions to the neighboring Alps, 
Claiborne found his glimpse of St. Ulrich all too 
short. When the day came for him to "take the 
road" again, it was with genuine regret that he 
said farewell to the pretty, busy town, and the 
friends, old and new, he must leave there. While 
his landlady was stuffing his wallet with dainties 
of her own devising, a lame old woman, upon 

whom he and Rosie had made several calls, hob- 
bled around to the inn to offer him the gift of a 
pen-handle fashioned like a bird's claw, of a pat- 
tern handed down to her by her own grand- 
mother. This token was the sole souvenir he al- 
lowed himself to take out of the happy valley, and 
was valued in proportion to the giver's poverty. 

When all was ready for his departure, and a 
little group of friendly folk had assembled with 
Mr. Morland before the inn to see the pedestrian 
set forth, Rosie alone was missing. 

In another moment she came flying down the 
stairs, her face bathed in tears, in her out- 
stretched arms the familiar, battered figure of 
Gretchen-Augusta in traveling attire. 

"I am going to let her go with you, Mr. Clai- 
borne," cried she. "Ever since you said that 
about wanting her to travel with, I 've been mak- 
ing up my mind to give her to you. But she 
must n't think I 'd let anybody take her place. 
There is n't one in all St. Ulrich that I 'd have 
instead of her !" And thrusting the doll into the 
young man's embarrassed hands, poor little self- 
despoiled Rosie cast herself into her father's 
arms and wept aloud. 

Not least of young Claiborne's pleasant memo- 
ries of St. Ulrich was the picture presented by 
his little friend— reunited to her treasure, al- 
though reluctant to take it back ! All his diplo- 
macy and gentleness had been requisite to per- 
suade Rosie that, though he should find Gretchen- 
Augusta a delightful comrade, he did not know 
enough of doll language to interest her, and 
really could not make her happy or comfortable 
with no place but his small and crowded knap- 
sack to keep her in, no playmates for her hours 
of rest at the wayside inns— and could supply so 
little -of anything to make up for her mother 
Rosabel that it would be cruel in him to take her 
away with him. 

Rosie was waving him farewell, Gretchen-Au- 
gusta clasped to her bosom, as he strode away 
through the sparkling mountain atmosphere into 
the fir wood's gloom. And when, for the last 
time, he turned to look back upon the red-roofed 
Tyrolean village, with its spires, trees, and bel- 
fries, all a-glitter in the sun, it seemed to him 
that the capital of Toyland must have been 
dipped into the fountain of perpetual youth. 




Long, long ago Great Britain was part of the 
continent of Europe. The chmate was much 
colder than it is now,- and many strange animals 
— such as bears, wolves, and huge mammoths, 
creatures like great woolly elephants — roamed 
through the thick forests. The men who then 
lived used flintstones as knives and spear-heads. 
They were great hunters, but they did not dig 
the ground, or sow corn, or plant vegetables. 

After them came a people who lived in caves. 
They also used knives and spears, and even 
needles made of flint — which must have been very 
awkward things. They were fond of drawing; 
and in the British Museum you may see a bone 
found in Derbyshire, on which is a clever sketch 
of a horse's head done by these early inhabitants. 


After many ages passed away, the land in cer- 
tain parts began to sink, and water flowed over 
the hollow places thus left. In this way the 
North Sea and the English Channel were formed. 
Strangers came across these seas in rafts or 
boats. They brought their families and their 
cattle with them, and settled down quite com- 
fortably, after a few sharp fights with their 
neighbors. The newcomers were a dark-haired 
race, something like the people of Spain, and 
they were called Iberians. 

These people did not long remain in possession 
of their new country. They were followed by 
the Celts, who had fair hair and were taller than 
the Iberians. The land was now known as Albin, 
or Albion. The name Britain was given to it 
later by a tribe of Brythons, or Britons, who 
came some time after the Celts. These drove the 
other inhabitants away to the north and west, 
where some of them settled down among the 
mountains of Wales. Others fled to Ireland and 
the Isle of Man, and thus the Celtic languages 
were kept alive in those parts. 

Sometime in the fourth century before Christ, 
Pytheas, a Greek navigator and astronomer, who 
was on a visit to Marseilles, in South Gaul — 
which is now called France — thought he would 
like to see Britain. His friends also believed 
they could do business with that country. The 
Greeks were great travelers, and Pytheas quickly 
crossed the Channel. It was through him that 
the trade in British tin sprang up. This tin was 
found in Devonshire and Cornwall, and shipped 
from the Island of Thanet to Gaul. Then it was 
put into wagons, taken to the river Rhone, and 
floated down to the Mediterranean Sea. Pytheas 
wrote a book in which he tells us there were open 
spaces in the forests, where sheep and cattle 
grazed. He also saw wheat growing in fields 
along the coast. "This wheat," he adds, "the 
natives threshed, not on open floors, but in barns, 
because they had little sunshine and much rain." 


About fifty years before the birth of Christ a 
great Roman general, named Julius C.nesar, con- 
quered Gaul, after much fighting. As he looked 
across the Channel, he thought he would like to 
conquer Britain also. So he collected his troops, 
and made his ships ready, and one day in the 
month of August he set sail at three o'clock in 
the morning. At ten o'clock he arrived on the 
coast of Kent, somewhere near the town of 

He found the cliffs crowded with Britons, who 
had heard of his coming. They tried to drive the 
Romans away; but Caesar meant to see Britain, 
and he succeeded in landing, though he was only 
able to spend three weeks in the country. He 
left in September, because the weather was 
stormy. But he came again the next July, and 
made his way inland. He also wrote a book about 
the Britons, in which he says their houses were 
like those of the Gauls. They did not grow corn, 
but lived on milk and the flesh of animals they 



killed in hunting. They wore the skins of these 
animals as clothing. In time of battle they 
stained their bodies with a blue dye. 


There were brave chiefs who would not submit 
to the Romans. One of these was Caradoc, who 
came from the south of Wales. For about eight 
years he kept up a warfare. At last, he was de- 
feated in a great battle, and was taken to Rome 
with his wife and children. 

The people of Rome crowded the streets to see 
Caradoc march to the Emperor's palace. He held 
up his head, and looked so tall and strong that 
the great Emperor was sorry to see so fine a man 
brought before him as a prisoner. 

The British chief gazed about him in wonder. 
"How can men, who live in such a splendid city, 
envy me my poor home in Britain?" he said, and 
his words touched the Emperor's heart. He or- 
dered Caradoc to be set at liberty. But although 
he was now able to wander as he liked through 
Rome, he was not allowed to return to his own 

There was a noble lady who fought for her 
people. She was the Queen of the Iceni tribe, 
and when the Romans ill-treated her family, she 
took up arms against them. The Queen must 
have looked very brave as she stood up in her 
chariot. Her red hair hung down to her waist; 
a thick chain of gold was round her neck, and 
she wore a coat, or tunic, of brightly colored 
cloth. But although her men were full of courage, 
they could not stand against the Romans. They 
fell in the battle that followed, and poor ■■Queen 
Boadicea was so grieved at the result, that she 
killed herself. 


The Romans never conquered the northern part 
of the island. The people who lived there were 
called the Picts. Their name comes from a Latin 
word which means to paint, for they painted their 
bodies. They were great robbers, and whenever 
they went into the southern parts of the country, 
they burned or carried away whatever they 

In order to keep them out, the Romans built 
strong walls right across the land. One reached 
from the Forth to the Clyde, another stretched 
from the Tyne to Solway Firth, and the railway 
to-day passes near the former site of this great 
wall. The Picts from Scotland, and the Scots — 

who then came from Ireland — were most trouble- 
some people. They were always disturbing the 
Romans and the Britons. 

The druids were the priests of the people. They 
thought highly of the mistletoe, which, as we 
know, grows on trees of various kinds, and some- 
times on the trunk of the oak-tree. Once every 
year the chief druid cut pieces from this plant 
with a golden knife. The name druid is thought 
by some to be connected with an old Greek word 
which means oak. We know, at any rate, how 
much they loved that tree. The druids were also 
schoolmasters. They taught the children stories 
about the old heroes ; they told them to fear no 
one, and to have courage in times of danger. The 
circle of great stones at Stonehenge, near Salis- 
bury, England, may have been one of the druid 


The Romans built many bridges and they made 
grand roads. You may still travel along these 
roads, which they called streets. You will also 
find remains of towns and villas in many parts of 
the country, in which they and the Britons lived. 
For the Britons now began to live and to dress 
as the Romans did, and to speak the Latin lan- 
guage; but we must not suppose that the Britons 
forgot their own British or Welsh tongue. 

For four hundred years the Romans kept Brit- 
ain. Then they were suddenly called back to help 
Rome against the enemies that were attacking 
her. The Britons were now left to take care of 
themselves. But no sooner had the Romans gone 
than the Picts came ovei the border, and the 
Scots sailed across from Ireland. The poor 
Britons had almost forgotten how to fight. So 
in their trouble they began to seek help elsewhere. 


A very old book tells us that Vortigern, King of 
Kent, invited the Jutes and the Saxons to come 
to his aid. The two great chiefs who landed in 
Kent were named Hengist and Horsa, and they 
readily fought the Picts and the Scots. Then 
they looked round, and thought it would be a 
pity to leave Britain. So they went to war with 
the Britons, some of whom were driven into the 
woods, while others were killed. 

The newcomers were not Christians. They 
worshiped many strange gods, such as Woden, 
and Thor, and Frea. Thor was the god who 
made the thunder, and they were very much 






xvni— 11 




afraid of him. But Frea gave them fruits and 
flowers, and they hked her. The days of the 
week were named after these gods. Their re- 
Hgion was full of cruelty, and they believed in 
such foolish things as fairies, elves, and witches, 
as well as in charms of all kinds. 


At this time Kent was the brightest place in Eng- 
land. The King had married a Princess from 
Gaul, and she was a Christian. She brought with 
her a good priest, who prayed and preached in 
the little Church of St. Martin, at Canterbury. 
Now, some years before this a good monk named 
Gregory had seen some fair-haired boys standing 
in the market-place at Rome. They were wait- 
ing to be sold as slaves, and the kind monk was 
very sorry to see them in such a sad plight. 

He asked who they were, and he was told that 
they were Angles ; so he made a vow that he 
would send missionaries to tell the people of that 
land about the truth. When Gregory became the 
Pope, he remembered the fair-haired boys, and 
sent St. Augustine, with forty monks, to convert 
the English. They landed in Thanet, and marched 
to meet the King. In front walked a man bear- 
ing a silver cross; and behind him came the 
monks singing a litany. Ethelbert, the King, had 
never seen such a sight. He listened to St. 
Augustine, and he became a Christian. From 
that day Canterbury has been the home of the 
chief archbishop of that land. 

From small things great ones often proceed. 
It happened that Ethelbert's daughter married 
Edwin, King of Northumbria. She took with her 
a priest named Paulinus, that he might teach the 
people of that part of the land. 

Now Edwin worshiped Wooden and the other 
gods, and he could not make up his mind to give 
them up. So he called Paulinus and said: "I am 
going to battle against the King of the West 
Saxons. If I return in peace, I shall believe in 
thy God, and worship him." 

A great battle was fought, in which Edwin slew 
five of the West Saxon kings, and he returned in 
peace. Edwin was a man of his word, and from 
that time he gave up the worship of the false 
gods. He called all his aldermen and his thanes 
together, with the wise men who formed his 

"Shall we leave our old gods and serve the 
God of Paulinus?" they asked. "What is the 
new religion which he teaches?" Then arose 
Coifi, the high priest of Woden. "O King," said 
he, "what is the new religion? There is no man 

in thy land who has served all our gods more 
truly than I have, yet I am ready to hear what 
Paulinus says. If his religion is better than ours, 
let us serve his God and worship him." 


The monks worked very hard. They cut down 
the forests and drove away the wild animals. 
They drained the swamps, dug the ground, sowed 
corn, and helped to build the houses in which they 
lived, called monasteries. Many of them spent 
their days in patiently writing books. These 
books cost large sums of money. They were writ- 
ten on skins, and were very beautiful. Besides 
this, the monks were schoolmasters. They taught 
the children how to read and write ; they also had 
to preach to the people, and to do the work of the 

Good women, like the Abbess Hilda of Whitby, 
were kind to the sick, and they fed the poor, and 
also the hungry travelers on the road. Every- 
body who was in trouble went to the monasteries 
for help. So we see that they were very useful 
places in early times. 


The Saxon people lived in small houses, which 
w^ere both cold and full of drafts. Their seats 
were benches or stools, for very few had chairs 
w-ith backs. The tables were strong; they were 
usually made of oak, but great men are said to 
have used tables of silver, some being worth as 
much as £300. The walls were hung with cur- 
tains. These were often worked by the ladies of 
the house, and were very beautiful. The floors 
were generally covered with rushes or straw, one 
layer being placed over another, which must have 
been most unhealthy and disagreeable, as the dirt 
w'as thus hidden. Every one had a bedstead, 
though the mattresses and pillows were stuffed 
with straw. Some people used sheets and pillow- 
cases, but instead of blankets and quilts, they had 
thick bearskins, for these were warm in winter. 
Rich men used cups of gold and silver, but poorer 
folk had them of wood and horn. 

In the good monk Bede's time workmen were 
brought from France to put glass in the win- 
dows of abbeys and churches, but no one had 
such a thing as a glass out of which he could 

A great amount of meat was eaten, chiefly 
pork, as large numbers of pigs were kept in the 
forests and fed upon the acorns from the oak- 



trees. One nobleman is said to have left two 
thousand pigs, or swine, to his daughter. 

Fish was also much eaten, and eels were great- 
ly liked. We read that a bishop taught the men 
of Sussex how to catch fish out of the sea. 

Strawberries and raspberries grew wild on the 
banks and in the woods, and the orchards were 
full of apple and pear trees. Cherry-trees had 
been brought to England by the Romans, and did 
well in many parts. 

The country women made butter and cheese. 
They kept poultry, and had plenty of eggs. They 
also kept bees, and so had a large amount of 
honey. From it they made a drink called mead, 
which they liked. They were fond of cider, 
which was made from the juice of apples; and 
they drank a kind of home-made ale at every 
meal, just as we take tea or coffee. 

In the evenings they sat round the fires, as the 
monks of Whitby had done. Some played 
draughts, or checkers. Others listened to the 
songs and stories of the wandering harpers, or 
gleemen, who went from house to house, earning 
a meal and a rest by their music. Kings and rich 
people had jesters and gleemen of their own. But 
the wandering minstrel was a great favorite, and 
he was sure of a welcome wherever he went. 


Up to this time England had been divided into 
seven small kingdoms. Each had its own chief, 
or king. But now a new king came to rule over 
the West Saxons, and before many years were 
over he made himself overlord of the country. 
This overlord was named Egbert. 

Now, in the year 787, we read that the "first 
ships of the Danes" came to England. The Danes 
were sea-robbers, and they sailed across the sea 
to destroy and carry off whatever came in their 

As they grew bolder, they went farther inland. 
In Egbert's reign they came so often that the 
King had to lead his own army against them. 

After Egbert's death the Danes spent a whole 
winter in the Island of Thanet. They robbed both 
London and Canterbury. Then they crossed the 
Thames and went into Surrey, where they did 
more mischief. Every monastery was entered 
and its treasures were taken away. For the 
monks had beautiful books and vessels of silver 
and gold, which the Danes seized at once. 

King Ethelwulf was always fighting, but he 
found time to send his youngest son, Alfred, on 
a visit to Rome. Alfred was only four years old, 
but Pope Leo was pleased with the child, and he 
took him for his godson. 


Alfred was a bright and gentle boy, but no one 
taught him to read until he was about twelve 
years old. He liked to hear the minstrels and the 
gleemen, and many a story of brave deeds did he 
learn as he sat listening to them in the quiet even- 
ings by the red fire of his father's hall. 

One day, his mother called him to her side and 
showed him a beautiful book of poetry. "I will 
give this book to the boy who first learns to read 
it," she said, as she looked round upon the chil- 

"Will you really give it to one of us?" asked 

His mother laughed. "Yes, really," she said, 
"to the one who can first read it." 

Then Alfred went quietly to. a teacher, and be- 
gan to learn. He tried so hard to get on, that at 
last he was able to go to her and read out of the 
beautiful book. So it became his. And the old 
writer who tells the story adds, that he always 
carried that book about with him. 

Alfred was often at war with the Danes. One 
of the great battles which they fought was at 
Ashdown, in Berkshire, when two armies of 
Danes came against King Ethelred and his 
younger brother, Alfred. 

The Danes came forward to fight ; but King 
Ethelred lingered behind, for he was saying his 
prayers in his tent. 

His men therefore cried: "Come forth, O King, 
to the fight ; for the heathen press hard on us." 
But King Ethelred said: "I will serve God first, 
and man after." 

Now Alfred was outside with the soldiers, and 
he said : "I cannot stay till my brother, the King, 
comes forth. I must either go away, or fight 
alone with the heathen men." He stayed and 
fought, and as an old writer says : "He went forth 
trusting in God." 

Then when Ethelred had finished his prayers, 
he came out ready for war, and the English 
gained the victory. But that did not drive away 
the Danes. After much war and strife, good 
King Ethelred died ; and Alfred, his brother, be- 
came King in his stead. 

The Danes were now beginning to settle down 
in England. One party of them divided North- 
umberland, and began to plow as if they owned 
the land. In those days, we must remember, 
Northumberland reached from the Humber to 
Edinburgh, and the Danes found plenty of room 
for themselves. They not only seized the places, 
but they gave their own names to them. 

Alfred paid the Danes a sum of money, and 
they promised they would leave the country. But 



they did not keep this promise, for they went at 
once into Devonshire and laid siege to Exeter. 
But one morning the English rose early. They 
attacked the Danes before they were ready for 
them, and they took the great flag called the 
"Raven," which three Danish ladies had worked 
for their brothers. 

The "Raven" was always carried before the 
Danes when they went to battle ; and they had a 
saying that if they were going to win the day, it 
stood out as if a live raven were flying; but if 
they were going to lose, the flag hung down, and 
looked limp. That day it must have looked very 
limp indeed. 

Yet, in spite of this success, things were not 
going well with Alfred. The Danes covered the 
land; and so he took refuge in the woods, fol- 
lowed by a few trusty friends. 

It is said that Alfred stayed in the house of a 
herdsman, who knew he was the King, although 
his wife did not. One day, as she was baking 
cakes, she asked Alfred to look after them for a 

The King was sitting by the fire, mending his 
bow and putting his arrows right ; and he was 
so busy that he never noticed the cakes were 

The woman, however, saw them ; and she ran 
in, crying out: "Don't you see the cakes are on 
fire ? Why did you not turn them ? Y'ou are 
glad enough to eat them when they are baked !"' 

At Athelney Alfred built a fort, where he and 
his friends could remain safely. Here a bracelet 
of gold has been found, with these words en- 
graved on it, "Alfred had m.e made." 

There is a story that Alfred went to the 
Danish camp, dressed as a harper, and that he 
learned all about his enemies by the visits he thus 
paid. But we do not know if this is quite true. 
He spent seven months at Athelney getting ready 
for a battle, in which the Danes were defeated. 
They were driven back to their camp and kept 
there until they begged for peace. The Danish 
King became a Christian, and Alfred gave him 
the name of Athelstan. 

It is said that the white horse which is cut on 
the side of the chalk hill was put there in memory 
of the battle of Ethandun. 

For ten years the land had peace, and Alfred 
had time to think of other things. He wanted to 
live for the good of his people. "So long as I 
have lived," he said afterward, "I have tried to 
live worthily." 

He built a fleet of long ships, in order to de- 
fend England. Some of these ships had sixty 
oars, others had more. They carried men who 
were trained to fight. 

But Alfred was not only a good fighter; he 
wanted to see his people well educated. So he 
built schools. There was a schoolroom even in 
the palace where the young nobles were taught. 
Every monastery had its rows of pupils, and 
teachers from other lands were brought over to 
instruct the children. 

The King himself was fond of reading. He 
translated Latin books into English, so that his 
people might be able to read them, and learn to 
love them as he did. An old writer tells us that 
Alfred had six candles made of wax. They were 
twelve inches long, and they burned for twenty- 
four hours. These candles were placed in lan- 
terns of wood, with fine horn instead of glass ; 
and they gave light to the King while he wrote 
books for his subjects. 

Alfred was a wise ruler. He made good laws, 
and he saw that they were kept. So it was 
said of him, as of old it had been said of King 
Edwin, that he "hung up his golden bracelets 
by the roadside, and no man dared to steal 

Alfred the Great died in 901 a.d., when he 
was only fifty-two. He was buried in the new 
minster which he was building at Winchester. 
He was a good man as well as a great King, and 
he knew how to rule. 


Edward was as great a ruler as his father, Al- 
fred ; but he was not so fond of learning. His 
cousin Ethelwald was angry when he began to 
reign, for he thought he had a right to the throne. 
So there was trouble in the land. 

The Danes too were restless, and eager to 
fight. But Edward made himself overlord of 
them, as well as of the Welsh. He was the first 
King of the West Saxons to be lord of all Brit- 
ain, for the King of the Scots "chose him for 

But he did not long enjoy this honor. He died 
the year after he was chosen, and was buried at 
\Mnchester. He left five sons and nine daugh- 
ters, and we read that most of his children be- 
came kings and queens. 

There is a very pretty story told about King 
Edward and his little daughter. Eadburh. It is 
said that when the child was three years old. the 
King thought he would find out which she liked 
best — the things of this world, or the things of 

So he took two tables and set them side by side. 
On one he placed some rings, and bracelets, and 
chains of gold and precious stones. On the other 
he put a silver cup and the Book of the Gospel. 



"Now, my child," said King Edward, "look at 
these, and see which you Hke best." 

The child did not take long to make up her 
mind. She turned from the jewels, and took up 
the cup and the Gospel. Then King Edward 
kissed his little girl, and said: "Your mother and 
I are happy to find we have a child who is holier 
than ourselves." 


Edward's son, Athelstan. had been a great favor- 
ite with his grandfather Alfred. He gave him a 
purple cloak, a beautiful belt covered with jewels, 
and a sword in a case of gold. 

Athelstan was a man when his father died, and 
he became king. In his time the Danes were very 
troublesome. One day, as Athelstan sat in his 
tent, a gleeman came with a harp in his hands. 
He sang and played before the King and his 
lords, and they thought he was only a gleeman, 
such as others were. They did not know that he 
was a Danish King. 

Athelstan and his lords were so pleased with 
his songs that they gave him a piece of gold. 
The gleeman took the gold, but he would not 
keep it. So he buried it in the earth, for a king 
could not keep gold which he had earned in that 

Now a soldier saw him bury the gold, and he 
knew who he was. He went to King Athelstan 
and said: "My lord, O King, that gleeman was 
your enemy the Dane. He has been in your 
camp, and seen your power." 

'"Why did you not tell me who he was?" re- 
plied the King. "You are not a true soldier, for 
you have not served me faithfully." 

"My lord, O King," said the man, "I was once 
his soldier, and I promised to serve him. If I 
had given him up to you^ I should have broken 
that promise. Even you could never trust me 
again, for you would think I might do the same 
to you. But now. if you will listen to my advice, 
you will change the place of your tent." 

The King did so, and that night the Danes at- 
tacked the camp. His tent was moved, but a 
bishop, who had come in late that night, had 
pitched his in the empty place, and the Danes fell 
upon him and killed him, while the King escaped. 

After this a terrible battle was fought between 
the English and the Danes. A song has been 
written about it, beginning: 

"This year King Athelstan — the Lord of Earls, 
Rinp-giver to the warriors, Edmund too, 
His brother, won in fight with edge of swords 
Life-long renown . . . ." 


Edgar was only sixteen when he was made 
King. In his days "all things went well, and God 
granted to him that he should have peace so long 
as he lived. He loved the law of God, and took 
thought for the peace of his people, beyond all 
the kings that had been before him." Thus he 
gained the splendid title of Edgar the Peaceable. 
But though he loved peace, he took care to have 
a good fleet, and every year he held a review of 
his ships. 

His chief adviser was the Abbot Dunstan, who 
afterward became the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Edgar, the old books tell us, was a small man 
in height ; and one day, Kenneth, King of Scot- 
land, said to his friends : "How strange it is that 
so many kings should serve this man, who is 
smaller than any of us !" When this was repeated 
to King Edgar, he asked Kenneth to come with 
him, as he had something to say. 

So he took the Scotch King to a wood, and 
showed him two swords. One he gave to Ken- 
neth, and kept the other himself. "You say I ain 
but a small man, and unfit to reign over you, and 
over so many other kings. Now then, take this 
sword, and lay on manfully. Let us see which 
of us is the fitter man to rule over the other. It 
is not good for a king to be swift with his tongue, 
as thou art, unless he be also swift and strong in 

But Kenneth would not draw his sword against 
the overlord of Britain. He fell at Edgar's feet, 
and begged his forgiveness, saying he was but 
jesting. So Edgar forgave him, and the two 
kings became good friends once more. 


Edgar left two young sons, Edward, who was 
thirteen, and Ethelred, who was only seven years 
old. The mother of Ethelred claimed the crown 
for her son. But Dunstan said Edward was the 
rightful heir, so he became King, though he did 
not reign long. 

One day, the boy-king went hunting in the 
forest near Corfe Castle. This was where his 
stepmother lived ; and as the day was warm, the 
King, being tired, thought he would ride to her 
palace, and ask for a cup of water. The Lady 
Elfrida met him at the door, and she seemed de- 
lighted to see him. She called a servant to bring 
him a cup of wine. But while he bent to drink, 
another attendant ran a dagger into his body. 

The poor boy-king was buried quietly at Wal- 
tham. But Dunstan had him removed to Shaftes- 



bury, and buried as a king should be, with royal 
honors. It is because of his sad death that he is 
often called Edward the Martyr. 


After Edward's death, his young brother Ethel- 
red was chosen King. He reigned thirty-eight 
years; but as he was a very weak man, he did not 
reign well. The Danes had begun again to visit 
England, only going away when the King gave 
them large sums of money. A great battle took 
place at Maldon, in which many brave men were 
killed. We do not know if Sweyn was at this 
battle, but he came soon after, bringing with him 
Olaf of Norway. 

The two kings attacked London, and then went 
to the south coast, where they robbed and did 
many cruel deeds. But once again the King of 
England gave them money ; and though they 
stayed through the winter at Southampton, they 
did no harm — until they wanted something more 
from Ethelred. King Olaf was a Christian, and 
when Ethelred knew this, he sent for him. The 
two seem to have made friends, for the King 
adopted him as his son. Olaf then promised never 
to invade England, and he kept this promise. 

A few years later Sweyn came hastily from 
Denmark. His sister, Gunhild, had been killed 
by an outbreak of Ethelred's men, and her last 
words were that her death would bring trouble 
upon England. 


When Ethelred the Unready (or Unwise) heard 
that Sweyn was coming, he gathered a large army 
together and placed it under a man named Elfric. 
But when the time came for the fighting to begin, 
Elfric pretended that he v/as very ill. So the 
army had to go home, and Sweyn was able to do 
as he pleased. He burned several towns and did 
much harm. But though the English were angry 
and ready to oppose him, they had no one to lead 

In 1008 Ethelred built a large number of ships 
— more than had ever been seen in England in the 
reign of any king. But this great fleet did noth- 
ing. A certain man, named Wulfnoth, stole twen- 
ty of the ships and put out to sea. He had done 
something wrong on land, so he thought his best 
plan was to become a sea-robber and take the 
King's ships to help him. 

Such a deed deserved punishment. So one of 
the King's officers followed him with eighty ships. 
But "a storm, such as had never been known," 

drove his ships on shore, and Wulfnoth, who was 
safe in port, came and burned them. Thus the 
fleet was not successful. 

In 1013 Sweyn came again with a splendid 
number of vessels. Their bows were of brass; at 
the sterns were lions of gold; and the mastheads 
carried birds and dolphins as weathercocks. 

From the river Humber, Sweyn went to Gains- 
borough. "Never did army do more damage than 
his," and town after town submitted to him. Lon- 
don alone stood out, for King Ethelred and his 
brave general, Thorkill, were there. But in a 
short time "all the nation acknowledged Sweyn 
for their true king," and London followed their 

Ethelred's wife, the Lady Emma, went to Nor- 
mandy, taking her two sons with her; while the 
King kept Christmas in the Isle of Wight. 

Sweyn was now King of England. He did not 
live long after Ethelred's departure; and he left 
the kingdom to Canute, his son, who was then- 
about eighteen years old. 


Canute was crowned in London as King of all 
England. He married Emma, the widow of 
Ethelred, who was, perhaps, glad to leave Nor- 
mandy and come back to England. In 1019 
Canute felt so secure, that he was able to spend 
a winter in Denmark. He took with him God- 
win, whom he afterward made Earl of Wessex, 
and who became a noted man in the history of the 

Canute's reign was a time of peace, such as had 
not been known since Edgar's day. He was a 
great friend to the Church ; and he often visited 
the beautiful Abbey of Ely. Once, as he was 
being rowed across the water to the island on 
which it stood, he sang these words : 

"Merrily sang the monks of Ely, 
When Canute, the King, was passing by. 
Row, boatmen, row to the land, 
And let us hear these churchmen sing." 

Canute tried to be a good man, for he said : "I 
have vowed to God to lead a right life in all 
things." He made just laws. He put down the 
wicked slave-trade, for slaves were bought and 
sold in his day. He also forbade the worship of 
the sun and moon, of trees and fountains, and 
other things to which the heathen prayed. Every 
man was allowed to hunt in the woods and fields 
of his own land, though not on the King's ground. 
Canute's great wish was to gain the love of his 




Canute, the King, was a friend to all the min- 
strels and poets who came to his court. Among 
these poets was one Othere the Black, who came 
from Ireland. He was probably so called because 
of his dark hair and eyes. One evening after 
evensong the King came into the hall, and said: 
"I see a man here who is a stranger." Othere 
heard him, and he stood up. "Let us so greet the 
King of the Danes, Irish, English, and Island 
Dwellers," said he, "that his praise may travel 
wide over the land." 

The King listened to his poem, and praised it, 
and he took off a Russian cap which he wore. It 
was embroidered with gold, and had silver knots 
to it. He bade his chamberlain fill the cap with 
silver, and give it as a present to the poet. So 
the chamberlain filled it with silver and passed it 
over "men's shoulders, for there was a crowd ; and 
the heaped-up silver tumbled out on the ground." 

The chamberlain was going to pick it up, but 
the King stopped him. "Let it be," he said. "The 
poor shall have it, and thou shalt not lose by it." 


Another story about Canute is one which is very 
well known. It is said that as he walked by the 
seashore, his courtiers began to praise him, and 
say what a great man he was, for everything in 
the world obeyed his will. 

The King smiled to hear them. Then he bade 
one of his men set a chair by the edge of the 
waves, when the tide was coming in. On this he 
seated himself, and in a loud voice he spoke to 
the sea. 

"I command thee, O Sea, to come not on my 
land, nor to wet the garments and feet of thy 
lord." But the waves rolled on as before. They 
flowed all round his chair and over his feet. His 
words had no power to stop the coming in of the 
mighty tide. 

The King sprang from his seat and leaped back. 
"Let all men know," said he, turning to his cour- 
tiers, "that the power of kings is a vain thing. 
There is only One whom the earth and sea will 

Never again would Canute wear his royal 
crown. He took it to the church, and there he 
placed it as a memorial of his humility. 


Godwin, the Saxon, was a great man in King 
Canute's day, and after Canute's death he took 

H.T.&G.D. II. 24. 

charge of the kingdom till the heir, Hardicanute, 
came back from Denmark. 

After Godwin's death, his son. Earl Harold, 
became the most powerful person in the country. 
He was the trusted friend of Edward, the King. 
He governed the kingdom for Edward, and it was 
a good thing for the King to have such a wise 
adviser by his side. 

The pious King's mind was bent on building a 
beautiful monastery and church at Westminster. 
This is the abbey where English kings are 
crowned, though there is little of Edward's 
church now standing. Harold also built a church 
at Waltham. He built a college too ; and he 
took care to have some one at his college who 
could teach well So he sent all the way to Ger- 
many and Holland for such men. 

Harold was a great traveler. He visited Rome, 
as other men had done ; and he came home 
through France, for he wanted to learn how 
matters were going in that land. 

Harold was a clever, prudent man. He placed 
his brothers in places of honor. They were all, 
as we say, men of position and influence. In- 
deed, they had nearly the whole of England in 
their keeping. There was only one part which 
was not theirs. 

In 1062 there was trouble in Wales. So Harold 
marched there, intending to seize the man who 
was making all the mischief. But somehow the 
news of his coming reached Rhuddlan, and King 
Gruffydd went hastily away in a ship. This 
Gruffydd was the last Welshman who reigned 
over Wales. He left other princes to go on with 
the war ; but Harold seems to have been too 
strong for them. At every place where a battle 
was fought Harold put up a stone with these 
words on it^ "Here Harold conquered." 

The Welsh princes at last promised to obey 
Harold, as well as King Edward. Harold was, 
indeed, called Under-King by some people, who 
must have looked upon him as some one higher 
than an earl. 


In 1064 Harold went on a pleasure-trip in the 
English Channel. He had three ships with him, 
and he took a great many dogs and hawks, which 
were to be used in hunting. 

Unfortunately, the weather was not suitable for 
such an excursion. Harold's ships were wrecked 
on the coast of France, and a fisherman carried 
the news to the lord of that part, who was called 
Count Guy. He said if the count would give him 
£20 he would "show him a prisoner who would 





be willing to pay a hundred pounds for his re- 

So Guy went to the coast and seized Harold, 
whom he took to a castle farther inland. But one 
of Harold's servants escaped and went to Duke 
William of Normandy, who was then in Rouen, 
and he told him of Count Guy's conduct. 

So Duke William sent off a messenger to say 
that Harold must be set at liberty immediately; 
and as Count Guy was much afraid of William, 
he took Harold with him to meet the Duke. 

Harold was supposed to be a visitor at Wil- 
liam's court. He was treated with great honor; 
and it was said that he was going to marry one 
of William's daughters. But he was kept very 
carefully, and nothing was said about leaving 

William wanted something from Harold be- 
fore he would part with him. He wished Harold 
to help him to get the crown of England, when 
Edward died. So, though Harold was a guest, 
he was in reality a prisoner. He could not 
escape, and he was compelled to promise what 
William asked, and to swear an oath of fidelity 
to him. There was no help for it ; and this was 
how William said he had a claim to the throne 
of England. 

There was yet more trouble in store for Har- 
old. We know how well he had provided for 
his brothers. He had given them lands and 
honors : and one of them, whose name was Tostig, 
had been made Earl of Northumbria. But Tostig 
was not a very wise person. He was harsh to 
his people, and very careless about their welfare. 
When two nobles were put to death by his or- 
ders, the whole country rose against him. Even 
King Edward turned from him. Tostig was 
obliged to give up the earldom and go for shelter 
to Baldwin, the Count of Flanders. 

But though Tostig was angry with his knights 
and barons, he was furious with his brother, who 
had allowed him to be driven away ; and he made 
up his mind to injure Harold whenever he had 
the chance. 


William was born in 1038: and when he was 
about six years old, his father, Robert the Mag- 
nificent, told the nobles of Normandy that he 
was to be the next heir to the dukedom. 

His father was going, as so many men did in 
those days, on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. 
Such a journey took a long time and was full of 
danger. So Duke Robert wanted to leave his 
affairs in order before he went away. 

There was no one else to succeed him, so the 
nobles promised to obey William, and as his 
father died on his way home, the boy became 
Duke when he was only seven years old. He 
had an unhappy childhood, and when he was 
about twenty his cousin, Guy of Burgundy, made 
a plot to seize him at his hunting lodge and put 
him to death. For Guy wanted to be Duke in 
his stead. 

As Guy and his friends were talking this mat- 
ter over, a poor half-witted man named Gillos 
was called in to amuse them. 

Now Duke William had once done this man a 
great kindness, so when he heard what Guy 
meant to do, he slipped away, and arrived at 
William's hunting lodge at midnight. It had 
taken hours to perform the journey. But Gillos 
was a grateful man, and he was glad to serve 
the duke, who had been good to him. 

When he reached the lodge it was quite dark. 
Every one was in bed. But Gillos thumped on 
the door with a stick and awoke the duke. At 
first William could not believe his story, though 
Gillos declared it was quite true. The duke 
therefore wrapped himself in a thick cloak, sad- 
dled his horse, and rode off to inquire into the 

As he went through the forest he heard the 
sound of horses, and he knew that a band of 
armed men was passing on the road. This was 
what Gillos had told him ; so finding that the 
poor man had not made any mistake, he turned 
his horse toward the castle of Falaise, where he 
had many friends in the town. 

By daybreak he was near a little village. His 
horse was tired, and he was in doubt as to the 
way. Just at that moment a gate opened, and a 
man came out. He started to see the duke, and 
called aloud : 

"My lord, what makes you so dusty?" 

"Who are you that know me so well ?" asked 
William, in surprise. 

"I am Hubert de Ryes," replied the man. '"and 
I hold this village from you. Tell me what you 
need, and I will help you as I would help my- 

The good Hubert then took William into his 
house and gave him food. He found a fresh 
horse for him, and sent his three sons to guide 
William safely to Falaise, where the duke was 
sure of strong friends. 


Young Duke William kept a firm hand over Nor- 
mandy, and he ruled his country well. He placed 



good men in his abbeys, and he was a true friend 
to schools and to education. But, like other 
strong men, he liked his own way. 

Having put things in order in his own land, 
William thought he would like to visit England, 
for he wished to add that kingdom to his duke- 
dom of Normandy. So he came over on a visit 
to Edward. It was at the time when Earl God- 
win was in Flanders, and the pious but weak 
King Edward was pleased with the fine, strong 
Duke of Normandy. 

We do not know what happened, but it seems 
likely that Edward may have made William a 
promise that he should have the crown when 
Edvv-ard died. At any rate, William believed he 
would get it. Of course, Edward had no power 
to promise the crown to anybody. All he could 
do was to speak of William to the wise men, or 
Witan, who formed the council, or early Parlia- 
ment, of the nation. But William went away 
quite satisfied, and all his followers received 
handsome presents, so that they rejoiced greatly. 

On the last Christmas Day of his life Edward 
went, as usual, before his people, wearing his 
royal crown. Although he was weak and ill, he 
made this effort to appear. But when his great 
church at Westminster was finished, he was not 
able to be present. He could not even raise his 
head from the pillow. So the Lady Edith, his 
wife, went to the consecration, or hallowing, 
service in his stead. 

On January 5 Edward, the son of Ethelred, 
died, and on the next day he was buried in the 
beautiful new church of Westminster, which he 
had just finished. 


On January 6 Edward the Confessor was buried, 
and on the same day Harold was crowned. The 
two ceremonies came together, for the nation had 
chosen Harold for their King. 

It was the first time that a king had been 
chosen who was not of the royal family, for 
even the Danish kings Sweyn and Canute were 
royal persons, though not belonging to the Eng- 
lish line of kings. 

Harold was the bravest man in the country. 
He had ruled for many years, to help King Ed- 
ward, and he had shown much wisdom and good 
sense in his actions. So, no sooner was the 
funeral over, than Harold was made King. 

His coronation did not please everybody. One 
man who was very angry at it was Duke William 
of Normandy, for he thought he ought to have 
had the kingdom. The other was Harold's 
brother, Tostig, who at once raised a fleet, and 

"did much harm wherever he went." A little 
later he joined Harold Hardrada, King of Nor- 
way, in a fight with England. 

In the autumn these two men came with a 
fleet to the mouth of the Humber. For Harold 
Hardrada, King of the Northmen, brought a 
large number of soldiers to England ; and with 
him was Tostig, the English King's brother. 
These two sailed up the river Ouse as far as 
Riccall, near Selby. Then Harold Hardrada 
blew a trumpet, and bade his men anchor and go 
on shore. For he meant to take the city of York, 

The day was warm, and as he rode along, the 
King took off his armor, and sang merrily, for 
he felt sure they would win. But as they came 
near the city, they saw a great cloud of dust, 
which was evidently raised by the feet of men 
and horses ; and Harold of Norway said to Tos- 
tig: "Do you know who these are that come 
toward us?" 

"I am not sure who they are," replied Tostig. 
"It may be the army of the English ; or it may be 
that some of my friends are coming to welcome 
us, and to join your troops." 

Then said the King of Norway: "We will halt 
till they come nearer." 

So they waited; and presently they saw that 
a mighty army was coming, and the swords of 
the men shone from afar. 

Then Harold of Norway looked at Tostig, 
"This is surely the English army," he said, "and 
Harold, son of Godwin, comes against us. Let 
us see what we can do." 

"Let us go back to our ships," said Tostig, 
"We can fight from the decks, and then the 
horsemen will not harm us." 

"No," said Harold of Norway, "we will stop 
here. But we will send three men on swift horses 
to call up the rest of our soldiers. The English 
shall see some good sport before I yield to them." 

"Very well," replied Tostig. "You shall do as 
you think best. For, indeed, I have no mind to 
fly before my brother and his army." 

Next Harold Hardrada called the man who 
carried his banner, and set him in the middle of 
his troops, with all the soldiers round him. Thus 
they stood — every man with his shield in front, 
till they looked like a great shield-wall ; and King 
Harold of Norway rode round to see if all was 
in order. 

Now he rode on a black horse, and as it went 
it stumbled, so that the King fell to the ground. 
He jumped up, however, and said: "Truly a fall 
is lucky for a traveler." 

By this time the English were quite close 
enough to see what went on, and Harold of Eng- 
land saw Harold of Norway fall. 



He did not know who he was, but there were 
some in his army who knew the King of Norway. 
So Harold turned to them and said : 

"Do you know who is that handsome man who 
has fallen from his horse? He wears a blue 
cloak and a fine helmet." 

"Yes," replied the others. "That is Harold, 
King of the Northmen." 

"He is a tall and handsome man," said Harold 
of England. "But I fear his luck has left him." 

Then Harold sent out twenty horsemen in ar- 
mor ; and when they came near, one of them 
called out : 

"Is Earl Tostig, the son of Godwin, in this 

"It cannot be said that he is not here," said 

The horseman then said : "King Harold of 
England greets Earl Tostig, his brother. He 
offers him peace, and he will give him the Earl- 
dom of Northumbria. Nay, rather than that his 
brother should be his enemy, he will give him a 
third of his kingdom." 

"If he had said this a year ago," replied Tostig, 
"he would have saved the lives of many men. 
But what does he offer my friend Harold of Nor- 

"Seven feet of English earth ; or, maybe, a little 
more, seeing he is taller than other men." 

"Go thy way, then," cried Tostig, "tell King 
Harold, my brother, to prepare for war. For 
never shall men in Norway say that Earl Tostig 
left King Harold Hardrada and went over to his 
foes. We will either die like men or we will take 
England for our own." 

The horsemen rode off after this, and King 
Harold Hardrada asked who had been speaking 
so well. 

"That was King Harold, the son of Godwin," 
replied Tostig. 

"Why did you not tell me this before? For he 
would never have lived to plan the death of our 
men," said Hardrada. 

"He was willing to give me peace and much 
land," said Tostig. "If one of us must die. I had 
rather he killed me than that I should kill him." 

"He is but a little man, but he sits firmly on 
his horse," said Hardrada. 

Then, as if to cheer his own spirits, he began to 
sing aloud a war-song, composed by himself. It 
was the last song poor Hardrada ever sang, for 
quite early in the battle that followed he was 
slain by an English arrow. 

When Harold of England saw that Hardrada, 
the King of the Northmen, was dead, he sent to 
offer Tostig his pardon. He was even ready to 
let the Northmen go home in peace. But neither 

they nor Tostig would consent. So the fight went 
on till Tostig was killed. Only a few Northmen 
returned to their ships. 

One brave Northman kept the bridge over the 
river for his comrades to pass over. But an 
Englishman crept under the planks, and thrusting 
his spear through a hole in the timber, he killed 
him as he stood on guard. 

Thus ended the warfare between Tostig and his 


We must now go back a little way and see how 
the news of Edward's death and of Harold's coro- 
nation came to Normandy. 

On a winter's day, quite early in 1066, Duke 
William was just setting out to hunt in the for- 
ests near Rouen, when a horseman rode up. In 
a low voice he spoke to the duke, and told him 
what had happened in England. 

The news took William by surprise. He re- 
turned quickly to the castle and threw down his 
bow. His day was spoiled. He could no longer 
go to hunt. He walked up and down the hall 
with such a frown on his face that no one dared 
to ask what was the matter. One man alone 
came near him, for he was a great friend of the 

"Sir," said he, "why do you look like that? It 
is said in the town that Edward of England is 
dead, and that Harold has seized the crown." 

"You are right," said William. "I am sorry for 
Edward's death, and angry at the way in which 
Harold has treated me." 

"There is no cure for Edward's death," said the 
friend. "But we can cure Harold's wrong deeds." 

But though William was quite as ready as his 
friend to deal sharply with Harold, he had to 
think over the matter. For he knew he would 
need both ships and men, and where was he going 
to get them ? 

The Normans were willing enough to serve 
their duke in Normandy, but they had no wish to 
fight across the sea. They asked the duke's 
friend, Fit/.-Osborn. to speak for them, and tell 
William what they thought. But instead of doing 
so, Fitz-Osborn stood up and said boldly that the 
Normans would serve William as truly beyond 
the sea as in Normandy. He himself offered to 
give the duke "sixty ships well fitted with fight- 
ing men." 

But now the men who were listening were very 
angry with Fitz-Osborn, and the gathering broke 
up hastily. In a little while, however, each man 
was called to speak to Duke William, and after 
a few words with him, they agreed to all Fitz- 



Osborn had said. They went off to cut down 
trees and build ships, and to make their armor 
ready for battle. 

The Duchess Matilda had a fine ship built for 
her husband, the duke. For its figurehead it had 
a likeness of her youngest son, William, "blow- 
ing an ivory horn." All William's friends were 
going with him, and numbers of ships were pre- 
pared for sailing. 


The winds, however, were against William, and 
he had to wait till they changed. It was not 
pleasant to wait, but the frowns went from his 
face when at last the breezes were favorable. 
Horses were taken on board, the soldiers hung 
their shields along the sides of the vessels, and 
as the sails filled they moved out of harbor. 

The next day — which was Michaelmas Day, 
1066 — the fleet arrived at Pevensey. 

Harold, meanwhile, was at Stamford Bridge, 
and the coast was clear. There was neither King 
nor army to stop the Normans, so they landed 
quietly, without haste or confusion. 

William was the first to jump on land. But 
as he leaped, his foot slipped and he fell. He 
rose with his hands full of earth, and said : "I 
have taken possession of the country, which, by 
God's help, I hope to win." 

One of his men who stood by said : "It is good, 
my lord. You shall be lord of England before a 
month is past." 

The soldiers were first on shore. Then came 
the horses, and last of all came the carpenters, 
who began to build three forts for the men. 

William thought no one had seen him land. 
But a Saxon noble had watched the scene, and, 
mounting his horse, he rode straight off to York. 
There he found Harold dining with friends, but, 
without pausing, the Saxon rushed into the hall, 
crying : 

"The Normans have come ! They have built 
forts at Pevensey." 

The dinner-party was over at once. By dawn, 
Harold was on his way to the south, calling out 
his followers as he went. All England had to 
gather for the defense of the nation. 


On October 12 Harold halted at the hill of Sen- 
lac, near Hastings. At the top of the hill he 
placed his banner, bearing the figure of a man in 
armor. Behind his men was a paling of wood, 
very cleverly made. In front was a rampart and 

a ditch. If the soldiers kept within these, they 
would be safe. The story is told that the English 
spent the night in feasting and noise, while the 
Normans prayed for help on the morrow. At 
any rate, they were better prepared for the work 
that was coming than the tired English, who had 
not had time to recover from the fight at Stam- 
ford Bridge. 

On the morning of the fight William put on his 
coat of iron with the back to the front. Some 
people thought this was a very bad sign ; but the 
duke laughed. He told them it meant that a 
duke would be turned into a king. 

The Normans ran up the hill, shouting their 
war-cry of "God help us !" One of William's 
army, a minstrel-knight, sang a battle-song as he 
rode into the fight. 

William himself was on a beautiful Spanish 
horse. He looked so noble, that his men cheered 
him as he passed by. 

All day they fought, and at last a cry was 
raised that the duke was killed. His beautiful 
horse had been slain under him, and for a mo- 
ment his figure was no longer seen. The Nor- 
mans lost hope, and turned to run. But William 
threw off his helmet, and brought them back 
with the words : "Look at me ! I live — and by 
God's grace, I will conquer." 

The Saxons who ran out of their camp were 
killed, but the rest stood firm, and Harold's voice 
could be heard as he bade his men fight on bravely 
for England. Above him floated his royal ban- 
ner, and all around stood his knights, ready to 
defend him with their last breath. Now William 
bade his archers shoot their arrows into the air. 
It was a strange movement, and, in wonder, 
Harold looked up. As he did so, a shaft struck 
his eye, and he fell at the foot of the banner. 

In a moment all was over. Twenty Norman 
knights rushed to secure the banner. They cut 
down those who came in their way, and the vic- 
tory belonged to the Conqueror. 

That night William slept on the field of battle, 
wrapped in his cloak ; and perhaps it was then 
that he resolved to build a church upon the spot 
where so much blood had been shed. 


In the morning many women came to seek the 
bodies of those they loved. The mother of Har- 
old came too, for three of her sons lay on the 
field. She had lost them in that terrible fight, and 
she asked that she might take them away to be 
buried. But though she looked all over the field, 
she could not find Harold's body. 



At last a lady called Edith of the Swan's Neck 
came to help her and she found it. But it was 
covered with wounds and bruises. 

Harold's mother offered to give Duke William 
her son's weight in gold if she might bury him in 
the church he built at Waltham. But William 
refused. He ordered a knight, named William 
Malet, to bury him on the sea-coast, for, said he, 
"Harold guarded the shore when living; let him 
guard it now that he is dead." So William Malet 
took the body and buried it under a heap of 
stones, near Hastings. 

Afterward, when Duke William became King, 
he sent men to take up Harold's body and bury it 
at Waltham. But when Edward came to the 
throne he removed Harold's body once more, and 
carried him to Westminster, where he was placed 
near other renowned persons. 


William built a beautiful abbey, called Battle 
Abbey, on the field where he had won such a 
great victory. From the ruins, which still stand, 
it can be seen what a fine building this abbey was. 
In the hands of the abbot William placed a list 
of all the Normans who fought at Senlac, and 
many good names are found in it. 

The Duchess Matilda worked a piece of tapes- 
try with her own hands. It was done as a record 
of William's great victory, and begins with Har- 
old's coming from Normandy. Matilda used 
bright colors, and she made her castles and ab- 
beys look very brilliant. Even the horses arc 
done in strange shades of blue and green. But 
the faces of William and Harold are quite clear, 
and can easily be seen. Even a comet, supposed 
to have been the same as that known as Halley's. 
has a place in this wonderful work. The comet 
appeared in 1066, and was thought to bring bad 
luck to the English. 

This famous tapestry was given to the cathe- 
dral at Bayeux, where Odo, William's half- 
brother, was bishop. It still exists, for it has 
been very carefully kept. 


It was on Christmas Day that William was 
crowned, in the West Minster built by Edward 
the Confessor. 

The church was crowded with people, when 
Geoffrey, a French bishop, stood up, and asked : 
"Will ye that William, your duke, be crowned 
King of the English?" 

He spoke in French, but every one seems to 
have understood him, for all clapped their hands, 
and shouted ''Yea ! Yea !" So many voices to- 
gether made a great noise, and the Normans 
who were on guard at the door thought their 
duke was being attacked. Instead of rushing to 
his help, they ran to the houses of the English, 
and began to set them on fire. When the people 
in the minster knew this, they came out to rescue 
their property and save their homes. 

So Duke William was alone with the bishops, 
and he was crowned in an empty church. But 
he promised to govern justly and to be merciful. 
The crown was then placed on his head, and he 
became the King of England, though we know 
him best as William the Conqueror. 


William was a king who knew how to be obeyed. 
We read : "There came to him all the land-own- 
ing men that there were over all England, and 
all bowed down before him, and became his 
men." They promised to obey his laws, for they 
knew he was strong enough to punish those who 
did not obey. 

It was he who caused the Domesday Book to 
be kept. This was a record of all the property in 

The soldiers were kept in order, and castles 
were built in various places where a strong force 
was necessary. In Kent five towns were fortified, 
and men were specially paid to guard the south 
coast from sudden attack by sea. These old 
Cinque Ports (Five Ports) were Sandwich, Do- 
ver, Hythe, Romney, and Hastings, each of which 
is marked on the map of Norman England. 

Life and property were safe, for William tried 
to be a good king, and he insisted on peace and 
quietness. He ordered a bell to be rung every 
night at eight o'clock. This was called the cur- 
few bell, and at its sound all lights and fires were 
to be put out. This was a wise rule, for the 
wooden houses of those days were easily de- 
stroyed, and lives were even lost through the fall- 
ing of a spark or a cinder. 


Now there was a young boy, named Edgar the 
Atheling, whose friends thought he had a right 
to the crown, because he was the son of Edward, 
who was called the Stranger. 

This Edward had been one of the sons of 
Edmund Ironside, a king of the West Saxons. 



He had lived for many years under the care of 
a very good man, Stephen, King of Hungary. 
His court was a happy home for Edward, and he 
remained there for forty years. 

In 1058 the Stranger was invited by Edward 
the Confessor to come to England as the next 
heir to the throne. But he died soon after his 
arrival, and his youngest child, Edgar, became 
Atheling instead. 

Edgar was, as we are told, about ten years old 
when the Confessor died ; and as Harold was not 
at all afraid of the boy. he allowed him to remain 
quite happily in London. But when William 
came, Edgar's friends brought him forth and 
proclaimed him King of England. 

They were easily frightened, these friends of 
Edgar's. For when the Conqueror came to West- 
minster, they took the keys of the city and threw 
open the gates to William. They also took Edgar 
to the new King. 

The boy was very fair. He had flaxen hair 
and blue eyes, and he looked such a child that 
William greeted him very kindly. Fierce as he 
was, the Conqueror could not be vexed with such 
a small rival. 

He had been a fatherless boy himself, and he 
knew what it was to be alone in the world, even 
in such a high position. 

He was very sorry for Edgar, and, probably to 
the surprise of the boy's fair-weather friends, he 
took him in his arms and kissed him, while he 
promised to be his protector. 

So Edgar went to live at William's court, where 
the Saxons called him "England's Darling." 


William had many troubles. His eldest son, 
Robert, was a disobedient, unruly man, who did a 
great deal of harm in Normandy, over which 
country his father had made him governor. 

William was also much deceived by his half- 
brother, Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, v/hom he trusted 
and loved. He nearly broke his heart when his 
wife, Matilda, died. For the Conqueror was a 
man who was a good friend, but a bad foe, and if 
he liked any one, he liked him very much indeed. 

In the midst of all these troubles William was 
not well. He never took care of himself. If 
war broke out in any part of the kingdom, he 
went there. So in 1087, when a rebellion broke 
out at Mantes, in Normandy, he hastened from 
England across the Channel to crush it. 

It was the time of harvest. The grain was 
golden in the fields, and the vines hung down 
with the weight of the big bunches of beautiful 

Alas ! the soldiers trod down all the golden 
corn, and the purple clusters of grapes were 
lying on the ground. The poor people who lived 
in the villages came out to try to save their prop- 
erty, but they were too late. 

The troops then made their way into the city, 
where they burned and destroyed whatever they 
found. The air was hot with the flames, and the 
ground was covered with burning cinders. 

As William rode through the town of Mantes, 
his horse trod on a cinder, and the pain made him 
stumble. In an instant the Conqueror fell for- 
ward on his saddle, and hurt himself very much. 
The men who were near enough to see what was 
happening went to his aid, and they carried him 
back to Rouen. 

But William could not rest in the noise of the 
city. So he asked to be taken to the Monastery 
of St. Gervais, which stood on a little hill behind 
the city. Even here he could not sleep. He felt 
that he was going to die, and he sent for his two 
sons, William and Henry. 


The Conqueror had always been a good friend 
to "those who loved God." But when he was 
dying he was full of sorrow for all the pain and 
misery he had brought upon others. 

When his sons came near, he began to speak 
about the kingdom. The story is told that as 
they stood round his bed, he said that Robert 
must have Normandy, for to him, long ago, had 
been given the charge of that country. 

"But," said William sadly, "wretched must be 
the country under Robert's rule." 

He did not say who should have England, but 
seeing the disappointed face of his second son. 
William, he added that he hoped the English 
would choose him for their king. 

"And what do you give me?" asked Henry, who 
was a fine, handsome youth. 

"Five thousand pounds of silver," said the Con- 

"What good will the silver do if I have neither 
lands nor home?" 

"Take comfort, my son," said his father. "It 
mav be that one day thou shalt be greater than 

The church-bells were ringing for service when 
William awoke from sleep. He lifted his hands 
to join in the well-known prayers, and at that 
moment death came to him. His eyes closed. 
The great Conqueror was dead. 

His sons had gone away, and the servants who 
filled the room forgot the respect due to the dead. 
They began at once to steal the things that were 





lying about, and to help themselves to his prop- 

When the monks came back from the service, 
they found tliat their lord was dead, and they 
were much troubled. They carried William sadly 
back to his own abbey at St. Caen, and there he 
was buried. 

It is pleasing to know that one of William's 
last acts was to forgive those who had offended 
him : for in showing mercy to others, it may be 
that he also "obtained mercy." William was a 
very brave man and a truly great king. Though 
he had many faults, he tried to do his duty to the 
conquered land over which he reigned for twen- 
ty-one years. He tried to protect the weak 
against the strong by curbing the power of the 
proud and troublesome Norman nobles and 
knights who held much of the land of the coun- 

It was said that William "loved the high deer 
as though he were their father." He was very 
fond of hunting, and he turned a large portion 
of land into a thick wood. This he called the 
New Forest. It was not a part of the country 
where grain would grow well, for the soil was 

But some villages were destroyed to make this 
hunting-ground, and the people believed that 
William would be punished for the deed. The 
wood is still Tcnown as the New Forest. 


Henry I., fourth son of William I., was not only 
a great king, he was also a clever scholar. He 
was fond of books and of study. He translated 
books from Latin and Greek into English. This 
was a very wonderful thing to do in those early 

Henry was the only one of the Conqueror's 
sons who was born in England, and he loved 
everything that was English. His manners were 
far more pleasing than those of his brother. 
William Rufus, who was king just before him. 
He tried to carry out his father's wishes and to 
rule as he would have done. 

Henry had a great sorrow in the death of his 
son, Prince William, who was drowned at sea. 
This caused Henry many sleepless nights, in 
which he thought of all the wrong things he had 
done. The death of this boy left him only one 
remaining child. This was his daughter Maude, 
or Matilda, and he at once sent for his nobles, 
and made them promise to acknowledge her as 
"Lady" of England; for in early days the title of 
"Lady" was the highest in the land. 

But we cannot say that the English were quite 
satisfied with her rule. They did not like the idea 
of having a woman to reign over them when 
Henry died. So they came very unwillingly to 
swear obedience. 

Among them was a fine handsome young 
knight, who was Henry's nephew, Stephen, Earl 
of Blois, and many a baron cast glances at him 
as he also promised to own Matilda as the "Lady" 
of England. 

"Why should he not have the crown instead 
of her?" they said quietly to each other. "We do 
not want a haughty princess like her." But they 
had promised and the deed was done. It would 
not do to offend Matilda, for she was already an 

When Matilda was a little girl of eleven, she 
had been married to Henry V., the Emperor of 
Germany. The new Empress was so small that 
the weight of her wedding dress was too much for 
her, and the Archbishop of Cologne had to lilt 
her in his arms while the ceremony went on. 

Matilda had married a disagreeable young man, 
and on his death she gladly came home to her 
father's court. 

After the barons had sworn to make her the 
successor to the throne, Henry thought she 
should marry again, and this time he chose Geof- 
frey, Count of Anjou, as her husband. Young- 
Geoffrey was only fifteen, but he was a good- 
looking, clever boy, and Henry was delighted 
with the way in which he spoke Latin. But Ma- 
tilda was by no means so pleased. She treated 
Geoffrey most rudely, and he kept out of her way, 
spending much of his time in the woods. In his 
cap he always wore a sprig of broom, so that 
after a while it became the badge of his family. 
From it they also obtained their surname of Plan- 
tagenet, as the broom is called in Latin plaiita 
genista. Very likely Geoffrey was better liked by 
those who knew him ; but he kept so carefully 
away that the barons did not think of him at all 
when they made up their minds to forget their 
promises and to follow Stephen instead of Ma- 


When Henry I. died in Normandy, Stephen of 
Blois was by his side, and he heard his dying 
words: "I leave to my children whatever I have 
gained. Let them do justice to those I have in- 

But as soon as the King's last breath passed 
away, Stephen started for England, where he had 
many supporters. He landed in the midst of a 
dreadful thunder-storm. He seized the crown, 



and began giving large presents to those whose 
help he needed. Then he promised to give peo- 
ple whatever they liked to ask, and so he made 
many more friends. 

When he was crowned, the barons were very 
glad. They knew he was "unstable as water," 
and they felt sure they could do as they pleased. 
So they began at once to build four hundred 
castles. "They put the wretched country folk to 
sore trial with their castle-building," says the Old 
Chronicle, "and when the castles were made they 
filled them with evil men. Then they took all 
those that they deemed had any goods, both by 
night and by day, men and women alike, and put 
them in prison to get their gold and silver. All 
this lasted nineteen winters, while Stephen was 
King, and ever it was worse and worse. Thou 
mightest easily fare a whole day's journey, and 
never find a man living in a village, nor land 
tilled. Then was corn dear, and flesh and cheese, 
for there was none in the land. Wretched men 
starved' for hunger, and some were begging alms 
that were once rich, and some fled out of the 
land." It was said, Christ and his saints "slept" 
in this time of violence and insecurity of property 
and life. 

Meanwhile Matilda had gone to her relation 
David, King of Scotland, for help. It was said 
that David "belonged to a family of saints," and 
of these he was one of the best. He preferred to 
live in peace. The humblest of his subjects could 
make sure of his sympathy and assistance ; and 
he loved to do justly and to improve his country. 

When Matilda went to him David remem- 
bered that he had promised to be her friend. He 
then called an army together and crossed the bor- 
der. At the same time another ally of hers was 
raising an army for her in the south, and so her 
party grew stronger day by day. 


Stephen had so many difficulties in the south to 
face that he left the north to take care of itself. 
The clergy now came to the front. They called 
their people round them and spent three days in 
prayer and fasting. Then the old Archbishop of 
York gave them his blessing and charged them 
never to desert each other. The Bishop of Dur- 
ham led the way, having in his charge the ban- 
ners of St. Cuthbcrt of Durham, St. Peter of 
York, St. John of Beverley, and St. Wilfrid of 
Ripon. Just behind these standards came the 
famous archers of Yorkshire and Nottingham. 
Each archer carried a sheaf of arrows and a bow 
as tall as himself. 
XVIIT— 12 

The fight which followed was known as the 
"Battle of the Standard," 1138; and when you 
hear of this, you will remember the unusual ac- 
tion of the great churches that sent their banners 
to the field against Matilda and her allies. 


After Stephen was defeated at Lincoln, during 
the Civil War, he was taken as a prisoner to 
Bristol Castle, and Matilda was proclaimed Queen 
in his stead. But she soon disgusted everybody 
by her conduct. She was proud, and her man- 
ners were very disagreeable. When the people 
asked her for a charter which would secure good 
laws to the country, she told them they ought to 
bring her money, and not ask for privileges. 

They soon became tired of this haughty lady ; 
and one day, as she sat at dinner, all the city 
bells began to ring. The citizens swarmed into 
the streets, they even rushed into the palace. 
Matilda had barely time to escape, for they 
looked very fierce and angry. She fled from 
place to place, and she only managed to get out 
of Devizes by being carried away in a coffin. 

Stephen's Queen now collected an army, and 
she took one very important prisoner, whom she 
quickly exchanged for her husband. Stephen 
was set free on November i, 1138, but he soon 
fell ill, and now Matilda thought she had another 
chance of seizing the crown. 

She was at Oxford, where she thought herself 
quite safe. But while she was planning what to 
do, Stephen, who was now well again, marched 
to Oxford and besieged Matilda. He crossed the 
river, set fire to various parts of the city, and 
then placed his men all round the castle. 

Now, indeed. Queen Matilda knew what trou- 
ble meant. Food was scarce within the walls. 
Snow covered the ground. The river was frozen 
over. It seemed as if the people inside the castle 
could not hold out much longer. 

"Dress yourselves in white," said Matilda, in 
her short, sharp tones, as she summoned three of 
her most trusty knights. "I, too, will change my 
robes. Then we will steal out of this place, which 
is no better than a prison-house for us." 

Her commands were obeyed ; and when it be- 
gan to be dark, the three knights and their Queen 
were let down from the top of the walls, and 
helped by the dim light, they managed to creep 
away. Presently they met one of Stephen's men 
who had been bribed to show them how to escape, 
and trembling with fear and shivering with the 
cold, they contrived to pass through the enemy's 



A treaty was afterward made by which Ma- 
tilda's son, Henry of Anjou. was to reign after 
Stephen's death. A year later King Stephen died, 
and the land was thankful ; for now it looked 
forward to times of peace and prosperity, after 
twenty years of civil war, lawlessness, and 


You know that Ireland is often called the "Emer- 
ald Isle" because its fields are very green. When 
good St. Patrick went there to preach and pray, 
Ireland became known by another name, for it 
was now called the "Isle of Saints." The fiery 
Danes who harassed England found Ireland a 
pleasant place. They settled in some parts and 
fought many battles with the Irish. One of the 
Danes made himself king of all Ireland. 

Do not think that there were no Irishmen who 
knew how to fight. There was brave old Brian 
Boru, who fought until he gained peace for his 
people. In his times, as in those of Alfred, a 
"maiden covered with jewels" could travel safely 
through the length and breadth of Erin. But 
Brian Boru died at the age of eighty-eight, and 
then the Danes came once more. Still, the island 
seems to have been fairly prosperous. For we 
read that Morogh O'Brian, of Leinster, sent Wil- 
liam Rufus enough bog-oak to serve for the roof 
of Westminster Hall. 

In the days of Henry II., however, Ireland was 
in rather a bad way. Diarmid, King of Leinster, 
had carried off a lady who was the wife of a 
prince of Breffny. He was punished by the other 
chiefs for his conduct, and he had to fly from his 
capital at Ferns. So he went to King Henry and 
offered to serve him if Henry would help him to 
get back his kingdom. 

It was a time when Henry had many "irons in 
the fire" in France ; so he could only give Diar- 
mid a letter which permitted the English knights 
to take up his cause if they cared to do so. That 
was all Henry would do ; and, armed with this 
letter, Diarmid went to Bristol, for many fierce 
nobles lived near that town. The first man he 
saw was a tall, red-faced Norman knight, named 
Richard de Clare. He was the Earl of Pem- 
broke, and was surnamed Strongbow, because of 
his boldness and love of adventure. 

Diarmid began by offering Strongbow the hand 
of his daughter Eva; he also promised that he 
should be King of Leinster after him if he would 
only recover the kingdom from Diarmid's ene- 
mies. It was just such work as Strongbow 
loved, and he readily agreed. Diarmid then got 
together a band of knights, and Raymond the Fat, 

who was Strongbow's nephew, came over to help 

They came in the month of May, when the 
"Emerald Isle" was beautiful with flowers; but 
neither Strongbow nor Raymond had leisure to 
see the pretty things around them. There was 
much fighting to be done, and they were ready 
for it. 

In the end, Strongbow won many victories, and 
he married Eva. Then, when Diarmid died, he 
became King of Leinster. In a little while he 
might even have made himself king of the whole 


When Henry heard what was going on he be- 
came very much alarmed, and he issued a procla- 
mation that Englishmen were not to go to war in 
Ireland. His words were so threatening that 
Strongbow felt it would be wise to make peace 
with his King. So he sent Raymond the Fat with 
a humble letter, in which Strongbow said he was 
the King's most faithful servant. 

At first Henry refused to see him ; but when 
Strongbow arrived, he threw himself on his 
knees, and gave up so many of the places he had 
conquered that Henry forgave him and allowed 
him to keep the province of Leinster. 

In October, 1172, Henry crossed to Ireland 
with a fleet of four hundred ships and a large 
army of soldiers, and the Irish at once made 
terms with him. They paid him homage, and 
the great princes promised to own him as over- 
lord. The King held his court in a hall, built 
for the occasion, of wickerwork. It was a very 
stormy winter, but neither he nor the chieftains 
heeded the weather. Henry gave his new sub- 
jects such a banquet as they had never before en- 
joyed. Every kind of Norman dainty was on the 
table. The King wore his most splendid robes 
and jewels. Vessels of gold and silver were used 
by the visitors, and after the feast the knights 
entertained them by holding tournaments. But it 
was seen that Henry took little notice of Strong- 
bow. and he made Hugh de Lacy governor of 
Ireland. In 1185 the king sent his son. Prince 
John, to Dublin to rule Ireland. But before the 
year was out he was obliged to recall him on 
account of his insulting behavior both to the Eng- 
lish and Irish people whom he met there. In 
1 189 Henry 11. died of a broken heart at Chinon, 
France, owing to the grief caused by his three 
rebellious sons, Richard, Geoft'rey, and John. 

Chinon is now little more than an imposing 
relic; but the sight of its walls, half in ruins, 
fittingly recalls the sad King who died there. 




Strongbow was a wise man. When he saw that 
Henry was not pleased with him, he went to 
Normandy, and fought so nobly for the King that 
Henry was obliged to reward his services. He 
made him the governor of Dublin, in Lacy's 
place ; and at last Strongbow was happy, for he 
had long desired this post. 

Strongbow soon quarreled with Raymond the 
Fat, for Raymond wished to marry his sister 
Basilia, and Strongbow would not give his con- 
sent. But when the Irish rebelled against him 
he was glad enough to send for Raymond, say- 
ing: '"As soon as you read this, make all the haste 
you can. Bring all the help you can raise, and 
you shall have what you have so long desired." 

Raymond was not the man to delay after re- 
ceiving such a message. Taking twenty ships, he 
sailed for Waterford harbor, and routed the 
Irish. Then he marched to Dublin to help 
Strongbow, and, "in his full armor," he married 
the Lady Basilia. Raymond, you see, was a man 
of action. As soon as he heard of a disturbance 
he went off to put it down, and he was always 
successful. During one of his journeys. Earl 
Strongbow died. But so jealous were his friends, 
that they tried hard to keep the news of his death 
from Raymond's ears. 


Before we speak of the events of Edward's reign, 
we must look at his kingdom, and see what sort 
of a country it was. First of all, there were 
thick forests in many parts, and some of these 
forests were regular dens of robbers. The abbots 
of St. Albans had to keep a band of armed men in 
order to protect the travelers who passed be- 
tween their town and London. 

On all country roads there were guides to con- 
duct travelers, r.nd show them the fords across 
the rivers, for there were very few bridges. Rich 
people who took long journeys often went in 
litters drawn by horses. But the usual mode of 
traveling was on horseback ; and it was astonish- 
ing to see how many horses were kept ; Simon de 
Montfort had 334 in his stables at Odiham, and 
these were only for the use of his family and his 
servants. The Queen had a carriage, it is true, 
but it was more like a long cart, and it had no 
springs. The King also drove in a "house of 
deal," as it was called, which had six wheels, and 
was "roofed with lead." Common people could 
not afford such luxuries. They were fortunate 
when they might safely travel about on foot. 


The houses were very simply built. The hall 
was the chief room, as it long had been. Its floor 
was seldom boarded, and rushes were spread over 
the ground, for carpets were not much used. 
Indeed, when King Edward was married, the 
good people of London were quite angry to hear 
that his floors were covered with costly car- 

The tables were very strong and heavy, and to 
keep them firm, their feet were stuck in the 
ground. Stools and benches were generally 
placed along the walls of the hall ; and in the 
middle of the room the fire burned brightly, while 
the smoke went out through the roof. 

Sometimes the walls were covered with wood, 
painted to represent scenes from history ; but the 
ladies often worked beautiful hangings of silk 
and wool called tapestries, which looked very 
pretty, and kept out the drafts. 

The noble and his friends sat at a table at the 
upper end of the hall. Below were his servants 
and attendants. A white linen cloth was spread 
on the table, and, as a rule, the dinner served was 
a good one. 

To begin with, there was plenty of fish. Beef 
and mutton, too, were plentiful ; but the meat was 
often salted. The wheat-bread was not so white 
as ours. There were vegetables of various kinds, 
such as peas, beans, onions, turnips, and herbs. 
For dessert, there were pears, apples, cherries, 
peaches, and even mulberries. Everybody drank 
beer, but it could not have been a pleasant bever- 
age. There was also wine for those who liked it. 
The King was the only person who had a glass 
for his beer. Flis friends used cups of horn, 
while others had wooden bowls or vessels made 
of leather. 

When the guests were seated, the servants 
brought round the meat. It was brought on the 
spit, fresh from the fire, and every man cut off 
as much as he wanted with his knife. He used 
his fingers instead of a fork, for forks were not 
invented. He ate a good deal, for fresh air and 
exercise made him hungry ; and when night came, 
he was often glad to lie down on a bench or on 
the floor, where he slept quite soundly. He went 
"early to bed," and he rose early, going out to 
his work or his hunting with an energy which did 
him credit. There was little then to tempt one to 
indulge in late hours, for "links"— torches of tow 
or pitch — furnished the only illumination. 

Such was life in England at the time when 
Edward, called "Longshanks," became King. 
Now let us see what sort of a monarch he proved. 




Edward was crowned in Westminster Abbey in 
1274. After the ceremony "there were let go at 
libertie, catch them that catch might, five hun- 
dred great horses, by the King of Scots, the Earls 
of Cornewall, Gloucester, Pembroke and others, 
as they alighted from their backs." 

No sooner was the King crowned than he 
passed some very important laws. Thus he 
showed that he meant to rule justly and without 

When, upon the coming of the Saxons to Brit- 
ain, the poor Britons fled for shelter to Wales, 
there they kept their own language and were gov- 
erned by their own kings. There were often 
wars between the English and the Welsh. 

In Simon de Montfort's lifetime his daughter 
Eleanor met a W^elsh prince named Llewellyn, 
who wished to marry her. Edward, however, 
would not agree to this, unless Llewellyn prom- 
ised to give up the castles he had taken and sub- 
mit to him as his overlord. 

Llewellyn refused to do these things. He 
marched into England, and many fights took place ; 
imtil, perhaps, both sides grew a little tired. For 
when Edward next summoned Llewellyn to meet 
him at Glastonbury, the Welsh prince went quite 

He was married to Eleanor de Montfort in 
Worcester Cathedral, and for two years they 
lived very happily. Then Eleanor died, and 
Llewellyn became unhappy and discontented. 
Fresh wars broke out, and in the end Llewellyn 
was slain in 1282. Wales now fell under the 
power of the English. Two years later the 
Queen's little son was born at Carnarvon Castle, 


The King was at a meeting where the Welsh 
chiefs were present, and in his delight he told 
them he would give them a prince of their own. 
"Nay," they shouted back in anger, "not so. We 
will have no prince but one born in our land, 
who speaks our own tongue." 

"So be it," replied the King. Then calling for 
his Queen's nurse, he spoke a few words to her in 
English. When she brought the baby, he took 
him from her arms, and holding him up before 
the astonished chiefs, he cried: 

"This is your prince. He was assuredly born 
in your land, and he cannot speak one word of 

The joke pleased the Welshmen. They agreed 
to accept the child as the Prince of Wales. A 

Welsh nurse was engaged for the baby prince, sO 
that the first words he learned were those of the 
ancient British language. Ever since the birth 
of this child the eldest son of the sovereigns of 
England has always been created a Prince of 


At this period the King of Scotland was Alex- 
ander HI., an excellent man, who was much liked 
by the nation. One evening, as this King was 
riding along the edge of the cliffs above King- 
horn, his horse stumbled and he was thrown to 
the bottom of a steep precipice. 

The next heir was his grandchild, Margaret, 
the daughter of Eric, Prince of Norway. The 
Scots, therefore, sent to ask if she might come to 
their country. But the journey was a long one, 
and the princess was very young. She fell ill on 
the voyage and died in the Orkney Islands, to the 
great regret of the Scottish people. 

They hardly knew what to do now, for no less 
than thirteen persons claimed the throne, and it 
was difficult to say who had the best right to it. 
So the Scots thought they must ask Edward of 
England to settle the matter for them. 

The first thing Edward did was to say that he 
was the overlord of Scotland. This was not the 
decision the Scots wanted, but Edward declared 
he would "either have his rights, or die claiming 
them." He gave them three weeks to consider 
his claim. But as they knew he had an army be- 
hind him, they had no wish to wait. They met 
Edward on a field near Norham Castle, and 
owned him as their overlord with as good a grace 
as they could command, 1291. 

When this was done, Edward began to examine 
the claims of the thirteen heirs, and he decided 
that there were only two who might be consid- 
ered the nearest to the throne. One of these was 
John Baliol, the other was Robert Bruce ; and 
Edward thought that Baliol was the man who 
ought to be king. 

He had to bend his knee to Edward and own 
him as his overlord before he was crowned. But 
when the ceremony was over Baliol found that 
his was not an easy position. Edward treated 
him like one of the nobles, instead of a king. 
He made him attend the opening of Parliament, 
just like any of the barons. 

The Scots called him "Toom Tabard," which 
meant empty coat, to show that he was only a 
king in name. 

The day came when Baliol, the weak, made up 
his mind to defy Edward. When he was next 



called to London he would not go; he even re- 
fused to call Edward his overlord. 

"Fool that he is!" cried Edward, when he 
heard this. "If he will not come to us, we must 
go to him." 

So he gathered a large army and marched to 
Dunbar, where he defeated the Scots, 1296. 

Baliol was now obliged to ask for mercy, but 
though Edward forgave him, he sent him to Lon- 
don as a prisoner. There he was kept for many 
years, while Edward caused himself to be owned 
as King of Scotland. When he returned to Eng- 
land, he brought away the crown and scepter, as 
well as the famous old stone from Scone Abbey, 
on which as far back as could be known the kings 
of Scotland were always crowned. 

This stone, known as the "Stone of Destiny," 
is now in Westminster Abbey. It is placed in a 
chair of oak, and ever since Edward's reign the 
kings and queens of England have also been 
crowned while seated on this Scottish stone. 


The Scots did not submit quietly to Edward. 
They hated the English, and they looked about 
for a champion who would help them against 
their enemies. One of the most famous Scottish 
songs by Robert Burns, the poet, refers to two 
great national leaders and heroes, W^allace and 
Bruce, whose deeds of valor are now to be told. 

Just at this time William Wallace appeared. 
He was the younger son of Sir Malcolm Wallace 
of Elderslie, and he also disliked England. Once, 
when quite a boy, he had been fishing in the river 
Irvine with a friend, who carried his baskets. 
On the way home he met some English soldiers, 
who stopped the boy and wanted to take the fish 
he had caught. Wallace was willing to give some 
of his trout, but the men insisted on taking all 
he had. So a struggle took place, in which Wal- 
lace used his fishing-rod with right good will upon 
their shoulders, and he soon put them to flight. 

Of course Wallace was obliged to leave home. 
He went to the hills, where he knew he would be 
safe. But in a year or two he thought he might 
venture to return. He now walked openly about 
the market-place of Lanark, dressed in a hand- 
some suit of green, with a dagger by his side. He 
was a fine tall man, and the English soldiers could 
not help noticing him. One of them asked him 
rudely why he, "a wretched Scotsman," dared to 
wear such a fine dress. Wallace was not one to 
take such an insult tamely. He fell to blows with 
vigor, and the Englishman was killed. Now 
there was indeed a fine hue and cry in Scotland. 

Wallace took refuge in his own house, but the 

soldiers came battering at the front door. So he 
was obliged to escape by the back to a glen, 
where he hid for some time. He was now made 
an outlaw. The law would not protect him any 
longer, and if any man should kill him he would 
receive a reward. 


As soon as the Scots heard that Wallace was 
ready to fight for his country against the Eng- 
lish, they gathered round him. Men came over 
the hills from near and far. They had waited for 
a leader, and now that he was found they flocked 
eagerly to his side. Many a time did he lead his 
followers against the English, and he was often 
successful. After a time, the English governor 
called the Scottish nobles to swear that they 
would obey Edward, and many of Wallace's party 
now slipped away. They went back to their cas- 
tles, and joined the followers of the English 
King. But Wallace declared he would never 

When Edward's soldiers met his army, they 
were clad in armor; but Wallace's peasants were 
badly armed and badly clothed. He had the best 
place, however, in the battle that followed; for 
he and his poor soldiers were on the high ground 
above the river Forth. When the English gover- 
nor saw them, he sent two friars to make terms 
of peace, but Wallace would not listen to them. 

"Return to your friends," he said. "Tell them 
we came not for peace, but to set our country 
free. We are ready to meet them, beard for 


There was a small wooden bridge across the 
river Forth. It was so narrow that only two men 
on horseback could cross at a time. But the 
English governor rose early in the morning, and 
began to send his soldiers across, for he wanted 
to be the "first in the field." When about half his 
army had crossed, he grew bolder. This was 
much easier work than he had imagined, and he 
thought the Scots were beginning to be afraid of 

But a few moments afterward he saw his mis- 
take. For Wallace had "bided his time," and he 
now rushed down upon the English, of whom a 
large number were killed. Others jumped into 
the river ; some galloped ofif as fast as their horses 
could go ; and the governor was obliged to turn 
back with only a part of the fine army he had 
brought with him. 

Wallace now carried the war into the enemy's 



country. He went over the border, and marched 
into Cumberland and Northumberland, and the 
frightened English fled as he came. He was 
called the "Protector of the Scottish Nation." 
But although he tried to rule justly, the nobles 
would not submit to him, for they had the fear of 
Edward before their eyes. 


While these events were occurring, Edward was 
in Flanders. But he was very angry with the 
Scots, and he set out to punish Wallace for stir- 
ring up the rebellion. When Wallace knew that 
the King was coming, he got together a still 
larger army. But now some of the Scottish no- 
bles began to be jealous of him; they even told 
Edward that he would find Wallace in the Forest 
of Falkirk, for he intended to attack the King 
when night came. Edward was delighted to hear 
that he would meet Wallace so soon. 

"They need not come after me," he said. "For 
I will go to meet them." 

So he put on his armor, and rode through the 
camp, bidding the soldiers make ready to start at 
once. His army was a fine, well-trained one. As 
an old chronicler says, "Each soldier slept on 
the ground, using his shield as a pillow. Each 
horseman had his horse beside him, and the 
horses themselves tasted nothing but the cold iron 
of their bridles." 

It is said that Edward's horse trod upon him 
as he slept, and broke two of his ribs. His cry of 
pain awoke the others, and they thought the 
enemy had come upon them. But, in spite of the 
terrible pain, Edward jumped up, and bade his 
men mount and march. Then, as the first rays of 

the sun broke out, they espied the lances of the 
Scots on a hill in front. Wallace had arranged 
his troops in four circles, so that their spears 
were like a fence of steel. 

"I have brought you to the ring," said he, "now 
dance if ye can." 

They were only peasants, badly clothed and 
poorly armed. But they fought nobly. It was 
hard to break that fence of steel ; but at last 
Edward's better-trained men drove the Scots back 
to the woods. Numbers were left dead on the 
field, and, with a very sad heart, Wallace was 
obliged to fly. 


For seven long years Wallace lived among the 
hills, going in danger of his life. Then one of his 
own men was wicked enough to tell King Ed- 
ward where he was to be found. 

So he was caught and taken to Westminster, 
where he was charged with being a traitor. 

"I am not a traitor," cried Wallace, "for I was 
never his subject." 

"You have killed many Englishmen," said his 

"Ay, truly ; but I killed them in fair fight. They 
were the enemies of my country." 

But there was no mercy for the brave Scot. 
He was found guilty, and put to death, in 1305. 
His head was crowned in mockery with a wreath 
of laurel, and, after the cruel custom of those 
days, it was placed on a pole on London 

But to Scotsmen the name of William Wallace 
is ever dear. For he was a hero, whose one aim 
was to free his native land from her foes. 





Lx no history that I have been able to find, and 
in no popular book of reference that I have seen, 
after a great deal of searching, is there any ac- 
count of the fact that in the year 1859 a pig al- 
most plunged us into a war with Great Britain. 
All the books mention the excitement, but only as 
a part of another matter. Yet, when I was in the 
beautiful, rose-garnished English city of Victoria, 
on \'ancouver Island, close to the Pacific coast of 
Washington State, I found many English sub- 
jects who had a great deal to say about that pig, 
and about the mischief caused by it. Our coun- 
try was then on the eve of a war the most awful 
in all history, and this comparatively slight in- 
cident made but little impression upon our people, 
all wrought up, as they were, over the great ques- 
tions which turned upon the issue of that terrible 
conflict. It was very different with the people of 
Victoria and the great island of \'ancouver. 
Theirs was then, and has since been, a peaceful 
existence, and the shock and excitement caused 
when one of their pigs all but brought war to 
their doors made a deep impression on their 

There had been a great deal of trouble over 
that extreme northwestern corner of our coun- 
try. It was not definitely known until the early 
'70s where our territory ended and British soil 
began. The greater part of the corner now form- 
ing the states of Oregon and Washington, and so 
highly prized by us, was claimed, at different 
times, by Russia, by Spain, and by Great Britain. 
First Russia withdrew, and then, after Spain and 
England, in 1787, had almost come to blows over 
it, Spain gave up her claim. This left England to 
dispute the ownership with us ; and sixty years 
ago the dispute waxed so hot that a political 
party in this country favored going to war over it. 

H.T.&Q.D. II. 25. 

■'Fifty-four, forty,— or fight !" was the watch- 
word of this party, which was led by the great 
Stephen A. Douglas. By "54-40" was meant 
the parallel of latitude, 54° 40', — so that this party 
of Americans claimed the land all the way to the 
southern end of Alaska. James K. Polk was our 
President during the heat of this excitement, in 
1845. The more temperate of our statesmen ad- 
vised fixing upon latitude 49 for our northern 
boundary; and in 1846 Great Britain agreed, and 
it is our present boundary line. But the Pacific 
coast, just at that corner of our country, is ragged, 
and little islands are thickly dotted along the 
shore. Between two groups of these islands run 
two narrow straits of water, — one called the 
Canal de Haro, and the other the Rosario Strait. 
Between the two is San Juan Island. It com- 
mands both waterways, and hence it would be of 
great value to either country that owned it, in 
case the two nations should ever quarrel. The 
text of the agreement between the two countries 
reads that the boundary at this corner should be 
■"the middle of the channel," without saying zvhich 
channel. From 1846 to 1859, therefore, the dis- 
pute continued, though without the excitement 
there had been when there was doubt about the 

The two channels lead for the British to the 
Pacific coast of Canada, and for us, to Alaska. 
One channel, the Canal de Haro, is straighter and 
broader than the other and deep enough for the 
largest war-ships. It washes the western shore 
of San Juan Island, a little green eminence fifteen 
miles long and, in the broadest part, seven miles 
wide. The northern part is broken up into high 
hills, while the southern end is covered with 
lovely pasture-land. Coal and limestone are found 
in the hills, and off the shore there is splendid 



fishing for cod, halibut, and salmon. But it is on is no record of its age, size, or color, or of 
account of its fortress-like position on the main whether it had a name ; or, in short, of anything 
channel and commanding both waterways to about it, except that it went on Hubbs's ground- 
Canada and Alaska that it is most highly prized, on that part where he was growing a few vege- 
A man named Hubbs, who was pasturing sheep tables which the pigs kept by his neighbor had 
on the southern end of the island of San Juan, already damaged. If any one had dreamed what 





had for a neighbor, on the north end, a man named 
Grififiths. This Griffiths was employed to raise 
pigs for the Hudson's Bay Company, that old and 
famous institution which has existed for two 
hundred and fifty years, and has been maintained 
by brave and hardy men solely for the purpose of 
trading with the Indians; giving them money, 
blankets, food, guns and ammunition, in return 
for the skins of wild animals. The pigs belong- 
ing to this company overran the island and caused 
Mr. Hubbs a great deal of trouble ; so one day, in 
a moment of an^ger, he warned his neighbor 
Griffiths that if another pig came upon his land 
he would kill it. The very next day a pig did 
trespass there. It is altogether a pity that there 

an important pig this was, all the facts would 
perhaps have been written down. 

Mr. Hubbs kept his word and killed the pig. 

Griffiths was then as angry as Hubbs had been, 
and immediately sailed over to Victoria,— the 
busy little city on Vancouver Island, where the 
officers of the government, the soldiers, and the 
ships-of-war had their headquarters,— and ob- 
tained a warrant (or order issued by a court of 
law) for Hubbs's arrest. A warrant-server, or 
constable, went to arrest Hubbs, and to take him 
to Victoria for trial upon the charge of killing 
the pig. But Hubbs refused to go with him. He 
said he was an American citizen, and that there- 
fore an English warrant was nothing to him. 



The constable departed, and Hubbs, well knowing 
the officer would come back and try to force him 
to go to \'ictoria, sent over to Port Townseud, in 
Washington Territory, for American protection. 
That part of our country was called by our War 
Department "The Puget Sound District," and 
was then in command of Brigadier-General Wil- 
liam S. Harney. For many years he made his 
home in St. Louis, where he was greatly admired 
and respected, as the oldest officer in our army. 

the Yankees off the island." He moved his war- 
ships over to one of the harbors of the island. His 
business was fighting, and his first thought was 
to do what might have begun a bloody and ter- 
rible war. Sir James Douglas, the governor, was 
more temperate ; he pacified the admiral, but he 
thought it wise to send some British troops over 
to the island — not to fight the Americans, but to 
let them understand that the English meant to 
claim San Juan as their property. Captain Dela- 


y, i /.-r 


v;m, 'v 




Lieutenant-Colonel Casey, then in command of 
the Ninth Regiment of infantry, but now dead, 
was at Port Townsend, and General Harney sent 
him with a company of soldiers to encamp on the 
island and see to it that the English did not mo- 
lest our fellow-citizen, Mr. Hubbs. 

But, while our soldiers were setting up their 
tents on this green knoll in the great Pacific, 
there was the wildest excitement in Victoria. 
The governor of Vancouver Island was Sir James 
Douglas, a nobleman by nature as well as by title ; 
and the English ships-of-war, harbored in a little 
bay near Victoria, were commanded by Rear- 
Admiral James C. Prevost. The admiral was 
very angry when he heard of the occupation of 
the island by the soldiers of the United States. 
What he said has not been written down, but it is 
remembered, by those who heard him. that he 
threatened to take his great war-ships and "blow 

combe, of the Royal Engineers^ was sent with a 
cojnpany of English soldiers, and their tents were 
pitched on the northern end of the island. 

For five years that little island was occupied by 
soldiers of the two mighty nations. Each camp 
displayed the flag of its country on a high staff 
over the tents,— the Stars and Stripes fluttering 
over the pastures at one end, and the red banner 
of Great Britain among the hills at the other, 
only a few miles away. On either shore the peo- 
ple were greatly excited, and many on both sides 
favored war. They were no more temperate than 
the American, Hubbs, had been when he killed 
the pig, or than the Englishman, Griffiths, was 
when he tried to secure his neighbor's arrest. The 
Americans supported their countryman, and the 
English approved of what the Englishman had 
done ; so, at least along the coast, both sides 
wished to fight. As is so often the case, the 



soldiers were the least excited. The officers and 
men in our camp becam.e well acquainted with 
the members of the English force, and the 
soldiers of the two camps not only visited one 
another, but actually relieved the monotony of 
life in that lonely place by giving dinners and 
parties, when the men of one camp would enter- 
tain friends from the other. 

News of what had occurred was dispatched to 
Washington and London ; and General Winfield 
Scott was sent posthaste, by way of Panama, to 
the scene. In the meantime all our available mili- 
tary force on that coast had been sent to San 
Juan. General Scott withdrew all our soldiers, 
except one company, and induced Sir James Doug- 
las to leave only one company of British soldiers 
on the northern end of the island. This arrange- 
ment was called "a joint military occupation." It 
was decided to leave to arbitration the vexed 
question of which channel was the boundary, and 
both countries agreed that each should present 
arguments in favor of what it believed to be just. 
Our government wished the middle of the Canal 
de Haro to be the border line, because we claimed 
that it was the true ship-channel ; but to this the 
British had never been willing to agree, since that 
boundary would give San Juan to our country, 
and with that island went the control of the 
gateway to the English possessions. They wished 
the boundary to be drawn along the middle of 
the Rosario Strait, leaving them San Juan, so 
that they could use the broader canal for their 
merchant vessels and ships-of-war, which could 
thereby sail in perfect safety to British Columbia 
or to our own Alaska, since both the San Juan 
side and the Vancouver side of the canal would 
then be English territory. When all the papers 
had been made ready (and the English admit that 
the American papers and arguments were far 

better prepared than theirs), it was decided to 
give them to the Emperor of Germany, and to 
ask him if he would not decide where the 
boundary should be. 

Of course, the Emperor of Germany did not 
actually do this, personally; but he handed the 
papers to Herr Grimm, the vice-president of the 
Supreme Court of Germany, Judge Goldschmidt, 
of the German Tribunal of Commerce, and Dr. 
Kiepert, a great geographical authority of Berlin. 
They made their report to the Emperor, and, on 
October 23, 1872, the Emperor rendered his deci- 
sion in writing, and gave a copy to Mr. Bancroft, 
for this country, and to Lord Odo Russell, for 
England. He decided that the American claim 
was just, and that the middle of the Canal de 
Haro should be the boundary. One month later, 
the British cut down their flag-staff and left the 
island. It was a great disappointment to the peo- 
ple of Canada and of Vancouver Island, for it 
gave to the United States the important little 
island of San Juan, and the commanding position 
on the marine highway leading to the Pacific 
coast of England's American possessions, and 
thus our country secured a greater gain than 
many bloody wars have brought to fighting 

Time makes many changes, but it has not de- 
creased the importance of that little island; for 
Vancouver Island has ceased to be a province 
and become a part of British Columbia. San 
Juan, therefore, lies in the waterway between 
British Columbia and its principal port, Victoria. 
So, although the pig was merely in search of 
something to eat (as pigs are, most of their time), 
and although Mr. Hubbs desired only to save 
himself from the consequence of an angry act, 
America well may be grateful to both— especially 
to the pig, for he lost his life for his country. 



In the early twilight of a September morning, 
more than one hundred and seventy years ago, 
a remarkable company might have been seen 
gathering about a large chestnut-tree at the cross- 
roads near the Friends' meeting-house in 
Wrightstown, Pennsylvania. It is doubtful 
whether any one of us could have guessed what 
the meeting meant. Most of the party were 
Quakers in wide-brimmed hats and plain dress, 
and if it had been First-dav instead of Third- 

day, we might have thought they were gathering 
under the well-known tree for a neighborly chat 
before "meeting." Nor was it a warlike ren- 
dezvous; for the war-cry of the Lenni-Lenape 
had never yet been raised against the "Children 
of Mignon" (Elder Brother), as the followers of 
William Penn were called; and in a little group 
somewhat apart were a few athletic Indians in 
peaceful garb and friendly attitude. But it evi- 
dently was an important meeting, for here were 



several prominent officials, including even so 
notable a person as Proprietor Thomas Penn. 

In 1686, fifty-one years before this, William 
Penn bought from the Lenni-Lenape, or Dela- 
ware Indians, a section bounded on the east by 
the Delaware^ on the west by the Neshaminy, 
and extending to the north 
from his previous purchases 
"as far as a man can go in a 
day and a half." No effort 
was made to fix the northern 
boundary until the Indians, 
becoming uneasy at the en- 
croachments of the settlers, 
asked to have the line defi- 
nitely marked. On August 
25, 1737, after several confer- 
ences between the Delawares 
and William Penn's sons, 
John and Thomas, who, 
after their father's death, be- 
came proprietors of Pennsyl- 
vania, the treaty of 1686 was 
confirmed, and a day was ap- 
pointed for beginning the 
walk. This explains why the 
crowd was gathering about 
the old chestnut-tree in the 
early dawn of that day, Sep- 
tember 19, 1737. 

"Ready !" called out Sheriff 

At the word, James Yeates, 
a native of New England, 
"tall, slim, of much ability 
and speed of foot," Solomon 
Jennings, "a remarkably stout 
and strong man," and Ed- 
ward Marshall, a well-known 
hunter, over six feet tall, and 
noted as a walker, stepped 
from the crowd and placed 
their right hands upon the 

Thomas Penn had prom- 
ised five pounds in money 
and five hundred acres of 
land to the walker who cov- 
ered the greatest distance; 
and these three men were to contest for the prize. 
Just as the edge of the sun showed above the 
horizon. Sheriff Smith gave the word, and the 
race began. 

Yeates quickly took up the lead, stepping 
lightly. Then came Jennings, accompanied by 
two Indians, who were there to see that the 
walking was fairly done. Closely following them 

were men on horseback, including the sheriff and 
the surveyor-general. Thomas Penn himself fol- 
lowed the party for some distance. Far in the 
rear came Marshall, walking in a careless man- 
ner, swinging a hatchet in one hand, "to balance 
himself," and at intervals munching a dry biscuit. 


of which he carried a small supply. He seemed 
to have forgotten a resolution he had made to 
"win the prize of five hundred acres of land, or 
lose his life in the attempt." 

Thomas Penn had secretly sent out a pre- 
liminary party to blaze the trees along the line 
of the walk for as great a distance as it was 
thought possible for a man to walk in eighteen 



hours. So, when the wilderness was reached, 
the walkers still had the best and most direct 
course clearly marked out for them. The In- 
dians soon protested against the speed, saying 
over and over : "That 's not fair. You ruru You 
were to walk." But the treaty said, "As far as a 
man can go^' and the walkers were following it 

chief, to send other Indians to accompany the 
walkers. He angrily replied : "You have all the 
good land now, and you may as well take the 
bad, too." One old Indian, indignant at the 
stories of how the white men rushed along in 
their greed to get as much land as possible, re- 
marked in a tone of deep disgust : "No sit down 


in letter, if not in spirit, as they hurried along. 
Their protests being disregarded, the Indians en- 
deavored to delay the progress by stopping to 
rest; but the white men dismounted, and allowed 
the Indians to ride, and thus pushed on as rapidly 
as ever. At last the Indians refused to go any 
farther, and left the party. 

Before Lehigh River was reached Jennings 
was exhausted, gave up the race, and lagged be- 
hind in the company of followers. His health 
was shattered, and he lived only a few years. 

That night the party slept on the north side 
of the Lehigh Mountains, half a mile from the 
Indian village of Hokendaqua. Next morning, 
while some of the party searched for the horses 
which had strayed away during the night, others 
went to the village to request Lappawinzoe, the 

to smoke ; no shoot squirrel ; but lun, lun, lun, all 
day long." 

Scarcely had the last half-day's walk begun 
before Yeates, who was a drinking man, was 
overcome by the tremendous exertions and in- 
temperance of the previous day. He stumbled at 
the edge of Big Creek, and rolled, helpless, down 
the bank into the water. When rescued he was 
entirely blind, and his death followed within three 

Marshall still pressed on. Passing the last of 
the blazed trees which had hitherto guided him, 
he seized a compass offered by Surveyor-General 
Eastburn, and by its aid still continued his on- 
ward course. At last. Sheriff Smith, who for 
some time had frequently looked at his watch, 
called, "Halt !" Marshall instantly threw him- 



self at full length, and grasped a sapling. Here 
was the starting-point for the northern boundary 
of the purchase of 1686, sixty-eight miles from 
the old chestnut-tree at Wrightstown, and very 
close to where Mauch Chunk stands to-day. The 
walk was twice as long as the Indians expected 
it to be. 

Unfortunately for the Delawares, they knew 
too little of legal technicalities to notice that the 
deed did not state in what direction the northern 
boundary was to be drawn. They naturally ex- 
pected it to be drawn to the nearest point on the 
Delaware. But the surveyor-general, to please 
Penn, decided that the line should run at right 
angles to the direction of the walk, which was 
almost exactly northwest. Draw a line from 
Mauch Chunk to the Delaware so that if ex- 
tended it would pass through New York City, 
and another to the point where New York, New 
Jersey, and Pennsylvania meet. The first is the 
Indian's idea of the just way to lay out the 
northern boundary; the second is the line which 
Surveyor-General Eastburn actually finished 
marking out in four days after Marshall's walk 

And so the three hundred thousand acres which 
the Indians would have given to the Penns as 
the result of Marshall's walk were increased to 
half a million by taking selfish advantage of a 
flaw in the deed. 

The Lenni-Lenape had loved and trusted Wil- 
liam Penn because he always dealt openly and 
fairly with them. "We will live in love with 
William Penn and his children," said they, "as 
long as the sun and moon shall shine." But the 
wrongs inflicted on them in the '"walking pur- 
chase," aroused the deepest indignation. "Next 
May," said Lappawinzoe, "we will go to Phila- 
delphia, each one with a buckskin to repay the 
presents and take back our land again.'" It was 
too late, however, for this to be done. 

At last, in 1741, the Indians determined to 
resort to arms to secure justice. But the Iro- 
quois, to whom the Delawares had long been 
subject, came to the aid of the Penns, and the 
last hope of righting the wrong was gone for- 

There seems a sort of poetic justice in the later 
experiences of the principal men in the affair. 
Marshall never got his five hundred acres of 
land, and his wife was killed in an attack by the 
Indians. Eastburn was repudiated by Thomas 
Penn, and his heirs were notified that they "need 
not expect the least favor." Penn himself was 
brought before the king and forced to disown 
many of his acts and agents in a most humiliating 

But all this did not repair the injury to the 
Delawares, and they never again owned, as a 
tribe, a single inch along the river from which 
they took their name. 

A small monument, erected by the Bucks Coun- 
ty Historical Society, marks the spot where the 
old chestnut-tree formerly stood. In order that 
this might not seem to condone an unworthy 
deed, the monument was dedicated, not to those 
who made or conducted the walk, but to the 
Lenni-Lenape Indians— "not to the wrong, but to 
the persons wronged." 

The inscription on the stone reads ; 



September 19, 1737. 




TM^^< !iiS^. 


7\ m-ur* — riL— lA- 

Li«^nel of "tne 7^morv-fce« 

viri-Hen Wiifi cuneiform letters 

"L-csncl o^ iKe F^morl-tes • 
■written wiiK KieroglyjoKvcSj 


takken bnsoner 

|0 you like to dig in 
the dirt ? I am sure 
you do. And I don't 
blame you. Is n't it 
delightful to have a 
big pile of sand, a spade, and 
a wooden pail or wheelbarrow, 
with plenty of time, and per- 
mission to dig as much as you choose? Is n't it 
fun to build mud forts for your toy cannon and 
lead soldiers? And some of you, I am sure, like 
to dig just for the pleasure of throwing the earth 

Now, suppose that when you were digging a 
hole in the ground you expected to find some- 
thing at the bottom of that hole. And suppose, 
when you had dug down a few feet and found 
something, you were sure there was yet another 
something for you to find still farther down. 
Don't you think it would be a great deal nicer to 
dig up dirt where you expected to find something 
than where you did not ? 

Now, there are grown-up men who have spent 
nearly all their lives digging holes in the ground, 
or else superintending others who dig for them. 
They are not digging for gold or silver; they are 
not mining for coal; neither are they making 
trenches for gas-pipes, or sewers, or water- 
mains. What do you suppose they are after? 
They are digging up history! That is a queer 
thing to say, and perhaps you don't believe me ; 
but I can prove it to you. 

You know what history is? It is a story — the 
story of what men were, and what they did and 
suffered, all through the many hundreds and 
thousands of years since men first lived upon the 
earth. Now, some part of this history has been 
written down in books, and we can read it in 
many languages. The French have their his- 
tories; we Americans have ours; the English, the 
Germans, the Swedes, the Italians, in short, all 
civilized nations, have whole libraries of books 
just to tell the story of what their ancestors, and 
the ancestors of other people, were doing, all 

through the past. The Greeks and Romans wrote 
history, too; and the books of the Old Testament 
contain the ancient history of the Jewish nation. 

Now, the further we go back into the past, the 
less number of history-books do we find. For 
many reasons. One is that the people who lived 
in those ancient days spent so much time fighting, 
that they had little opportunity left to write about 
it. And besides, I don't suppose it even entered 
the heads of most of them that there was any- 
thing but fighting which it was worth while to do 
or to write about. They had no idea that any- 
body would ever have the curiosity to know how 
they built their cities, how the people in them 
looked, and what they wore, whether they could 
read and write, whether they^worshiped one god 
or a great many, in what manner they buried 
their dead, and if they went to war armed with 
swords and shields of metal, or fought with only 
stone axes and flint-tipped arrows. 

Now, the science which tells all about this and 
many other things in regard to ancient nations is 
called archceology, and it is by the aid of archae- 
ology that we are able to find out much of the 
story of the years which passed away before peo- 
ple thought of writing history-books. Archae- 
ologists band themselves together into societies, 
and raise money to send out men to excavate, 
that is, dig up, the ruins of the cities and ceme- 
teries of these ancient nations, and look for what 
they can find in them. In this manner, a bit here 
and a bit there, they are piecing together the 
history of the far-away past. It is very interest- 
ing work, and now you and I are going to ac- 
company an excavator. We are going to dig up 
eleven ancient cities, look at each one, and see 
how much buried history we can find. These 
eleven cities are not in eleven different places; 
they are all on one spot! How do you suppose 
that can be? 

Did it ever occur to you to think that wherever 
people live together in cities, the ground of these 
cities gradually rises? It may be only a tiny bit 
each year, but it is all the time becoming higher. 




In cities which are built of stone or burnt brick, 
this increase in height is very, very slow — per- 
haps not more than a foot or two in hundreds of 
years. But there are countries, especially in 
Asia, where the people, when they wish to build 
a house, take the clay right out of the ground 
under their feet, mix it with a little chopf>ed 
straw, and fashion it into bricks, which they dry 
in the sun. Of these bricks they build their 

Now, you can imagine that houses of this kind 
are not very durable. In dry weather they 
crumble ; and in countries where it rains, so much 
of the mud is little by little washed away that 
finally the family has to move out. 

What does the owner of this house do? Do 
you suppose that he tries to repair it? Oh, no! 
He just takes a spade, knocks it down, smooths it 
over, and commences again. He builds his new 
house on top of the old one ! 

And this is what his son does, after him, and 
his son's son, and so on. Each one builds on top 
of the ruins of houses which were built before his 
time. So in this way cities of mud-brick grow 
gradually higher and higher, until the last city 
stands perched on a lofty mound, many feet above 
the level where the first town was built. And 
now you have found out how there can be eleven 
cities all on one spot. Each rests on the remains 
of the one built before it. 

The mound in which we are going to dig ceased 
to have any city upon it more than four hundred 
years before Jesus Christ was born. That would 
be about two thousand three hundred years ago. 
It was deserted, and as the years went on, the 
mud-bricks of the last city slowly crumbled away 
and mingled with the soil from which they had 
been formed ; the rain and the wind smoothed 
over the top of the mound, and people forgot that 
there had ever been a city upon it, until at last 
nobody dreamed that deep down under the soil 
lay hidden the ruined houses of genera- 
tions of men who had lived and died so 
many, many years before. So they turned 
the hill into a field, plowed it, and sowed 
it with grain. 

This went on for centuries until 1890 
when an arch.Tological society called the Palestine 
Exploration Fund obtained leave from the Sultan 
of Turkey to dig up some of the mounds of Pales- 
tine. They engaged an American gentleman 
named Bliss to superintend the excavations. 
Now, three years before, in 1887, there had been 
found, far away from Palestine, in the land of 
Egypt, a number of very ancient letters, written 
on tablets of baked clay. These letters told of an 
old city of Palestine named Lachish. This same 


city is spoken of in the Bible. But the puzzle 
was where to find it, for nobody knew where 
to look. No such city was known. It had van- 
ished ! 

At last the archaeological society decided that 
Mr. Bliss should dig up a mound called "Tel el 
Hesy." If you have a good map of Palestine you 

W ooclcm se'fi>.L. 


Uleedles of 
Bronze wire. 

Drawn from illustrations in Bliss's " A Mound of Many Cities," 

by kind permission of Macniillan & Co. 

can find Tel el Hesy. It is not so very many 
miles southwest of Jerusalem. 

Now we will imagine that you and I have each 
a magic cap, like the one in the German story of 



Peter Schlemihl, which all boys and girls in Ger- 
many know so well. When Peter put on this cap 
it made him invisible. We will put our caps on, 
and go along with Mr. Bliss all the way to Tel el 
Hesy. He will never suspect that we are at his 
side or looking over his shoulder. And this is 
what we shall see when we arrive at our journey's 

All around, a plain of waving green grass, 
dotted with beautiful scarlet flowers; hardly a 
tree is in sight. When we walk to the top of the 

Egypt. The Egyptians were a mighty nation 
even six thousand years ago. Now a certain 
king, Tehuti-mes III., ruled for fifty-three years 
over the land of Egypt, and led his victorious 
armies to war in fifteen campaigns. Ten times 
he went through the country where our history- 
mound is, conquering the people and making them 
pay him tribute. Tel el Hesy, or Lachish (as the 
Bible calls it), was right in his path, and I have 
no doubt he besieged and took the very city at the 
ruined walls of which we are now looking. 


mound, we look over the edge of a precipice, 
down one hundred and twenty feet, to the bed of 
the Hesy River. A faint blue line, far away in 
the eastern sky, marks the outline of the Judean 
hills, in the region where Jesus was born, almost 
two thousand years after the people were dead 
wdio built the lowest of the eleven cities lying 
buried under our feet. The side of the bluff 
where it descends to the river is a tangle of 
weeds and rubbish; the top is covered with a 
crop of beans. 

Now suppose we go back about four thousand 
years. How w'ould our mound look then? Only 
half as high. Its history was only just com- 
mencing. A little city was perched on its top, 
surrounded by a great wall sixteen feet thick. I 
am positive that the people who lived in this city 
(which we will call City i) would have laughed 
at anybody if he had said that four thousand 
years afterward a man, a woman, and a boy or 
girl would be standing right over their homes, 
sixty feet above them. We will imagine that this 
sixty feet of ruined houses and rubbish is cleared 
off, just as it was when Mr. Bliss's men finished 
digging. The lowest city is uncovered, and we 
can go directly down to its level. 

Now, when we find the ruined walls of this 
city I think we have a clue to a little bit of its 
history. I believe that these people (who are 
called Amorites in the Bible) built this strong 
wall to protect themselves against the armies of 

And the people fled from their little houses, 
and took refuge in the great citadel, the ruins of 
which are on the eastern edge of our wall, over- 
looking the river. 

But all in vain; they had to surrender, and 
when the king returned to Egypt, he carried with 
him the spoils from Lachish and the countries 
around about— "vases of gold and silver, rich 
articles in bronze, furniture carved out of ebony 
and cedar-wood and inlaid with ivory and pre- 
cious stones, olive-oil, corn, wine, and honey," 
and last, but not least, long trains of prisoners of 
war, whom he set to work in the mines, or else 
in building the enormous temples which all 
Egyptian kings liked to raise. All these things 
you could read about, even now, if you under- 
stood the hieroglyphic language of Egypt ; for 
King Tehuti-mes caused the story of his cam- 
paigns to be carved on the solid rock of the walls 
of the Great Temple of Karnak, and there it is, 
even to this day. If you should go to Egypt, you 
could see the mummy, that is, the actual body, of 
this great king. It is in the Gizeh Museum. He 
was a little man, but a mighty warrior. 

King Tehuti-mes besieged and took our city 
long years before Moses was born, or the chil- 
dren of Israel reached Palestine after their forty 
years' journey through the desert. When we get 
up to our fifth city we shall find a date from 
which we can reckon back. It is this date which 
will make us pretty sure that we are right when 



'^2\^s^t^:..S0^.ofi^:^ vvprigVi^ tKrone , and ihe 
SboU tif -the cli>^<afX»acnisk b&ascd before Kim. 

Drawn from the illustration in " History of Art iu Chaldea," by kind permission of A. C. Annstrong & Son. 

we say that King Tehuti-mes III. was the 
Pharaoh who made war in Palestine at the time 
our mound began to have a history. 

But we must not expect to dig up a quantity of 
such things as King Tehuti-mes carried home to 
Egypt among the "dead bones" of our ancient 
city. When three or four thousand years have 
passed away, things have had plenty of time to 
go to '"wreck and ruin." The most we can hope 
to find will be a few weapons of war, a few tools, 
and the broken fragments of dishes. In fact, 
our mound is full, from top to bottom, with pieces 
of ancient earthenware, the remains of dishes, 
jars, vases, and lamps. Archaeologists call these 
fragments "potsherds/' and by examining them 
carefully, they are often enabled to fix the date 
of a city. As we go up from city to city we find 
the people learning to make better and better 
earthenware. They are marching along the road 
to civilization. 

Cities I, 2, and 3 went to war with bronze 
weapons. They had not learned how to work 
iron, so they took copper, mixed it with tin, and 
made bronze. There are no tin-mines anywhere 
near Palestine. They must have gone all the way 
to Cornwall, on the coast of England, for their 
tin. Or perhaps it was brought to them by the 
XVIII— 13 

ships of other nations through the Mediterranean 
Sea, or by caravans across Europe. What a long, 
tedious journey this tin musl have made, for 
there were no steamboats or locomotives in those 
ancient days ! These Amorites, then, had com- 
merce with distant nations. That is another point 
in their history, and we have learned it from the 
pieces of their bronze weapons. 

Now we are going to make our must important 
and interesting "find" in the fifth city from the 
bottom. Nothing more nor less than an ancient 
postal card.' It has been through no post-office, 
and no postman delivered it ; but we have re- 
ceived it, all the same. It has been thirty-three 
hundred years on the way ! 

Suleiman, the digger, as he brushes the dirt 
from it, cries: "It is a saboony !" — that is, "a bit 
of soap." 

"No," says Mr. Bliss; ''that is not soap; there 
is writing upon it." 

But I don't believe you would guess it was 
writing unless you were told. Yoii would say : 
"It is covered with scratches." 

But every one of these scratches means some- 
thing. It is writing— the writing of a people who 
lived in Asia, and who wrote in this way at least 
six or seven thousand years ago. Many people 



think they learned to write even before the 
ancient Egyptians did. However this may be, I 
think that you will agree with me that this writ- 
ing is not nearly so picturesque and pretty to 
look at as the hieroglyphic writing of Egypt. It 
is called the "cuneiform," or "wedge-shaped," 
system of writing, and was used by the ancient 
Chaldeans and Assyrians who lived on the Eu- 
phrates River. Many of their history-mounds 
have been dug up, and whole libraries of books 
found, written in this manner on tablets of baked 

Now I have called our clay tablet a "postal 
card" because it was never inclosed in an en- 
velope. It is dark coffee-color, and about two 
and a half inches long and two inches wide. Both 
sides are covered with writing. While the clay 
was soft the letters were punched on it by some 
blunt-pointed instrument, then the tablet was put 
into a kiln and baked. This baking made it very 
hard and prevented it from crumbling away. 

And so we have found it, and as we read the 
strange writing, we learn that it was sent to a 
person named "Zimrida." This Zimrida wrote 
one of those other cuneiform letters on clay 
which I told you were found in 1887. He was 
governor of Lachish during the reign of an 
Egyptian Pharaoh who ruled about thirty-three 
hundred and fifty years ago. And now you will 
understand how we have found out the name of 
City 5, and can tell about when it was built. 

Some centuries pass away, then the Amorites 

are driven out of their city. Across the river 
Jordan, into Palestine, come the children of 
Israel, led by Joshua, their great general. They 
march through the country, besieging the, 
and capturing or destroying their inhabitants. In 
the Old Testament Book of Joshua (x. 31, 32) 
you can read about it : 

And Joshua passed from Libnah, and all Israel with 
him, unto Lachish, and encamped against it, and fought 
against it : 

And the Lord delivered Lachish into the hand of Is- 
rael, which took it on the second day, and smote it with 
the edge of the sword, and all the souls that were therein. 

Now, we shall not find anything in our mound 
which tells about this. We must trust to the 
Bible story, and believe that all our cities from 
this time up to the top of the mound were built 
by the Israelites. We do not know much about 
these cities ; but we do know that Sennacherib, 
the great Assyrian king, who ruled about seven 
hundred years before Christ, came to Lachish 
and conquered it, as you will see by the picture. 
One of the cities near the top was destroyed by 
fire. Perhaps it was the very one which Sen- 
nacherib besieged. 

And so we have reached our journey's end. 
Mr. Bliss and you and I have traveled by a "late 
train." We started at the bottom of our mound, 
and it has taken nearly four thousand years to 
reach the top. Never mind; if you like this sort 
of traveling, we shall surely some day take an- 
other journey together. 

BEING AN Account 



•i;;6- 1^85- 


When Dr. Benjamin Franklin stood before the 
monarch of France in 1778, it must have seemed 
to him the exact fulfilment of a prophecy; for it 
is said that, when a poor little boy, his father 
used to repeat to him Solomon's proverb : "Seest 
thou a man diligent in his business? he shall 
stand before kings." 

Of course, like most remarkable events that 
happen in this world, it seemed to come about 
very naturally. After the signing of the Declara-. 
tion of Independence, that first great step toward 
making us a free people, Congress decided to 
send a special envoy to the French court, in order 
to enlist their aid in our struggle for freedom. 



Their choice fell on their ablest and most pa- 
triotic member— upon him who had been one of 
the originators of the Declaration, and who, on 
signing his name, made the witty remark: "Now, 
gentlemen, we must hang together, if we would 
not hang separately.'' 

On October 26, 1776, with his two grandsons, 
William Temple Franklin, a youth of seventeen, 
and little Benjamin Franklin Bache, his daughter's 
boy, of seven, the old Doctor set sail in the sloop- 
of-war "Reprisal," one of the ^viftest craft of 
our infant navy. 

Temple, the older boy, was still at school, and 
his grandfather's intention was to place him in 
one of the universities of France or Germany to 
finish his studies. What little Benjamin did has 
not been related ; but we may be sure that the 

chased by British cruisers, and each time the 
sloop's deck was cleared for action. When near 
their journey's end they captured two vessels, or 
prizes, as they called them ; for the Reprisal, 
though a little craft, was a war-ship, and her 
captain, Hammond, was a valiant officer and 
brave fighter. 

They came at last to anchor, five weeks after 
their start, in Quiberon Bay, off the coast of 
Brittany ; and the Franklins, taking a fisherman's 
boat, were put ashore at Auray, on December 3. 
Sending to the near-by city of Vannes for a post- 
chaise, they arrived the next day at Nantes, 
where a grand banquet was held in honor of the 
American envoy, tidings of his arrival having 
preceded him. He was then over seventy years 
of age, and his fame as a printer, editor, in- 


companionship and care of so wise and kindly a 
grandfather was as profitable to the boy as any 

The voyage was a stormy one, with a con- 
tinuous November gale nearly all the way. Al- 
though the Doctor had made eight voyages, he 
suffered more discomfort than ever before ; but 
no matter how rough or stormy, whether sick or 
well, true to his desire for knowledge and dis- 
covery, he every day took the temperature of the 
Gulf Stream, of which very little was then 
known, and brushed up his French, just as many 
of us do nowadays when we make the same voy- 
age. On the way they were more than once 

ventor, philosopher, and statesman ( for the old 
gentleman was a many-sided genius), was well 
established. The learned societies of the civilized 
globe were proud to enroll his name among their 
members ; the French people, from the nobles 
down to the servants, all were familiar with his 
quaint and witty sayings, as translated from 
"Poor Richard's Almanac," as well as with his 
love of liberty and his broad sympathy with his 
fellow-men. Silas Deane, the agent of the Amer- 
ican Congress, then living in Paris, afterward 
said : "Here is the hero, philosopher, and patriot 
who, at the age of seventy-four, risks all dangers 
for his country." 



To show that the enemy fully realized his 
power as an advocate for the cause of indepen- 
dence, the Marquis of Rockingham, 
one of King George the Third's ad- 
visers, remarked that he considered 
"the presence of Dr. Franklin at the 
French court more than a balance for 
the few additional acres which the 
English had gained by the conquest 
of Manhattan Island." This was said 
not long after the battle of Brooklyn, 
whereby General Howe had secured 
possession of New York. 

Shortly after his arrival in Paris, 
the Doctor was invited to make his 
home at Passy, then one of the little 
towns outside of the city, although 
now it is inside of the fortifications. 
Here, on a hill overlooking the river 
Seine as it flows past villages, cha- 
teaux, and palaces, stood the Mansion 
Valentinois, the owner of which in- 
sisted on Franklin's sharing his apart- 
ments with him without cost, saying, 
"If your country is successful in the 
war, and your Congress will grant me 
a small piece of land, perhaps I may 
take that as payment." Wherever the 
Doctor went, crowds followed him ; 
he was cheered in the streets or at 
the opera ; his sayings were quoted ; 
and engravings, miniatures, medals, 
snuff-box lids, and souvenirs were 
made to bear his kindly features. He 
wrote home to little Benjamin's mo- 
ther that they had "made her father's face"— by 
which, of course, he meant his own— "as well 
known as that of the moon." 

In fact, he became "the rage." We all wanted 
to see China's great statesman and viceroy, Li 
Hung Chang, when he visited us; his reputation 
for ability and suavity, his odd ways and novel 
dress, all interested us. In a similar way, Frank- 
lin was a curiosity to the people of the Old 
World. He always dressed plainly; and his hair, 
which was gray and quite thin, was not con- 
cealed by a wig, though he often wore a fur cap, 
pulled down nearly to his spectacle-rims. 

Ignorant people whispered that he was a 
wizard, engaged in separating the colonies from 
England by means of his magic spells. All 
showed their admiration of his attainments; but 
amid all of the compliments paid him and the 
extravagant attentions he received, he re- 
mained the simple-minded, plain republican, ever 
keeping in mind his country's trials and her 

The court of France, while friendly and willing 
to aid us as it could, was not as yet ready to 

' IT 



acknowledge our independence, and by so doing 
to provoke a conflict with Great Britain. The 
war, thus far, had gone against us ; news of the 
one bright ray in the gloom — Washington's vic- 
tory at Trenton— had taken five months to reach 
France, so difficult was it to escape from the 
British cruisers watching our coasts. 

Some muskets and a private loan of $400,000 
were secured, and single volunteers were plenty. 
To fight for America became with the young 
French nobles what nowadays we should call a 
"fad." Franklin was besieged by requests to be 
officers in our army, or for letters of recom- 
mendation to Congress, and he was at his wits' 
end to refuse with kindness, so that he should not 
make promises of rank that he could not fulfil. 

In contrast to many of these requests at this 
time stands Lafayette's generous ofYer of money, 
arms, and his life, if need be, without promise of 
rank or reward; but the French government still 
withheld its aid, waiting for some decided victory 
to prove to the nations of Europe that the united 



colonies stood some chance of winning their 

During this winter of darkness for freedom's 
cause, Franklin must play his part in the gay 
world of Paris. To make friends for our country 
was his constant aim ; her enemies he defied, and 
everywhere he expressed his certainty of the final 
triumph of America in the struggle. 

We have all heard of the phrase, ''These are 
the times that try men's souls." These words 
were used at just this time by Thomas Paine, who 
wrote a series of articles on the American war. 
For, while it was dark indeed on our side of the 
ocean, it seemed also as if no nation abroad 
would help us. Franklin sent his associates, Lee 
and Deane, to the courts of Spain and Prussia 
for aid, but neither was disposed to take the first 

Diplomacy among nations is often a tedious 
and selfish proceeding. Meanwhile the Doctor 
did what he could toward arming ships and mak- 
ing easier the lot of prisoners of war abroad. As 
to the ships, he was somewhat successful, and 
was gratified by his success ; for he was eager to 
give England some of the treatment the colonies 
had received from her men-of-war. 

All of these matters kept the Envoy very busy 
— so much so, that his grandson Temple was 
obliged to act as his secretary, and the idea of his 
going to a university was given up. At last came 
the sunshine through the clouds, for the Wise 
Providence that guides the affairs of nations as 
well as of men brought about the surrender of 
Burgoyne and his army in October, 1777, after 
the battle of Saratoga. 

The news was despatched with all haste to our 
representatives abroad. Massachusetts sent the 
glad tidings by special messenger, a young Mr. 
Austin. Before his departure, a prayer was 
offered from the pulpit of a church in Boston — 
the minister, it is said, being so absorbed in pray- 
ing especially that the despatches might be de- 
livered that he made no mention of the messenger ! 

In a little over a month, however, both mes- 
senger and packet arrived in Paris, and the scene 
when he drove into the courtyard of the Hotel 
Valentinois was a memorable one. 

Our representatives had received word of his 
landing, but knew nothing of the nature of his 
news. As the chaise dashed up to the group 
around the door, and the messenger alighted. Dr. 
Franklin grasped his hand, exclaiming: 

"Sir, is Philadelphia taken?" 

"Yes, sir," was Austin's reply. 

Then the old statesman wrung his hands in dis- 
appointment and had begun to return in sadness 
to the house when the messenger cried: 

"But, sir, I have greater news than that! Gen- 
eral Burgoyne and his whole army are prisoners 
of war !" 

Temple carried the news to the French prime 
minister, the Comte de Vergennes, and a few days 
later a private interview took place at Versailles. 

About a year from the landing of Franklin on 
the coast of France, his errand to that nation was 
accomplished. She became the ally of the Ameri- 
can colonies, and thus was the first to welcome 
the United States into the circle of nations. 

A main condition of the treaty was that we 
should not make peace with Great Britain unless 
our independence was recognized— a condition to 
which our representatives gladly agreed. 

Our new ally's first act was to send a frigate 
carrying M. Gerard, a special envoy to Congress, 
with tidings of the treaty. He was received with 
great honor, and joy filled all patriot hearts. On 
February 6, 1778, the treaty was officially signed 
by Benjamin Franklin, Silas Deane, and Arthur 
Lee, on the part of the United States. The sign- 
ing was followed by the important ceremony of 
being received by the king in person. As no one 
in those days ever thought of being presented to 
a monarch of France with his head uncovered by 
a wig, Dr. Franklin ordered one for the occasion. 
The hair-dresser, or pcrntquicr, as he was called, 
brought the all-important article, and proceeded 
to try it on ; but try as he would, he could n't 
force it down over Franklin's head. After several 
trials, the Doctor said: 

"Perhaps it is too small !" Dashing the wig to 
the floor in a rage, the perrtiqiiier cried, "It is 
impossible, monsieur! No, monsieur! it is not 
that the wig is too small; it is that your head is 
too large !" 

As there was no time to remedy the misfit, the 
Doctor decided to go before the King without a 
wig. Therefore it was without a wig, or even 
a sword,— considered an indispensable article of 
a gentleman's dress in those days,— but in a plain 
black velvet suit, with ruffles at the neck and 
wrists, white silk stockings, and silver-buckled 
shoes, that our great republican drove to the 
palace of Versailles. On the morning of the 20th 
of March, 1778, accompanied by his fellow- 
envoys. Dr. Franklin was ushered into the pres- 
ence of his majesty King Louis XVI. of France. 
After the formal introduction, the monarch ex- 
pressed himself as well disposed toward his new 
ally, and gracefully complimented the tact that 
Franklin had displayed during his sojourn in the 
capital and among the French people. 

In the evening, during the games that the court 
were engaged in, the Queen, Marie-Antoinette, 
conversed with Franklin in her own charming and 






gracious manner. His wit, fascinating conversa- 
tion, and sound common sense attracted the ad- 
miration of the gay and frivolous court, and he 
was lionized by all. 

At a brilliant fete given in his honor, he was 
crowned with laurel by one of three hundred 

dence abroad. Congress was pleased to declare 
that "the Honorable Benjamin Franklin, Esquire, 
was permitted to return to America." His fellow- 
signer of the Declaration and afterward our Pres- 
ident, Thomas Jefferson, had been chosen to suc- 
ceed him as minister to the French court. 


young ladies. The old statesman accepted all these 
attentions modestly, considering them as offered, 
through him, to his native land. 

During the rest of his visit to France, Frank- 
lin's life was filled with solicitude for his native 
land; but now, by the authority of the French 
king, armies and fleets were sent, by the help of 
which we were finally able to capture Cornwallis 
and secure our independence. 

At length, weary and ill, Franklin asked for his 
recall ; he had signed the treaty of peace with 
England, thus crowning his mission with success. 
So in March, 1785, after nearly nine years' resi- 

H.T.&G.D. II. 26. 

"You replace Dr. Franklin, I hear," the King's 
minister is reported to have said. 

"I succeed— no one can replace him," was 
Jefferson's witty and truthful reply. 

And it was true; for no American could have 
surpassed Benjamin Franklin in the patience, 
cheerfulness, and wise statesmanship with which 
he had carried out the mission his struggling 
country had entrusted to him. 

In honor he left France, in honor America wel- 
comed him. On his departure, the King gave to 
the great republican a miniature portrait set in 
diamonds; the Queen lent her own litter to convey 



the venerable diplomat to the sea-coast, for old 
age and hard work had brought pain and ex- 
haustion to his formerly vigorous constitution. 

So on the I2th of July, with Temple, who was 
now a promising young man, and Benjamin, a big 
lad of sixteen, Franklin left the home at Passy, 
in the street still called by his name, and, jogging 
easily along at the rate of about eighteen miles a 
day, reached the ship that was to bear them home. 
At Portsmouth, in England, the compliment was 

paid the party of omitting the custom-house ex- 
amination—a courtesy rare in those days. His 
old friends in England, from whom the war had 
parted him, hastened with their greetings, and to 
bid him "God speed !" For this was to be the 
last voyage of one of the greatest of Americans. 
The adieus were made at evening, the old Doctor 
retired to his cabin for rest, and when he awoke 
the next morning the ship was far on her voyage 
to his loved native land. 



This goose made its first ap- 
pearance near Quebec over 
sixty years ago, when some 
British troops had been sent 
out to put down a rebellion 
of the colonists. A certain 
farm in the neighborhood, 
suspected of being a resort 
for the insurgents, was sur- 
rounded by sentries placed at 
some distance apart ; and one 
day the sentry whose post 
was near the gate of the 
farm heard a singular noise. 
A fine, plump goose soon ap- 
peared on a run, making di- 
rectly for the spot where the 
soldier stood ; and close be- 
hind in pursuit came a 
hungry fox. 

The sentry's first impulse 
was to shoot the thievish ani- 
mal and rescue the goose ; 
but since the noise of the re- 
port would have brought out 
the guard on a false alarm, 
he was obliged to deny him- 
self this satisfaction. 

The fox was gaining on 





his intended prey, when the goose, in a frantic 
attempt to reach the sentry-box, ran its head and 
neck between the soldier's legs just as the pur- 
suer was on the point of seizing it. Fortunately, 
the guard could use his bayonet without making 
a disturbance, and he did this to such good ad- 
vantage that the pursuit v.-as soon ended. 

The t-esrued goose, evidently animated by the 
liveliest gratitude, rubbed its head against its de- 
liverer's legs, and performed various other joyful 
and kitten-like antics. Then, deliberately taking 
up its residence at the garrison post, it walked up 
and down with the sentry while he was on duty, 
and thus accompanied each successive sentry who 
appeared to patrol that beat. 

About two months later the goose actually 
saved the life of its particular friend in a very 
remarkable way. 

The soldier was again on duty at the same 
place ; and on a moonlight night, when the moon 
was frequently obscured by passing clouds, the 
enemy had formed a plan to surprise and kill 
him. His feathered devotee was beside him, as 
usual, while he paced his lonely beat, challenging 
at every sound, and then "standing at ease" be- 
fore his sentry-box. The goose always stood at 
ease, too, and it made a very comical picture. 

But some undesirable spectators— at least, of 
the soldier's movements — were stealing cautiously 
toward the place under cover of the frequent 



clouds and a line of stunted pine-trees. Nearer 
and nearer to the post they crawled, till one of 
them, with uplifted knife, was about to spring on 
the unsuspecting man. 

Then it was that the watchful goose covered 
itself with glory by rising unexpectedly from the 
ground, and flapping its wings in the faces of the 
would-be assassins. They rushed blindly for- 
ward ; but the sentry succeeded in shooting one 
of the party and bayoneting another, while the 
goose continued to worry and confuse the 
mainder until they fled wildly for their lives. 

The brave bird was at once adopted by 
regiment, under the name of "Jacob," and dec- 
orated with a gold collar on which his name was 
engraved, in appreciation of his services. 

Ever after, during his life of twelve years, he 
did sentry duty at home and abroad; for he was 
taken to England at the close of the war in 
Canada, and greatly lamented there when he died. 
His epitaph reads, "Died on Duty"; and no 
human sentinel could have been more faithful 
than poor old Jacob. 

As it may occur to some readers who have not 
made a study of the interesting and almost human 
ways of many animals to doubt the truth of so 
remarkable a story, they are referred to the gold 
collar with Jacob's name and exploit engraved 
on it, which may still be seen at the headquarters 
of the Horse Guards in London. 


OWADAYS we use 
gloves only to com- 
plete our formal 
dress, or to protect 
our hands from cold, 
and, possibly, from 
the cuts, bruises, or 
scratches of certain 
kinds of rough labor. But in the olden days 
the glove, although it served these purposes too, 
played a very superior part. It might almost 
have been called an important "personage" in 
those times, for on many occasions it acted in- 
stead of a person. Sometimes it played the part 
of a king or earl ; sometimes it did the work of a 
policeman ; now and then it gave away large 
properties, even whole towns and rich tracts of 
land. It sounds like a fairy-tale, does it not? 
But it is every word true. 
This is the way it came about. 
When gloves were first invented, they were 
used exactly as we use them now — to keep the 
hands warm, and to keep them from all sorts of 
disagreeable blisters, burns, and chapping. The 
ancient Persians wore them at a very early 
period, and boys and girls who have read Vergil's 

"^neid" will remember that the Roman pugilists 
wore them in their pommeling contests. 

Gloves as first invented should rightly be called 
mittens, for they had no fingers. Fingers were a 
novelty introduced by the Romans of later days, 
when Rome became luxurious and foppish. 

As soon as the finger gloves (they called them 
digitalia, from digitus, a finger) were introduced, 
the Romans used them for state occasions, wear- 
ing the mitten for every day. Poor people had 
only mittens, when, indeed, they had any hand- 
coverings at all. 

From the older countries, such as Italy and 
Greece, the fashion of wearing gloves spread to 
newer lands, reaching England about the time 
of the Saxon kings. The word glof (a queer way 
the Saxons had of spelling glove) means a hand- 
covering, and occurs very often in the writings 
of those times. The beautiful old illuminated 
books which have luckily been preserved for us 
show the hands of bishops and other churchmen 
incased in gloves which are often ornamented 
with dazzling rings. 

Kings and queens of that day all wore gloves. 
At least, we find their marble efiigies, on the 
tombs in Westminster Abbey, with gloved hands. 




The gloves of the middle ages were very dif- 
ferent from those we have now. You could not 
then go into a shop and order a dozen pairs, at a 
certain price, to fit you perfectly. But then, you 
might have them exquisitely embroidered in silk 
of many colors and bordered with a deep fringe. 
Perhaps, too, the design of the em- 
broidery of those you bought 
would be entirely original, in- 
tended for you and shared by no 
one else. 

Naturally, the gloves of the 
kings were very fine and costly 
covering, with embroidery of gold 
and silver and circlets of precious 
stones. Bishops and the clergy 
wore white linen gloves, symbolic 
of innocence, or red silk hand-gear 
with symbols worked in gold 
thread. The popes sometimes wore 
them of white silk decorated with 
pearls. Grave people wore digni- 
fied patterns without any gorgeous- 
ness, and those who liked to make 
a brave show chose very elaborate 
or gaudy affairs. 

In the early days everything was 
not regulated for the people, as it 
is now, by the government and the 
law-courts. Europe was still young- 
then, and people had rough-and- 
ready means of dealing with one 
another, of buying and selling or 
giving goods and property, and 
settling disputes. A glove, as it 
was very close indeed to a man's 
hand, came in course of time to be 
looked upon as taking the place of 
the hand itself, and, as I have said, 
it sometimes took the man's place 
and was made to represent him. 

For example : To open a fair it 
was necessary then to have the 
consent and protection of the great 
lord in whose country it was going 
to be held. Those who wished to 
open the fair would come to the 
nobleman and petition him to be present. He 
might be very busy, or bored at the idea of hav- 
ing to go, yet he would know that it must 
be opened or his people would be discontented. 
So he would say to the leaders of the people : 
"No, my trusty fellows; I can't open the fair 
in person, but I will send my glove to do it. 
You all know my glove. Nobody has one like it 
in the country. It is the one my lady mother em- 
broidered for me in colored silks and silver wire, 

and it has a deep violet fringe. You can hang it 
above the entrance of your fair grounds as a sign 
that you are acting with my permission. If any 
one disputes your right or touches his master's 
glove, I will attend to him, that 's all." So the 
glove would travel in state to open the fair. 


In the thirteenth century a powerful earl is said 
to have delivered up a great tract of land to the 
King of France by promising him the land and 
sending or giving his glove as pledge of good faith. 

In fact, now and then some stag-hunting lord 
who, when a boy, had been fonder of war and the 
chase than of writing and reading, would fling 
down his glove among the legal papers drawn up 
for arranging some business matter, and say that 
that was his way of signing papers and giving his 





signature. The glove would be duly locked away 
with the papers, to show that the lord of the land 
had agreed to the transaction. 

We still say "throwing the gauntlet," meaning 
a challenge, even though we are only defying a 
schoolmate to "spell us down" in a spelling-bee. 
Of course, the gauntlet is a big glove. The ex- 
pression is now all that is left of a very im- 
portant custom of the rough-and-ready age of 

which we have been speaking— the trial by 

For when a man of the medieval times con- 
sidered himself wronged in any way by a neigh- 
bor, he very often decided to attend to punishing 
his enemy himself. He began matters by throw- 
ing down his glove before his enemy. 
The enemy, if he had any spirit, never 
allowed it to lie there, of course, for 
to do that was supposed to prove that 
the challenger was in the right and 
that the other feared to put his fate 
to the touch. If a lady was in dis- 
tress, she asked some man friend to 
fight for her, which he was usually 
glad to do. As soon as the glove was 
picked up, the two men arranged a 
battle, which was regulated by fixed 
rules. This fight was recognized as a 
legal trial. It had to be settled pretty 
promptly one way or the other, as they never 
stopped fighting until one of the champions was 
killed or badly hurt, or admitted that he was in 
the wrong. The champion who came off vic- 
torious was said to be the innocent person, for the 
true knight went to battle with the firm belief that 
God would strengthen his arm and direct his 
spear or sword. 

A knight in the days of chivalry, if he dis- 




graced himself and his knighthood, had his gloves 
taken away from him, just as he had the spurs 
knocked from his heels, as a punishment. 

So many gloves were made in England, and 
so many people were employed in making them, 
that in the fourteenth century the glove-makers 
formed one of the city companies, 
or guilds, and drew up a set of 
rules for governing their men, 
which were thought important 
enough to be laid before the king 
and approved by him. 

One of the rules was that if any 
glove-maker was found doing bad 
work, that is, cutting or sewing 
badly or using bad material, he 
should be brought before the mayor 
and aldermen. If, when this hap- 
pened, he was sorry and promised 
to do better in the future, he might 
be let off with a reprimand. But if 
unrepentant, he would be banished 
from the city and was not allowed 
to return. 

Queen Elizabeth was very vain 
of her pretty hands, and so was 
extremely fastidious in the choice 
of her gloves. She must have had 
as many pairs of them, in that 
wonderful wardrobe of hers, as 
she had blond wigs. The reason 
she had so many gloves was that, 
everywhere she went, people, 
knowing that she liked beautiful 
hand-wear, gave it to her. She re- 
ceived gloves of silk or leather, 
embroidered or jewel-studded, 
trimmed with a multitude of little 
gold buttons, and deliciously per- 

These sweet or perfumed gloves 
were much liked by ladies of Eliza- 
beth's reign. The father of a fam- 
ily, if his wife and daughters fol- 
lowed the fashions at all, allowed 
them a certain sum of money to 
buy gloves. This was called "glove- 
money," just as we still say "pin-money" (and, 
by the way, the allowance made to ladies to buy 
pins in former times must have been larger than 
it is nowadays, for pins were then quite ex- 

A gentleman who was in the habit of going 
to Elizabeth's court told his friends that in one 
of her Majesty's audiences the Maiden Queen 
pulled her gloves off and on more than a hun- 
dred times. This wis to let those present see 

and admire her hands. Think of the little van- 
ities of so great a woman ! 

For many hundred years gloves have played 
a part in the court life of various countries, and 
many are the interesting glove-relics that have 
come down to this day, and that are now care- 








-•■y J^ 

■ \ 






' \ 





%. ; 




. _. .'- 


fully preserved in museums. Among these there 
is a plain buff-colored pair of gloves which be- 
longed to the martyr king, Charles I. These he 
presented to the great-great-grandfather of the 
present owner. This gentleman had got together 
a troop of horse to help his sovereign, who was 
then in dire distress, and the king, meeting him 
at the head of his men, drew the gloves from 
his hands and gave them to his faithful follower. 
When these gloves were given, the times were 



troublous. Poor King Charles had other matters, 
more hnportant than clothes, to think about, and 
therefore his gauntlets show no sign of trimming. 
But we have other pairs which once belonged to 
the same monarch, and these are beautifully 

He wore a very rich and kingly pair upon the 
day of his execution. For, instead 
of making a careless or slovenly ap- 
pearance on the scaffold, as some 
less noble person might have done, 
this king went to it dressed in all his 
state. He told his attendants to 
dress him "as trimly as might be," 
and gave particular directions about 
each article of clothing. 

Several pairs of gloves once the 
property of Charles II can also be 
seen in the museums and collections. 

As for the pretty legends and his- 
toric stories which cluster about 
gloves, a big book would be needed 
to give them all. Richard Coeur de 
Lion, returning from Palestine, was 
recognized by a glove hanging at 
the girdle of his squire, and was 
taken prisoner. 

There were many delightful 
courtesies in former times con- 
nected with gloves. Lovers ex- 
changed them, and the knight who 
rode forth to war had one fluttering 
from his helmet. When a maiden 
died, a pair of white gloves, the 
white being emblematic of in- 


Suddenly a trumpet blares out through the Hall, 
and into the place dashes a knight on a fine 
horse and gallantly armed, spear in rest. This is 
the king's champion. He proceeds to pull off his 
long glove, and casts it down upon the floor, and, 
in a loud voice, calls upon any subject who does 
not think the new king is the true king to stand 
forward and pick up his glove, and 
fight him to the death. I have never 
heard that anybody accepted the 

Gloves at one time were very pop- 
ular as New Year's gifts. One lady 
brought a gift of this kind to the 
great Sir Thomas More. Unfortu- 
nately, she filled it with gold coins. 
Sir Thomas had decided a law case 
in her favor, and she wished to 
show her gratitude in this way. But 
Sir Thomas was too high-minded 
and honorable a man to take money 
in the administration of justice. "It 
would be against courtesy," he said, 
"to refuse the lady's gift. I will 
therefore keep the gloves, but the 
lining she must give to some one 
else." By the lining Sir Thomas 
meant, of course, the gold with 
which she had filled them. 

The Portuguese say of a man, 
"He wears no gloves," when they 
mean that he is honest and honor- 
able and above suspicion. 

There is still another phrase which 
comes down to us from the days when 

nocence, was laid upon her bier. Or, if a judge gloves were used in more ways than they now 

summoned his court, and there were no criminals are. Have n't you sometimes heard it said, when 

to be tried or cases to be settled, the judge was a young lady has discarded her lover, that she 

given a snow-white pair of gloves. "gave him the mitten"? This was first said in 

The etiquette of crowning a king once required the early times when lovers exchanged gloves as 

that the new sovereign should have his knight to a sign that they intended to marry each other, 

champion his cause. Imagine to yourself the end- When a girl broke her engagement she gave back 

ing of a coronation banquet in Westminster Hall, the glove or mitten. We still use the phrase, al- 

The king is there, and his family and his court, though gloves are no longer exchanged. 

only abundant metal, in the world, that is yellow, is the most 
precious of them all — gold. Brass is not a true metal, but an 
alloy, a compound. And the color which gold shares with the 
sun has a great deal to do with its value. I do not think it 
would be possible that we should ever have come to love and 
admire any metal so much, to choose it for our highest currency 
and our ornaments, no matter how rare or ductile it might be, 
if it were of a dark, dull, gloomy color. The human eye never 
gets too old to be pleased with very much the same things which 
pleased it in childhood ; and no eye is insensible to the charm 
of that precious yellow. 

I like sometimes to think back to the first man of all men 
that ever held that "rock of the sun" in his savage hand, and 
to imagine how he found it, and how it made his sharp eyes 
twinkle; and how he wondered at its weight, and pounded it 
with one smooth rock upon another, and found that he could 
flatten it. All these things come by accident ; and gold was an 
accident that befell when the world was very young. Proba- 
bly there had been a great rain, that washed the comely lump 
from its nest in some gravelly stream-bank ; and the prehistoric 
man, in his tunic of skins, chanced that way and found it. It 
may be that the poor barbarian who picked up the first yellow 
nugget sank with it still grasped in his swarthy fist. 

We do not know even the name of the man who first discov- 
ered gold, nor where he lived, nor when. But it was very, very 
long ago. Before the time of Joseph and the coat of many 
colors, gold had already become not only a discovered fact, but 
used in the world's trade. The early Egyptians got their gold 
from Nubia ; so, very likely, the discovery was first made in 
Africa. At all events, it dates back to the very childhood of the 
race ; and before men had invented the letters of the alphabet, 
mankind had achieved the prettiest plaything it ever found. 

In the very first chapter of the first and noblest of poems. 

Homer tells of the priest who came with a golden scepter to the 

camp of the Greeks before Troy, to buy his daughter free; and 

the sunny metal figures everywhere in the oldest mythology 

we know. You all have read— and I hope in Hawthorne's 

"Tanglewood Tales," where the story is more beautifully told than it was ever elsewhere — of Jason 

and the Argonauts, and of how they sailed to find the Golden Fleece. That was a fabulous ram-skin 

whose locks were of pure gold. No wonder the deadly dragon in the dark groves of the Colchian 




king guarded it so jealously. Of course the 
myth is only a poetic way— such as stories gen- 
erally assume in the folk-lore of an undevel- 
oped race— of saying that Jason and his bold 
fellow-sailors of the "Argo" sailed to the gold- 
mines of Asia, and found them. The mines 
whose fabled richness tempted them to that ad- 
venturous voyage in their overgrown rowboat 
of fifty oars, were in the Caucasus Mountains, 
and produced a great deal of the gold which 
was used by the ancients. They were doubt- 
less among the first gold-mines in the world, 
and their product gilded the splendor of many 
of the first great monarchs of history. As late 
as 1875, an attempt was made by Europeans to 
work these mines; but nothing came of it. 

"Rich as Croesus" has been for more than two 
thousand years a proverb which is not yet sup- 
planted; and that last king of Lydia— and richest 
king of old time, according to the ancient myths 
— got his wealth from placer-mines in the river 
Pactolus, whose name has become as synonymous 
with gold as Croesus's own. One of the strangest 
and wisest of the folk-stories of ancient Greece 
tells how that little river in Asia Minor first 
gained its golden sands. This legend relates that 
there was a certain king of Phrygia who had 
more gold than Croesus ever dreamed of— so 
much gold that it made him the poorest man in 
the world ! It was King Midas, son of Gordius, 
who earned this strange distinction. He had 
done a favor to Dionysus, and the god said grate- 
fully : "Wish one wish, whatever thou wilt, and I 
will grant it." Now Midas had already caught 
the most dangerous of all "yellow fevers,"— the 
fever for gold, — and he replied: "Then let it be 
that all things which I shall touch shall be turned 
into gold." 

Dionysus promptly granted this foolish prayer, 
and Midas was very happy for a little. He 
picked up stones from the ground, and instantly 
they changed to great lumps of gold. His staff 
was gold, and his very clothing became yellow, 
and so heavy that he could barely stagger under 
its weight. This was very fine indeed ! He 
touched the corner of his palace, and lo ! the 
great building became a house of pure gold. 
Splendid ! He entered, and touched what took 
his fancy, and furniture, and clothing, and all 
underwent the same magic change. Better and 
better ! "I 'm the luckiest king alive !" chuckled 
Midas, still looking about for something new to 

But even kings who have the golden touch 
must sometimes eat; and presently Midas grew 
hungry with so much wealth-making. He clapped 
his hands, and the servants spread the royal 

table. A touch of the royal finger, and table and 
cloth and dishes were yellow gold. This was 
something like ! The exhilarated king sat down, 
and broke a piece of bread ; but, as he lifted it, 
it was strangely heavy, and he saw that it, too, 
was of the precious metal ! A doubt ran through 
his foolish head whether even the golden touch 
might not have its drawbacks; but he was very 
hungry, and did not wait to weigh the question. 
If his fingers turned the bread to gold, he would 
take something from a spoon ; and he lifted a 
ladle of broth to his mouth. But the instant it 
touched his lips, the broth turned to a great 
yellow button, which dropped ringing back upon 
the golden board. 

The disquieted king rose and walked out of 
the palace. At the door he met his fair-faced 
little daughter, who held up a bright flower to 
him. Midas laid his hand gently upon her head, 
— for he loved the child, foolish as he was,— and 
lo ! his daughter stood motionless before him — a 
pitiful little statue of shining gold ! 

How much longer this accursed power tor- 
mented the miserable monarch, the myth does not 
tell us ; but he was cured at last by bathing in the 
river Pactolus, and the washing away of his 
magic power filled the sands of the stream with 
golden grains. 

Though the old fable is no longer believed, the 
truth taught by it remains. The Midases are not 
dead yet; for the one of ancient fable there are 
to-day thousands at whose very touch all turns to 
gold. Their food does not change to metal be- 
tween their lips; but often it might as well, for 
all the joy they have of it. 

Gold figures largely through all the quaim nis- 
tory-fables of the ancients ; and history itself is 
full of tales hardly less remarkable. The early 
history of America was made by gold; or rather 
by golden hopes, which achieved wonders for 
civilization, but very little for the pockets of the 
most wonderful explorers the world has ever 
seen. Had it not been for the presence of gold 
here, — and the supposed presence of infinitely 
more than has yet been dug,— the western hemi- 
sphere would be very much of a wilderness still. 
It was the chase of golden myths which led to 
the astounding achievements that opened the 
New World ; and since then, almost to this day, 
civilization has followed with deliberate march 
only in the hasty footprints of the gold-seekers. 
No tale was too wild to find credence with the 
early adventurers. In South America the most 
striking myth was that of El Dorado, "The 
Gilded Man"— a living person who was declared 
to be plated with pure gold ! The anxiety of the 
credulous world-finders to reach a country so rich 



as must be that of El Dorado, cost uncounted 
thousands of gallant lives. In Mexico there were 
myths almost as impossible; and I am sorry to 
say that equally silly myths find unnumbered 
victims in our country still. The fabled ransom 
of Montezuma is all a fable; but it is probably a 
fact that Atahualpa, the Inca of Peru, did pay to 
that marvelous soldier 
Pizarro a ransom of 
golden vessels suffi- 
cient to fill a room 
twenty-two by seven- 
teen feet to a height 
of nine feet above the 
floor ! It is certain 
that the captive Inca 
ofifered that stupen- 
dous price to buy 
himself free, and that 
the offer was condi- 
tionally accepted ; but 
whether he had paid 
the ransom before his 
treachery in having 
his brother Inca as- 
sassinated led to his 
own execution, we are 
not fully assured. 

There is no doubt, 
however, that while 
gold was not in use in 
Mexico, there was a 
great deal of it em- 
ployed in Peru, chiefly 
for sacred utensils and 
idols, and that some 
of the conquerors 
amassed vast wealth 
there. The early Spanish discoveries of gold in 
North America were unimportant, despite the 
gilded myths which have surrounded them. In 
Columbus's time, the gold-fields of the known 
world were so "worked out" that their product 
was barely enough to meet the ''Wear and tear" 
of the precious metal ; so there was crying need 
of new finds. But they came slowly. 

By 1580 there were vague rumors of gold in 
what is now California. Loyola Cavello, the 
priest of San Jose, saw "placer" gold there, and 
tells of it in his book written in 1690. In the 
next century, Antonio Alcedo speaks of lumps 
of California gold weighing from five to eight 
pounds. But though its presence was known, 
and though the rocky ribs of the Golden State 
hid many more millions than were dreamed of,— 
and perhaps than are dreamed of yet,— there was 
little mining, and that little with scant success. 
XVIII— 14 


The first gold discovery in the American colo- 
nies was in Cabarrus County, North Carolina, in 
1799; and up to 1827 that State was the only 
gold-producer in the Union. In 1824 Cabarrus 
County sent the first American gold to the mint 
in Philadelphia. The Appalachian gold-field, 
which embraces part of Virginia, and stretches 

across North Caro- 
lina, South Carolina, 
and Georgia, touch- 
ing also parts of Ten- 
nessee and Alabama, 
was once looked to 
for great things; but 
it long ago ceased to 
be of any importance. 
In 1828 the New 
Placers were dis- 
covered in New Mex- 
ico, some fifty miles 
south of Santa Fe, 
and for a great many 
years produced richly. 
Even to this day they 
are far from unpro- 
ductive. Gold had 
been found in New 
Mexico a great many 
generations before, 
but never in quan- 
tities to come any- 
where near paying. 
Ten years later, placer 
gold was discovered 
in Santa Barbara 
County, California, on 
the vast rancho of 
that gallant old hidal- 
go whose home was described by Mrs. Jackson as 
the home of "Ramona." These placers have been 
worked steadily, though clumsily, by Mexicans 
ever since ; and I have a nugget which was washed 
out on Piru Creek in 1838. 

Until within half a century, the world's supply 
of gold had long been inadequate for the grow- 
ing demand. Russia was the chief producer, and 
her mines— discovered about 1745— kept the 
nations from a "gold famine" that would have 
been most disastrous. There were old mines in 
China, but little worked ; and, though Japan's 
gold output was large, it was but a drop in the 
bucket of the world's need. Russia at present, 
by the way, produces an average of twenty 
millions of dollars' worth of gold a year. 

The wonderful gold-fields of Australia were 
discovered in 1839 by Count Strzelecki ; but the 
priceless find was concealed, for a curious reason. 



Australia was already England's outdoor prison ; 
and it was feared that if the golden news were 
known, the forty-five thousand desperate con- 
victs there would rise in rebellion and annihilate 
their keepers, as they could easily have done. 
So, for a dozen years, the mighty secret was 
jealously guarded; and thousands walked unsus- 
pecting over the dumb gravel that held a million 
fortunes. In 1841 a clergyman again stumbled 
upon the dangerous secret ; but again the dis- 
covery was suppressed ; and it was not until 
California had set the whole world on fire with 
an excitement which nothing could bottle up, that 
Australia threw off her politic mask. In 1851, 
E. H. Hargraves, who had just come from the 
new mines of California, saw that Australia was, 
geologicall}', a gold country ; and his "prospect- 
ing" proved his surmises to be correct. The news 
spread in spite of the efforts of cautious officials, 
and a wild epidemic of fortune-seekers soon 
pitted the broad face of the great island-con- 
tinent with "diggings." 

The rich gold-fields of New Zealand were first 
found in 1842 ; but were not extensively worked 
until 1856, when the swarming gold-hunters had 
overrun the Australian fields, and the restless 
sought still easier wealth. 

As I have told you, gold was mined at odd 
times in California much more than two centuries 
ago ; and steadily mined for more than a decade 
before the "great discovery" which was to 
change the face of a whole nation, and bring 
about what was in many ways the most remark- 
able migration in the whole history of the human 
race. But these early diggings of the precious 
metal made little stir. The swarthy miners delved 
away quietly, exchanged the glittering gold 
"dust" for rough food and other rude neces- 
saries, making no noise about it. They were very 
much out of the world. The telegraph, the rail- 
road, and the printing-press were far from touch 
with them. There were a few Americans in 
California, and even one or two newspapers; but 
neither paid attention to the occasional rumors of 
gold, save to ridicule them. 

But on the ninth day of February, 1848, a 
little girl held in her unknowing hand the key 
of the West— the wee, yellow seed which was 
to spring into one of the most wondrous plants 
in history. On the American Fork of the Sacra- 
mento River, in what is now El Dorado County, 
California, stood a shabby little mill, owned by 
an American named Sutter (the Californians, by 
the way, pronounce the name "soo-ter'). The 
mill-race became broken, and three men were 
hired to repair it. Two were Mormons, and the 
third was the overseer, named Marshall. As the 

men worked, Marshall's little daughter played 
about them— dreaming as little as did her elders 
that she was to upset a continent. A yellow 
pebble in an angle of the sluice caught her eye; 
and picking the pretty trifle from the wet sand, 
she ran to her father with "Papa ! See the p'itty 
stone !" It was indeed a pretty stone, and Mar- 
shall at once suspected its value. Tests proved 
that he was right, and gold was really found. 
The discovery made some little noise among the 
few Americans in that lonely, far land, but noth- 
ing was known of it to the world until the Rev. 
C. S. Lyman, who saw some of the nuggets which 
further search yielded, wrote a letter to the 
"American Journal of Science," in March, 1848. 
As soon as the news was in type, it spread swiftly 
to the four ends of the earth ; and by August of 
the same year four thousand excited men were 
already tearing up the sands of the American 
Fork, and so forcing them to yield up their golden 
secrets. And well they succeeded, since every 
day saw from $30,000 to $50,000 worth of gold 
"washed out" and transferred to rude safes of 
bottles or to buckskin sacks. How long and high 
that gold-fever raged; how it patted the fearful 
intervening desert with the weary footprints of 
hundreds of thousands of modern Jasons ; how it 
brought around the Horn a thousand heavy ships 
for every one that had sailed before; how it 
overturned and created anew the money-markets 
of the world; how it turned a vast wilderness 
into the garden of the world, and pulled the 
Union a thousand miles over to the West, and 
caused the building of such enormous railway 
lines as mankind had never faintly dreamed of, 
and did a thousand other wonders, you already 
know; for it has made literature as well as his- 
tory. Our national page is crowded with great 
achievements; but its chief romance was in 

The days of old. 
The days of gold — 
The days of '49. 

Of the various methods of liberating our yel- 
low slave from the hard clutches of the earth, it 
would take too long to speak in detail here ; but 
they are broadly divided into two classes, accord- 
ing to the surroundings of the gold itself. Free 
or "placer" gold— which was the first known to 
mankind, and which was the sort that started the 
great "fevers" in California and Australia— is 
found in beds of sand and gravel, generally the 
bed of a stream. It is extracted— this precious 
needle from an enormous and worthless haystack 
— by means of its own weight, water being ap- 
plied in various manners to give that weight a 
chance to assert itself. The mined gravel is 
water-sifted until but little is left; and from 



that little it is easy to hunt out the coy yellow 

The placer gold was not formed in the gravel- 
banks where it is found, but came there by the 
decay of its mother-rock. All gold began in 
"veins" in the earth's rocky ribs ; but Time, with 
his patient hammers of wind and rain and frost, 
has pounded vast areas of these rocks to sand; 
and the gold, broken from great bands to lumps, 
has drifted with the bones of the mountains into 
the later heaps of gravel. 

The processes of mining gold which still re- 
mains in its original home in the rocks are much 
more complicated. There is a vast amount of 
boring to be done into the flinty hearts of the 
mountains, with steel drills and with blasting; 
and then the rock which is dotted with the pre- 
cious yellow flakes has to be crushed between the 
steel jaws of great mills. Much of the gold that 
is mined, too, is so chemically changed that it does 
not look like gold at 
all,and requires special 
chemical processes to 
coax it out. In all 
gold-mining, mercury 
is one of the most 
important factors. It 
is the mineral sheriff, 
swift to arrest any 
fugitive fleck of gold 
that may come in its 
way. The sluice- 
boxes in extensive 
placer-mines and the 
"sheets" in stamp- 
mills are all charged 
saves a vast amount 
of the finer gold-dust 
that otherwise would 
be swept away by the 
current of water ; for 
water is equally es- 
sential in both kinds 
of mining. 

There is no such 
thing as "pure gold," 

often as we hear the phrase. Nature's 
purest, her "virgin gold," is always alloyed with 
silver; and the very finest is ninety-eight or 
ninety-nine per cent. gold. California gold aver- 
ages about the fineness of our American coin- 
ninety per cent, of purity. 

It is an odd fact that the sea is full of gold. 
No doubt at the bottom of that stupendous basin, 
which has received for all time the washings of 
all the world, there is an incalculable wealth of 

gold in dust; but the strange ocean mine is not 
ail so deep down as that. The sea-water itself 
carries gold in solution — a fraction of a grain of 
gold to every ton of water, as a famous chemist 
has shown. 

Among the historical big nuggets found in 
various parts of the world, there have been some 
wonderful yellow lumps. In Cabarrus County, 
North Carolina, one was found in 1810 which 
weighed thirty-seven pounds troy. In 1842 the 
gold-fields of Zlatoust, in the Ural, gave a nugget 
of ninety-six pounds troy. The Victoria (Aus- 
tralia) nugget weighed 146 pounds and three 
pennyweights, of which only six ounces were 
foreign rock; and the Ballarat (Australia) nug- 
get was thirty-nine pounds heavier yet. The 
largest nugget ever found was also dug in Aus- 
tralia—the "Sarah Sands," named for a far-off 
loved one. It reached the astonishing weight of 
233 pounds and four ounces troy ! I wonder 


what Miner Sands felt when he struck his pick 
upon that fortune in one lump ! 

Since their fields were opened, California and 
Australia alone have produced more than half as 
much gold as the whole world had mined before 
Columbus. The total annual production of gold 
in the world is over four hundred millions of 

Yet the world is not richer in gold by all that 
vast amount every year. It is losing, too— an 



amount very trifling compared with the whole, 
and yet very large in fact. You hear people 
wishing that they owned this rich mine or that 
vast fortune; but if one could have just the 
annual loss on the billions of dollars' worth of 
gold now in the world's hands, there would be 
no need to envy Croesus. Every year an im- 
palpable golden dust— so infinitely fine as to 
seem rather a vapor than a dust— is worn from 
all gold in use, and passes forever from our 
wealth and our knowledge. And in our handling, 
enough gold to make one person incalculably rich 
disappears every year^ lost as absolutely as if it 
had never existed. So even if the world's needs 
of gold were not multiplying very rapidly, there 
would be required a large annual production 
merely to meet this shrinkage by "wear and 

The quality which makes gold the niost valu- 
able of the metals is its docility. The cunning 
hammer of the smith can "teach" it almost any- 
thing. The more stubborn metals crumble after 
they have been reduced to a certain point of 
fineness ; but gold can be hammered into a sheet 
so infinitely fine that 282,000 of them, piled one 
upon the other, would be but an inch thick ! And 
a flake of gold tiny as a pinhead can be drawn 
out in a finer thread than ever man spun, in a 
spider-thread— to a length of 500 feet. 

There is no end to the uses of gold. They 
broaden every day. In one of its many forms, 
our Yellow Slave helps us in almost every art 
and walk of life. It is as necessary as its red 
fellow-servant, Fire — and a better in one way, 
since, unlike fire, it can never become "a bad 
master,"' except through our own fault. 



Let me tell you a curious little story told to me a 
few years ago by an old man of Norwood, Long 
Island, aged ninety-four ; but away back in the 
early '30's he did something that no boy had ever 
done before, and that no boy will ever do again — 
for he was the first boy that rode on the first 
train in America. 

His name was Stephen Smith Dubois, and he 
was just as fond of fun and excitement, and of 
going to places and seeing things, as boys are to- 

day. In the autumn of 1831, after the crops were 
harvested, and he had in his pocket the money he 
had earned as a farm-hand, he thought he would 
give himself a great treat. So he put his little 
bundle on a stick over his shoulder, and started 
to walk all the way from Providence, Saratoga 
County, up to Albany, to visit his uncle. He was 
fifteen years old then, and a forty-mile walk was 
nothing to his active young limbs. 

He had been living on a farm, and the sights of 



Albany kept him at a fever heat of interest for 
a week, at which time he felt that he would have 
to start on his return journey. He did not in the 
least mind the prospect of the long walk, but 
when he mentioned the matter to his uncle, he 
was told that if he would remain a little longer 
his uncle would take him on the trial trip of the 
new railroad then being built, and which was the 
greatest experiment that had ever been under- 
taken in that part of the country. 

What boy could possibly resist the opportunity 
to ride on a brand-new invention that was the 
talk of the* whole country, and which, moreover, 
it was predicted, would run away, or blow up, or 
go over into a ditch at the first trial ! 

This big boy was sitting out in a five-acre 
corn-field, near Norwood, Long Island, busily 
shucking corn, when he told all about it. 

"My first ride on a railroad train !" Mr. Dubois 

by the name of James Goold. I found all that 
out around the work-shops. 

"There had been an engine made in England 
and sent over here, and they called it the 'J^hn 
Bull,' and boy as I was, I kept looking over the 
new engine that had been built here in our own 
country, and hoping it was better than the Eng- 
lish engine. 

"As I said, railroading was a pretty new thing 
in those days, and some of the folks around there 
were terribly down on the experiment. They 
said that the Lord had made rivers, and lakes, 
and dirt-roads for man to travel over, and that 
as they 'd been good enough for their forefathers 
and their merchandise to travel over, and to build 
up the country as well as they had, they guessed it 
was good enough for them ; and they could n't 
for the life of them see what folks wanted to 
make such a fuss for, and waste their time fool- 


From an old print. 

said. "I '11 never forget that as long as I live. I 
remember it all just as well as if it was yesterday. 
Why, that was one of the biggest events that 
New York State had ever seen, and to think that 
I, just a common farm-boy, was privileged to 
take part in it, was a thing I could never forget. 
Why, the whole country, from Albany to Sche- 
nectady, and back again, was fairly wild about 
that railroad. There had n't been much effort at 
railroading anywhere up to that time, and the 
Mohawk and Hudson Railroad was a little the 
biggest experiment that our part of the State had 
ever tried. My uncle, John Conklin, was inter- 
ested in the road, and that was how I got the 
chance to ride on the first trip. You can just 
imagine I was a pretty excited boy when I heard 
about it. I could hardly sleep nights thinking 
about it, and I hung around the railroad yards 
looking at the locomotive, and studying the rails, 
and the cars, every chance I got. I tell you it 
was a grand opportunity for a boy like me ! 
Such an opportunity as will never come to an- 
other boy in the United States of America. The 
locomotive was built down in New York by a 
man by the name of David Mathews, and the 
coaches were made in Union Street, by a man 

ing 'round with such outlandish contraptions as 
'that tootin', screechin' locomotive.' " 

At this the old man straightened up and 
laughed heartily. 

"Why, they were afraid as death of it. They 
vowed it would run away, or blow up, or back 
down a hill and be smashed with everybody 
aboard, and they insisted that if any people were 
going to risk their lives by riding the thing the 
directors should ride first, as they were the ones to 
blame for getting innocent people interested in it. 

"All that kind of talk rather scared some people 
out, but it did n't scare me. I only wanted more 
than ever to go. I could hardly wait for the day 
to come. I remember that day well ; it was Sep- 
tember 24, 1831. Nothing else had been talked of 
for weeks. And I remember that when I woke up 
that morning I felt as Columbus must have felt 
the day he sailed away to discover America. 

"I did n't sleep much that night, and I was up 
and wanting to start almost before daybreak. 
Everybody got there early, but the fellows that 
were operating the locomotive seemed to have 
plenty of troubles on their hands before we got 
started. First the piston-rods got cranky, then 
the feed-pipes would n't work, and it was after 



twelve o'clock before they got everything ready 
for the start." 

The old man took off his hat and laid it beside 
him, and the light wind lifted the long locks of 
his wavy, snow-white hair. The knotted, work- 
worn hands fell idly, and in the dim blue eyes 
that gazed away over the fields to the gorgeous 
glow of the autumnal foliage, the vision grew— 
the vision of that stirring scene of a long life- 
time ago. 

"I can see that train now," he went on, mus- 
ingly, "just as plain as I did that morning. I 
suppose it would be a funny-looking sight to peo- 
ple now^ but to me it was one of the grandest 
and most inspiring things I ever saw. 

"I was only a poor farmer-boy, and I had n't 
seen much, but I tell you that I was proud I was 
an American that day. 

"The name of the engine was the 'De Witt 
Clinton,' but somebody called it the 'Brother 
Jonathan,' and it was afterward known as the 
'Yankee,' I suppose on account of the English 
engine being called the 'John Bull.' 

"It was a pretty funny-looking little contraption 
compared to what locomotives are now. It stood 
high and spindling, had a straight, small smoke- 
stack, and the boiler was about as big as a kero- 
sene barrel. Behind the engine there was a 
tender, just a sort of a platform on a truck, and 
on this were two barrels of water, a couple 
of baskets of fagots, and an armful of wood. 
Behind the tender were the coaches, hooked to- 
gether by three links. Did you ever see an old- 
fashioned stage-coach? Well, these coaches were 
made just like them. Regular stage-coach bodies 
placed on trucks and supported by thorough- 
braces, with a 'boot' at each end for baggage — 
and four seats inside, each holding three people, 
two seats in the middle, and one at each end. 
There were five coaches that day, and all of them 
were packed full when the train finally got 
started, so there must have been something like 
seventy-five people aboard. 

"All the 'big bugs' and dignitaries of the whole 
State were there. I reckon no boy ever rode in 
more distinguished company. Most of them were 
directors of the road, senators, governors, may- 
ors, high-constables, editors, and all sorts of 
celebrities. Many of them were old men, even 
then, and most of them were middle-aged or over, 
while I was the only boy on the excursion and I 
was only fifteen. That 's why I say that I know 
that I am the only person now living that was on 
the Mohawk and Hudson on its first trip with 
passengers over the road. 

"Well, as I said, we had a terrible time getting 
started, but at last we got off, and then it did 

seem to me as if we fairly flew. I had never felt 
anything like it. There were big white stone 
mile-posts all along the road, and it seemed to me 
that I no sooner would get through dodging one 
than another one would come by. Oh, it was 
grand riding, I tell you ! 

"A man by the name of Jervis— John B. Jervis, 
I think it was— was chief engineer, John Hamp- 
son was the fireman, and John Clark, the fellow 
they called 'resident engineer,' acted as conduc- 
tor. They did n't have a regular conductor. 
I remember that they filled up the boiler when 
we started, but at what they called the 'half-way 
house' we had to stop at a tank and take on water 
to carry us through. 

"By the time we 'd left the half-way house she 
was getting right down to her work, and it did 
look to me as if we were going at a terrible 
speed— although I guess about eighteen miles an 
hour was the best time we made. 

"I saw some of the passengers turn pale and 
clutch their seats like grim death when we 
rounded the curves ; and others of them, solemn 
old fellows, looked at each other and shook their 
heads, as if they knew that going at such a rate 
as that was almost wicked, and that they surely 
were tempting fate. But I was n't a bit scared. 
The faster we went the better I liked it. The 
engine could n't go too fast to suit me. 

"People all along the way ran out to look after 
the train as dumfounded as if it had been an air- 
ship or a comet, and the horses and cows and 
pigs and chickens took to the hills, bawling and 
squawking as if they thought the very fiends were 
after them. 

"I can't remember now just how long it took 
us to get to Schenectady, but I mind well that the 
trip was n't half long enough to suit me. 

"When we got to Schenectady the town au- 
thorities or somebody gave a big dinner in honor 
of the occasion, and Uncle John told me that Mr. 
Cambreling, the president of the road, gave a 
toast, something to the effect that he hoped that 
before long we would 'breakfast in Utica, dine at 
Rochester, and eat supper with our friends at 
Lake Erie.' 

"I thought that was pretty wild talk then, for it 
took about seventy-two hours of hard travel to 
get to Buffalo by stage, and I never dreamed of 
such a thing as a train going thundering across 
the country at sixty miles an hour, any more — " 
the smile upon the fine old face faded, and the 
patriarchal head was bent, as the old man gazed 
musingly across the fields — "any more than I 
thought that I would be sitting here at ninety- 
four telling all about that experience of my boy- 
hood for American boys and girls of to-day." 







BGOKLis )u^ a Hcoise of Thcoight; 
. Whisre inaiiyTkin^s and Pecple live 
Bcycfnd it5 doras Great Things are taughtr, 

/^.dall its Dw^ers give and ^ve.. 
So walkri^t through the qpai dcor 

With Mnd]y Heart and brain awahe . 
\bull find in tiieie a. Wonder Store 
Of GcDd Things, all for you to tike. 

The I^^ers m7<:>izrBcDkHoiisehno\32^ 

/J sorts of tales io tdltoyou. 
And eaclimll try bis beA to show 

The way these tales ofW^nder <^&w. 
For thb our Bo^k House Friends exped: 

Atrifling p^/meiit in return; 
Juit thou^tM Mndniess and Resii)ed;,— 

That]5 alt they asK for ail we learn. 

'O^lfiM^QDK^'nas -fo ^^ 




iBCIDK,TREE is a Knowledge Tree, 
^ aliriD^t anyone can see. 
Long, long ago its seed was sowa; 
Ibrjesr/ and yesjy the Tree lias gK3wn.. 
Ten thousand thousand. Hearts & Heads 
Have cared for it, so now it spreads 
Its S2)ts and Brmches far and wide, 
And ca^ its shade on every side. 

TMs Tree bears Fruit of diflhertt lands 
For many Hearts and many Minds. 
So all you Children have to dD 
Is ju^ to take whati best for you. 
But no one ever soiis or breaks 
The Golden Fruit lie needs and takes, 
And no one ever bends or tsars 
Ihe Books thisTree cf Knovtfcdge bean. 




Ccpyright J9ic bj Moroan Shfpard